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Determination of Apomictic Fruit Set Ratio in Several Romanian Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars  [cached]
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2012,
Abstract: Apomixis, a natural process that allows clonal propagation by seed, is an important feature of walnut (Juglans regia L.). This study was carried out to determine the ability of apomictic fruit setting in twelve Romanian walnut cultivars. ‘Sibisel 44’, ‘Geoagiu 65’, ‘Germisara’, ‘Muscelean’, ‘Sarmis’, ‘Valcor’, ‘Valmit’, ‘Valrex’, ‘Jupanesti’, ‘Velnita’, ‘Orastie’ and ‘Argesean’ cultivars were used in the experiment. Female flowers were isolated with pergament paper bags and the apomictic fruit set was determined 8 weeks after anthesis. The apomixis degree was determined as the number of fruit calculated in relation to the number of isolated flowers. The percentage of apomictic fruit set without pollination in cultivars analyzed is low, ranging from 7.86% (‘Orastie’ cultivar) up to 12.46% (‘Jupanesti’ cultivar). The results indicated that apomictic fruit set is insufficient for economical seed and crop production in these Romanian walnut cultivars.
Mineral Composition of Fruits in Different Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars
Sina Niculina COSMULESCU,Adrian BACIU,Gheorghe ACHIM,Mihai BOTU
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2009,
Abstract: Walnuts are considered to be a good source of dietary minerals. Mineral composition was determined in nine walnut cultivars (‘Mihaela’, ‘Roxana’, ‘Velnita’, ‘Geoagiu 65’, ‘Jupanesti’, ‘Valcor’, ‘Valmit’, ‘Valrex’, ‘Argesan’) originated from Romania. A Milestone digestion microwave system was used for mineralization of solid samples. Microelements: Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Se, Al, Cr, Zn, Sr and Rb were determined by using ICP-MS as measurement tool, and K content was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer in flame, by using as excitation source the cavitar cathode lamp for potassium. Mineral elements content presented significant differences from a cultivar to another. Potassium content has varied between 357.1 mg/100g in ‘Valmit‘ cultivar, and 499.6 mg/100g, in ‘Geoagiu 65’ cultivar, recording significant differences from the average (414.0 mg/100g) in ‘Velnita‘, ‘Roxana‘and ‘Argesan‘cultivars. Magnesium content varied between 189.2 mg/100 g in ‘Mihaela’ cultivar and 278.1 mg/100 g in ‘Argesan’ cultivar, significant differences from the average (216.6 mg/100g) were obtained in cultivars ‘Geoagiu 65‘, ‘Valrex‘, ‘Argesan‘. The order of nutritive elements depending on their content/100 g of produce was K>Mg>Ca>Mn>Fe> Cu>Zn>Na>Cr>Al>Rb>Sr. Comparing obtained data with the ones existing in the literature, Romanian walnut cultivars proved to be important sources of nutritive elements, and walnut kernel consumption can contribute to a well balanced diet.
Juglone Content in Leaf and Green Husk of Five Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars  [cached]
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2011,
Abstract: Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone) is a chemical compound released by walnut trees that can be toxic for surrounding plant species. In the present study, juglone was identified in leaves and green husk in five walnut cultivars: ‘Germisara’, ‘Jupanesti’, ‘Franquette’, ‘Vina’, ‘Valcor’ by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-RP). Juglone was found predominant in green husk (average value of cultivars is about 31.308 mg/100 g). Significant differences in contents of identified juglone were observed among cultivars that ranged from 20.56 to 42.78 mg/100g for green husk, and 5.42 to 22.82 mg/100 g for leaves. It was also found that walnut green husk and leaves represent the most important source of walnut phenolics.
Comparison of Some Physico-Mechanical Nut and Kernel Properties of Two Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars  [cached]
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2011,
Abstract: Some physical such as length, width, thickness, mass, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area and mechanical properties such as deformation at cracking, cracking force, energy absorbed and hardness of nuts and kernels were determined at three orientations first time for two walnut cultivars, namely ‘Mara -18’ and ‘Yalova-1’ widely grown in Turkey. For nuts, the average length (45.48 mm), mass (12.70 g), geometric mean diameter (36.83 mm) and surface area (42.66 cm2) were the highest in cv. ‘Yalova-1’ while width (34.18 mm), thickness (33.74 mm), shell thickness (1.48 mm) and sphericity (87.41%) were the highest in cv. ‘Mara -18’. For all the loading orientations, the values of deformation at cracking, cracking force, energy absorbed and hardness of cv. ‘Mara -18’ were higher than those of cv. ‘Yalova-1’. The effect of loading orientation to kernel extraction quality was found insignificant for both walnut cultivars.
Two new glucosides from the pellicle of the walnut (Juglans regia)
Le Cai,Chuan-Shui Liu,Xiao-Wei Fu,Xiao-Jing Shen,Tian-Peng Yin,Ya-Bin Yang,Zhong-Tao Ding
Natural Products and Bioprospecting , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13659-012-0009-0
Abstract: A new α-tetralonyl glucoside, 6′-O-acetyl-juglanoside E (1), and a new dihydrophaseic acid glucoside, dihydrophaseic acid 1-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucopyranoside (2), together with two known ones, juglanoside E (3) and dihydrophaseic acid (4), were isolated from the pellicle of the walnut (Juglans regia). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR data.
Cristinel Putinica
Soil Forming Factors and Processes from the Temperate Zone , 2012,
Abstract: Walnut tree (Juglans regia) is one of the cultivated tree species that was known and cultivated for a long time. The paper presents the optimum conditions for walnut growth, and attempts to elaborate qualityevaluation criteria, according to the Romanian system of land quality classification for different crops. Quality scores are attributed according to the specific landscape conditions. The system is evaluated with the help of three case studies.
Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Leaf Nutrient Status of Walnut (Juglans regia L.)  [PDF]
B. P. Bhattarai,C. S. Tomar
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2825
Abstract: The study was conducted at 10 - years- old walnut orchard at Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan(H.P.) to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management on leaf nutrient status of walnut ( Juglans regia L.). There were 13 different treatment combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Treatments were applied on per tree basis. Among the treatments recommended dose of NPK +50kg vermicompost and three fourth recommended dose of NPK+68.75kg vermicompost were effective for improvement of leaf nutrient status. Key words: NPK; Neem cake; Vermicompost; Leaf nutrient DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2825 Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Volume 10, 2009 December Page: 63-67 ? ?
Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.)
Cutini A,Giannini T
Forest@ , 2009, DOI: 10.3832/efor0553-006
Abstract: Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel.) on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut); 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI), leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR) and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut growth and especially on radial increment, a very important matter being common walnut the target species with a very appreciated and valuable wood.
Effect of Culture Medium in Callogenesis from Adult Walnut Leaves (Juglans regia L.)
Avilés,Fabiola; Ríos,Darcy; González,Ricardo; Sánchez-Olate,Manuel;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392009000300020
Abstract: to define preliminary aspects of walnut (juglans regia l.) callogenesis in indirect propagation systems, this work analyzed callogenic induction in adult leaves of walnut in broadleaf trees (btm), murashige and skoog (ms) driver kuniyuki walnut (dkw) and woody plant (wpm) media. leaf segments of 1 cm2, previously sterilized, were placed in each culture medium, supplemented with 21.4 μm naphtalene acetic acid (naa) and 8.8 μm 6-benzylaminopurine (bap). a completely random design was used; the experimental unit was a petri dish with six callus explants. each treatment was composed of seven petri dishes. callogenesis (%), nodular calli (%) and histology of calli explants were evaluated at 4 weeks by staining 10 μm slices with safranine-fastgreen. there were no significant differences (α = 0.05) in callogenesis among evaluated media; but nodular calli percentages were significantly higher in btm (75%) and wpm (63%). only in calli obtained in the btm medium did the histology show the presence of meristematic zones, but without external expression. these results indicate that the medium influences the morphogenic characteristics of resultant callus. calli produced in btm presented better morphogenic potential, with meristems at primary stages of organization.
Occurrence of Shallow Bark Canker of Walnut (Juglans regia) in Southern Provinces of Iran  [PDF]
F. Yousefikopaei,S.M. Taghavi,Z. Banihashemi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: From April 2001 to November 2002, samples of walnut branches and trunks with symptoms of shallow bark canker were collected from Fars and Kohgiluyeh-va-Boyerahmad provinces. Symptoms of the disease were small cracks in the bark of the trunk and scaffold branches of mature trees with dark watery exudates which stained the affected trunk or limb. By removal of phelloderm, extensive necrosis of the underlying tissues was observed. In some cases, necrosis extended to cambium and outer xylem. Sixty-one strains of a bacterium were isolated from infected tissues using EMB and YDC media. On the basis of standard biochemical and physiological tests the bacterium was identified as Brenneria nigrifluens. The pathogen was found to be wide-spread in the provinces. Isolates were compared by physiological and biochemical characters, antibiotic sensitivity and protein electrophoretic pattern. Most of the strains were fairly similar in phenotypic features and electrophoretic profiles of whole-cell proteins were similar to each other and to reference strain (B. nigrifluens 5D313). Inoculation of 1-2 years-old walnut seedlings in May and June produced blackening symptoms and the bacterium survived for long period in infected tissues. This is the first report of the shallow bark canker of walnut in southern Iran.
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