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Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt
Hussein, Laila,Ali, Mahmoud,Abouelhassan, Ali,Grzeskiewicz, Stanislaw
Grasas y Aceites , 2001,
Abstract: Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11%) and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22) with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals. Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y ghee , grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11%) y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22) con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.
Biotechnology of lipids: The use of lipases for the structural modification of fats and oils
Valenzuela, Alfonso,Nieto, Susana
Grasas y Aceites , 1994,
Abstract: The food industry has introduced chemical and enzymatic procedures for the modification of fats and oils to allow the improvement of their organoleptic and/or nutritional properties. As chemical procedures have many drawbacks, the application of enzyme technology shows as a promising approach for the development of new fats and oil-derived products. Lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions allow the structural modification of lipids by selectively changing the composition of a triacylglycerol under very mild and controlled conditions. This work reviews the main characteristics of lipase reactions, the use of lipases for interesterification procedures, and the advantages and limitations of lipase immobilization for the enzymatic modification of fats and oils. The use of lipases from different sources for fat splitting and the potential application of stereospecific lipases for the production of structured or designer lipids is also discussed. La industria de alimentos utiliza procedimientos de modificación química y enzimática de las grasas y aceites con el propósito de mejorar sus características organolépticas y/o nutricionales. Debido a que los procedimientos químicos presentan muchas limitaciones e inconvenientes, la aplicación de tecnologías que utilizan enzimas aparece como muy prometedora para el desarrollo de nuevos tipos de grasas y aceites. Las reacciones de interesterificación catalizadas por lipasas permiten la modificación estructural de los lípidos al cambiar en forma selectiva la composición de los triacilgliceroles bajo condiciones de reacción muy suaves y controladas. Este trabajo revisa las principales características de las lipasas y sus reacciones, el uso de lipasas para la realización de reacciones de interesterificación, y las ventajas y limitaciones del uso de lipasas inmovilizadas para la modificación de grasas y aceites. Se discute, además, la aplicación de lipasas de diferente procedencia para la hidrólisis de grasas y el uso potencial de lipasas estereoespecíficas para la producción de lípidos estructurados.
Dietary Fats and Oils: Some Evolutionary and Historical Perspectives Concerning Edible Lipids for Human Consumption  [PDF]
Dante Roccisano, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Arthur Saniotis, Maciej Henneberg
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.78070
Abstract: Consumption of fats and oils in the ancient world was examined as a window to human nutritional needs and compared with lipid usage in the modern world, post-1900. In earlier periods, the natural and only source of edible fats and oils came from both animals and plants. These fats and oils played a vital role in the evolution of the human body structure, supporting many biochemical functions. Artifacts from prehistoric periods and the ancient world had indicated that humans were evolutionarily adapted to consume saturated lipids. They also consumed unsaturated fats and oils extracted from animals and plants, now identified as omega-3 to omega-6 in the fatty acid ratio of 1:1, commonly derived from naturally consumed unprocessed products and food sources. These fats and oils assisted in providing the ingredients for the building up of cells and maintaining their structural integrity in tissues, including the brain and other important internal organs, as well as providing energy for many biochemical processes in the body. The double bonds distributed throughout fatty acid carbon chains are a characteristic of unsaturated vegetable oils. They are more structurally diverse in polyunsaturated fats and oils with the greater preponderance for carbon-to-carbon double bonds distributed in the carbon chains. These double bonds are susceptible to generating free radicals. This article considers potential problems that proponents of the prevailing diet-heart cholesterol paradigm of the past 60 years may have neglected. It also presents the possible consequences of abandoning the evolutionarily inherited foods containing extracted natural saturated and monounsaturated fats and oils. Furthermore, the article addresses the contribution of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids to immunity and the possible connection of excess consumption of omega-6 fatty acid to the marked rise in obesity and other non-communicable diseases in modern civilization.
An Interaction of the Pre- and Post-Weaning Diets Rich in Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fats Alters Plasma Lipids, Hepatic Gene Expression and Aortic Vascular Reactivity in Adult C57Bl/6 Mice
Kanta Chechi, John J. Mcguire and Sukhinder K. Cheema
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/NMI.S6026
Abstract: Aim: To investigate the effects of diets rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) fed during pre- and post-weaning time periods on the lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity in adult C57Bl/6 mice, in order to assess the impact of maternal nutrition and its interaction with the offspring diet on the metabolism of adult offspring. Methods: Female C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet enriched with n-6 PUFA (P) or control diet (C) for 2-weeks before, during mating, gestation and lactation, while their pups received either P or C for 8-weeks post-weaning. Results: A significant interaction between the maternal and post-weaning diets was observed for the offspring body weight, food-, caloric-intake, plasma lipids, hepatic mRNA expression of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, aortic contractile and relaxation responses (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The overall metabolic and physiological outcome in the offspring is dependent upon the interaction between the pre- and post-weaning dietary environments.
Prothrombin time in retinitis pigmentosa
Vinchurkar Manisha
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1998,
Abstract: The prothrombin time was recorded for 87 primary retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients belonging to three different clinical categories. All categories showed prothrombin time higher than normal. There was no correlation between the age of onset and the prothrombin time, nor between duration of disease and the prothrombin time. The high prothrombin time in patients with RP suggests that further study of prothrombin time and related factors may help in better understanding of the pathogenesis of RP.
Letter to the editor: healthy alternatives to trans fats
Frédéric Destaillats, Julie Moulin, Jean-Baptiste Bezelgues
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-4-10
Abstract: Dear Editor,Diet and health is now recognized to be a critical factor in causing diseases of metabolic origin. Fats in particular are documented to influence the risk of various degenerative diseases. Consumption of monounsaturated trans fatty acids (TFA) has been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1,2]. Most public health agencies have implemented labeling or ingredient restrictions on trans fats. Alternative ingredients to trans fats are now available in the food supply allowing the reformulation of food products that is mandatory to comply with policies and advices from health authorities. The physical properties and the chemical stability of trans fats were the two major reasons that explained the popularity of this ingredient. The reformulation of food products is difficult because the intrinsic characteristics of the products should be maintained.Ingredients such as palm olein (POL) produced by physical fractionation of palm fat or interesterified (IE) fats produced from fully hydrogenated vegetable oils could be used as alternative ingredients to trans fats in food products. The major saturated fatty acids present in these fats are palmitic and stearic acids. These two fats are produced using industrial processes flexible enough to obtain the desire physical properties. In a recent paper published in The Journal [3], Sundram and co-workers reported on the effect on CVD risk factors of partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO), IE and POL. The main comparison was IE and PHSO versus POL. The composition and the physical properties of the three fats compared were not the same. The melting points of the IE and PHSO fats were about 15 to 20°C higher that POL, leading to different applications in the food industry. As a matter of fact, the relative distribution between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were different for all the fats evaluated. In particular, the content of saturated fatty acid was a
The progress of prothrombin time measurement
Juha Eero Horsti
Hematology Reports , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/hr.2009.e19
Abstract: Warfarin is the most widely used medicine for oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT). It inhibits the synthesis of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X in the liver and results in the production of inactive or partially active versions of these factors. Inactive coagulation factors interfere with prothrombin time measurement (Quick and Owren PT) measuring the sum of coagulation activity and inhibition. The narrow therapeutic range here involves a danger of serious complications and the risk of bleeding or thrombosis. The new-generation PT method can measure coagulation activity and inhibition separately. This new technique promotes patient care and anticoagulant medication (warfarin, dicoumarol) based on coagulation activity in vivo. Both therapy and laboratory controls should be unquestionably accurate and based solely on in vivo coagulation activity. Inactive coagulation factors (inhibition) render measurement, calibration, and harmonization. The use of the new-generation PT method based on measurement of coagulation activity in vivo could develop vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy for the marked benefit of patients.
Urinary Prothrombin Fragment 1+2 in relation to Development of Non-Symptomatic and Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolic Events following Total Knee Replacement  [PDF]
Lars C. Borris,Morten Breindahl,Michael R. Lassen,ákos F. Pap
Thrombosis , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/150750
Abstract: Prothrombin fragment 1
Differential Effects of Dietary Lipids on Growth Performance, Digestibility, Fatty Acid Composition and Histology of African Catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) Fingerlings  [PDF]
Theophilus Olayiwola Babalola, David Friday Apata, James Sunday Omotosho, Musibau Ayinde Adebayo
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.21002
Abstract: The present study was performed to investigate the influence of fish oil (FO), two terrestrial animal fats (lard (PL) and poultry oil (CF)) and three vegetable oils (palm kernel (PKO), sheabutter (SBO) and sunflower (SFO)) as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fatty acid (FA) composition and histology of Hetero-branchus longifilis. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing 6% of added fat from the lipid sources were formulated and used. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of 20 fish. The lipid source influenced (P < 0.05) weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, hepatosomatic index and nutrient digestibility. Liver morphology of H. longifilis fed CF showed intense steatosis with hepatocytes containing numerous lipid vacuoles. However, fish fed PKO and SFO showed regular-shaped hepatocytes with few lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Fillet FA profile of fish fed PKO, SBO, PL and CF diets had significantly higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of SFA and MUFA, but lower PUFA com-pared to fish fed FO and SFO diets. Fillet of fish fed the FO diet had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of EPA and DHA compared with fish fed the other diets. The results of this study shows that alternative lipids sources could be used in H. longifilis diets however, inclusion of PKO or SBO in the diet of H. longifilis produced fillets with low concentrations of long chain n-3 PUFA.
FATS: Feature Analysis for Time Series  [PDF]
Isadora Nun,Pavlos Protopapas,Brandon Sim,Ming Zhu,Rahul Dave,Nicolas Castro,Karim Pichara
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we present the FATS (Feature Analysis for Time Series) library. FATS is a Python library which facilitates and standardizes feature extraction for time series data. In particular, we focus on one application: feature extraction for astronomical light curve data, although the library is generalizable for other uses. We detail the methods and features implemented for light curve analysis, and present examples for its usage.
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