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In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea extracts against pathogenic yeasts
P Masoko, TJ Mmushi, MM Mogashoa, MP Mokgotho, LJ Mampuru, RL Howard
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea which is used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was evaluated against three yeasts; Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodoturula mucilaginosa. Barks of S. birrea were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and ethanol and tested against these three yeasts. The antifungal assay was performed by the microdilution technique and bioautography. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the phytocompounds of the extracts as well as to assay the plant for antioxidant compounds. More compounds with antioxidant activity were observed in polar separation system, ethyl cetate:methanol:water (EMW). All test organisms were resistant against all non-polar extracts. Acetone, ethanol and methanol S. birrea extracts had average MIC values of 0.39, 0.22 and 0.27 mg/ml, respectively. C. albidus was the most sensitive organism with an average MIC value of 0.17 mg/ml. Average total activity was highest for methanol (387 ml/g) followed by ethanol (363 ml/g) and acetone (299 ml/g) bark extracts. Acetone and methanolic bark extracts were more active in EMW system at Rf values of 0.07, 0.32 and 0.70 against C. parapsilosis. The results showed that the plant could be further explored for possible antifungal agents and provides preliminary scientific validation of the traditional medicinal use of this plant.
Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of kernel extract of Sclerocarya birrea in rats
S Muhammad, LG Hassan, SM Dangoggo, SW Hassan, KJ Umar, RU Aliyu
Science World Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Sclerocarya birrea fruits are widely eaten in developing countries especially in rural areas and serves as nutrients supplements. However, they also contain phyto-toxin which may affect the normal functioning of the body. Acute toxicity was performed by a single oral administration at a dose of 3000 mg/kg body weight. Sub chronic evaluation was done by oral feeding of the rats with the seed kernel extract daily at doses of 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. The results of acute toxicity showed no mortality and general behavior changes. The lethal dosage (LD50) was greater than 3000 mg/kg body weight. Rats fed with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract showed increased body weights throughout the period of treatment but not significantly (p<0.05) different from the control group. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in the body weights were noticed in those administered with 3000 and 4000 mg/kg body weight at the 4th and all the weeks respectively. Significant (p<0.05) increased in serum total protein, albumin, bilirubin, transaminases, creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes were observed in rats fed with 3000 to 4000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, suggesting liver and kidney toxicity. Therefore, the seed kernel extract of S. birrea may be relatively toxic at doses of 3000 and 4000 mg/kg body weight.
Evaluation of the Acetone and Aqueous Extracts of Mature Stem Bark of Sclerocarya birrea for Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties
Nicoline F. Tanih,Roland N. Ndip
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/834156
Abstract: We assayed the antimicrobial activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea on some selected bacteria and fungi species including; Streptococcus pyogenes, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, Trichosporon mucoides, and Candida krusei using both agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Based on the levels of activity, the acetone extract was examined for total polyphenolic content, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Total phenols of the extract were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. All the bacteria and fungi species were susceptible to the plant extracts. The acetone extract was the most active for the bacterial species with MIC (0.156–0.625 mg/mL) while the aqueous extract was the most active for the fungi species with MIC (0.3125–1.25 mg/mL). The polyphenolic compounds were found as 27.2 mg/g tannic acid equivalent, 25.2 mg/g quercetin equivalent, 9.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent for phenols, flavonoid and flavonols respectively. The acetone extract exhibited a remarkable ability to scavenge radicals, strong reducing ability and a potential source of natural antioxidants. Both the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may provide a target for drug discovery.
Toxicological Effects of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) and Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) Leaf Extracts on Mice and Their Pharmacological Effects on Rat Duodenum  [PDF]
R.G. Belemtougri,A. Traore,Y. Ouedraogo,S.D. Sanou
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2006,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicological effects of Sclerocarya birrea and Psidium guajava leaf extracts on mice and the antispasmodic effect on rat duodenum. The two plants extracts showed toxicological effects on mice in dose dependent manner. The antispasmodic effect was conducted as follow: In the first part of experiments, cumulative dose-response curve for Ach was obtained and then dose-response curves are repeated after addition of atropine and different doses of the extracts. In the second part, extracts were applied to the tissue after contraction with Ach. The extracts have exhibited an inhibitory effect on the dose-response curves induced by Ach on rat duodenum and significantly reduced the maximal response of Ach in a concentration-dependent manner. These results can partly justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine.
The Resource Role of Morula (Sclerocarya birrea): A Multipurpose Indigenous Fruit Tree of Botswana  [PDF]
W. Mojeremane,S.O. Tshwenyane
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Sclerocarya birrea (morula) is a common and wide spread indigenous fruit-bearing tree species throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. It is widely used by rural populations in most countries wherever it grows. In Botswana the species is protected and preserved by local people in areas of its natural occurrence. Local people in the northern part of Botswana also plant the tree in their homesteads. It is a multipurpose tree whose fruits are eaten fresh or fermented to make a beer, the kernels are eaten or the oil extracted. The leaves are browsed by livestock and have medicinal uses as does the bark. The wood is used to make a variety of implements. The kernel is rich in protein and minerals. The morula fruit produce juice, which has high vitamin C than orange juice. The paper reviews Sclerocarya birrea, which is an important multipurpose tree of social and economic value in Botswana and other African countries where it grows.
Profiling of Phytochemicals in Tissues from Sclerocarya birrea by HPLC-MS and Their Link with Antioxidant Activity  [PDF]
Daniela Russo,Owen Kenny,Thomas J. Smyth,Luigi Milella,Mohammad B. Hossain,Moussoukhoye Sissokho Diop,Dilip K. Rai,Nigel P. Brunton
ISRN Chromatography , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/283462
Abstract: High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was employed to investigate the differences in phytochemicals in roots, bark, and leaf of Sclerocarya birrea (marula) for methanol and water extracts that exhibited the best antioxidant activities. As many as 36 compounds were observed in the extracts of these tissues of which 27 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified. The HPLC-MS/MS results showed flavonoid glycosides were prominent in leaf extracts while the galloylated tannins were largely in bark and root extracts. Four flavonoid glycosides that were reported for the first time in the marula leaf have been identified. The HPLC-MS/MS studies also illustrated different degrees (highest degree = 3) of oligomerisation and galloylation of tannins in the bark and root extracts. 1. Introduction Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst, more commonly known as marula, is taxonomically derived from the Anacardiaceae plant family. It is an indigenous, fruit-bearing tree of sub-Saharan Africa [1]. It grows mostly at low altitudes and can reach up to 20?m in height and 1.2?m in diameter [2]. Traditionally, marula has multiple uses; the fruits are eaten or processed to make beer and jam, the kernels are eaten or their oils extracted, the leaves are used as forage for livestock, and the wood is carved into utilitarian items such as spoons and plates [2]. The marula tree has been the subject of numerous chemical, biological, and environmental investigations since 1906 [3] and has been identified as one of five fruit tree species that should be integrated in the domestication process in African farming system [4, 5]. This is due to its use as source of food and medicine in rural communities and its potential to generate income through the sale of its derivates. The bark, leaves, and roots of Sclerocarya birrea (S. birrea) have attracted attention because they have been traditionally used to treat an assortment of human ailments such as dysentery, fevers, malaria, diarrhea, stomach ailments, rheumatism, sore eyes, gangrenous rectitis, infertility, headaches, toothache, and body pains [6, 7]. As a result, extracts of this plant have been reported to possess antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, astringent anticonvulsant [8–10], antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory [11], and antiatherogenic properties [12]. Several of these properties could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols and its antioxidant activity [13–16]. As a result of their high antioxidant activities, extracts from S. birrea could also be used to control
Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of Sclerocarya birrea Fruit Juice
LG Hassan, SM Dangoggo, SW Hassan, S Muhammad, KJ Umar
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The juice of Sclerocarya birrea fruit was evaluated for its nutritional and antinutritional compositions. The results show that the total solid, ash, crude protein, crude lipid, available carbohydrate and energy value are 12.32g/100cm3, 5.05%, 3.31%, 1.30%, 90.35% and 386.34kcal/100g dry weight respectively. The results of minerals content indicate that, the juice is a good source of both macro and micro elements with calcium as predominant. The 100 cm3 juice contained reasonable amount of pectin (2.10g), vitamin C (0.49g), glucose (0.21g) and sucrose (0.76g). Concentrations of hydrocyanic acid, nitrate, oxalate, and phytate are lower than the reference toxic standard level. The juice of the plant could have a potential nutritional uses.
Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] kernel cake extracts obtained by sequential extraction
Pinheiro do Prado, Ana Cristina,Monalise Arag?o, Analu,Fett, Roseane,Block, Jane Mara
Grasas y Aceites , 2009, DOI: 10.3989/gya.129708
Abstract: The total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of different Pecan kernel cake extracts (ether, acetone, alcohol and distilled water) were estimated and their antioxidant activities were evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and -carotene/linoleic acid systems. Color variations of the Pecan kernel cake were determined through an instrumental analysis using the CIE Lab system. Significantly higher levels (p < 0.05) of total phenolics, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity measured through the ABTS and DPPH (30 min and 24 h) systems were observed for the acetone extract (16.4 mg GAE/g; 31.2 mg CE/g; 235.3 μmol TEAC/g and 68.6 and 100.3 mg TEAC/g, respectively). The oxidation inhibition percentage in the -carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 37.9 to 93.1%, with the acetone extract at 300 ppm showing significantly superior results. The samples with the greatest tendency to show red tones presented the highest levels of condensed tannins. El contenido de taninos condensado y fenoles totales de diferentes extractos de tortas de almendra de pecana (éter, acetona, alcohol y agua destilada) fueron estimados y sus actividades antioxidantes fueron evaluadas mediantes los métodos con ABTS, DPPH y el sistema -caroteno/ácido linoleico. Las variaciones de color de la torta de almendra de pecana fueron determinadas mediante análisis instrumental usando el sistema CIE Lab. Los contenidos de fenoles totales, taninos condensados y actividad antioxidante, medida mediante los métodos con ABTS Y DPPH (30 min y 24 h), fueron significativamente más altos (p < 0.05) con el extracto de acetona (16.4 mg GAE/g; 31.2 mg CE/g; 235.3 μmol TEAC/g and 68.6 and 100.3 mg TEAC/g, respectivamente). El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación en el sistema -caroteno/ ácido linoleico vario desde 37.9 a 93.1% con el extracto de acetona a 300 ppm, mostrando resultados significativamente superiores. Las muestras con una mayor tendencia a tonos rojos presento los niveles más altos de taninos condensados.
Local knowledge, pattern and diversity of use of Sclerocarya birrea
Gerard N Gouwakinnou, Anne Lykke, Achille E Assogbadjo, Brice Sinsin
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-7-8
Abstract: This study combines quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical approaches to investigate uses and factors affecting the use value of S. birrea subsp. birrea. Nine group discussions as well as 161 individual interviews were held in the dry and typical Sudanian zones. Seven different ethnic groups were involved and the survey focused on local uses and perception of factors affecting the dynamics of S. birrea.The species has a multitude of uses; all organs are used for more than 20 different purposes. The study highlights how gender, local availability, ethnicity and community location interact to influence the utilization value of the species. People living in drier areas with high occurrence of the S. birrea use it more than those living in wetter areas with low occurrence. While domestic and subsistence uses do not appear to threaten the species, carving, clearing and drought stand out as the major causes of its decline.Many factors and their interactions influence the use pattern of the species within and between communities. When compared to the level of exploitation of S. birrea subsp. caffra in southern Africa, the subspecies birrea is at this point relatively underutilized. A high commercial potential exists due to its simple propagation ability and makes it an interesting agroforestry resource.Growing interest is on food tree species in general, and particularly indigenous fruit tree species in developing countries since they are inherent to most tropical landscapes and serve the dual function of local livelihood support and biodiversity conservation [1]. More information on these trees would enhance their value in agricultural landscapes by helping farmers improve their livelihoods and ensuring environmental sustainability. Therefore, there is a need to settle a general framework for the conservation of these tree species.Understanding how a community uses a resource and what influences the level of its use is crucial for developing a framework for its susta
Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities and Cytotoxicity of Sclerocarya birrea Stem Bark
Abigail John Mai, Michael Emmanuel, Patrick Ayim, Mohammed Bello Magaji
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105706
The research was aimed at the antibacterial studies and cytotoxicity of aqueous trona extract of Sclerocarya birrea (marula) stem bark. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out using decoction method from the dried stem bark of marula. The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening, antibacterial and cytotoxicity test. The extract indicated the presence of tannin, saponins and alkaloids with the absence of flavonoids, steroids and glycosides. An antimicrobial study of the extracts was carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using agar—well diffusion method. The extracts with trona have higher zone of inhibition at 100 mg/ml, Escherichia coli, (zone of inhibition = 16), Staphylococcus aureus (zone of inhibition = 14) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (zone of inhibition = 9). The cytotoxicity tests were carried out on the extracts using brine shrimp lethality assay, the extract showed a mortality with 9 nauplii dead upon exposure at 1000 ppm, and had an LC50 value of 63.1 ppm. The FTIR characterization carried out on the extract indicates the presence of functional groups such as: O-H, C=O, C-N and C-C(O)-C indicating peak of alcohols, carbonyl group amine and ester.
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