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Protective Effect of Leaf Extract of Trichilia connaroides on Hypercholesterolemia Induced Oxidative Stress  [PDF]
G.S. Prasanna,A. Purnima
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: The current study envisaged evaluation of potential antioxidant role of chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Trichilia connaroides in hypercholesterolemia induced oxidative stress. Male Albino Wistar rats were rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding them with high fat diet. Hypercholesterolemic animals were then treated orally, each day with chloroform and methanol extract of leaves of Trichilia connaroides (CETC and METC) (100 mg kg-1 b.wt.) for a period of eight weeks. At the end of the eight week, biomarkers (in hepatic tissue) of oxidative stress viz., products of lipid peroxidation (MDA), catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Hypercholesterolemic rats had significantly elevated levels of products of lipid peroxidation, LPO (p<0.001), 0.2184±0.0071 nmol mg-1 of protein, compared to normal animals (0.1610±0.0083 nmol mg-1 of protein). Significantly lower levels of catalase (p<0.01) 2.054±0.2234 units mg-1, normal 2.726±0.1236 units mg-1), SOD (p<0.001, 3.373±0.1653 units mg-1 of protein, (normal 4.906±0.0780) and GSH (p<0.001, 8.498±0.4805 μmoles mg-1 of protein (normal 12.69±0.63910) were observed in such animals indicating the development of pro-oxidant status in these animals. CETC and METC extract treated animals recorded significantly reduced levels of LPO (p<0.001, 0.1725±0.0094, 0.1744±0.0032 respectively) and significantly elevated levels of SOD (p<0.001, 4.705±0.1632, 4.752±0.1220) and GSH (p<0.01, 11.71±0.4930, p<0.001, 12.92±0.5890), respectively. Levels of LPO and of endogenous antioxidant enzyme levels were restored closer to that of normal animals, signifying reversal of oxidative stress. CETC and METC protected the animals against hypercholesterolemia induced oxidative stress.
Protective Effect of T. violacea Rhizome Extract Against Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats  [PDF]
Olorunnisola Sinbad Olorunnisola,Graeme Bradley,Anthony Jide Afolayan
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17056033
Abstract: The present study examines the effect of methanolic extract of T. violacea rhizomes on high cholesterol (2%) diet fed rats (HCD). At the end of 4 weeks, serum total protein, albumin, reduced glutathione (GSH), and markers of oxidative stress viz., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS—a marker of lipid peroxidation), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the serum, aorta, liver and heart of HCD and normal rats were assessed and compared. A significant (p < 0.05) elevation in TBARS, and a reduction (p < 0.05) in serum total protein, albumin, GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in tissues of HCD fed rats compared with the normal group. Co-administration of crude extracts of T. violacea rhizomes protected the liver, heart, serum and aorta against HCD-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner. The activities of the extract (500 mg/kg) compared favorably with gemfibrozil. The extracts also protected against HCD-induced reduction in serum total protein, GSH and restored the activities of antioxidant tissues (liver, heart and aorta) enzymes to near normal values. This result suggested that consumption of T. violacea rhizome may help to protect against hypercholesterolemia- induced oxidative stress diseases in the heart and liver.
Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats  [cached]
Maruthappan V,Shree K
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45 th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients.
Effects of simvastatin on lipid levels and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia
Zhe Chen,Yuanping Hou,Miaobin Liu,
Zhe Chen
,Yuanping Hou,Miaobin Liu

老年心脏病学杂志(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Objective To investigate the effects of simvastatin on lipid lowering therapy and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods Fasting serum lipids, CD63, CD41a, serum glucose, hepatic and renal function, routine urine analysis (UA) were measured in 50 healthy subjects, and in 50 elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after 4 weeks treatment with simvastatin (20mg daily for 4 weeks). Results 1. After simvastatin treatment for 4 weeks, the fasting serum level of lipids in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia was significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.01). 2. CD63 and CD41a were decreased after treatment compared with before, respectively (1.36 0.34) vs (4.26 1.06), (P<0.01) and (123.54 19.73) vs (253.78 16.75), (P<0.01). 3. Changes in serum lipid level tended to be positively correlated with the declines in CD63 and CD41a, but there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusions The results suggested that lipid lowering therapy with simvastatin inhibit platelet activity.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2007;4:215-217.)
Effects of Sesame Seeds Consumption on Serum Cholesterol and Oxidative Status in Hypercholesterolemia
Food and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.fph.20120206.02
Abstract: Sesame seeds and its lignans induce beneficial changes in risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in pre-clinical studies. This study aims to investigate the effects of sesame consumption on serum lipid profiles and oxidative status in hypercholesterolemic patients. After 2 weeks of run-in period, 18 (5 men and 13 women) subjects were assigned to consume 40 grams of roasted not crushed sesame seeds daily for 6 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, blood lipid profile and MDA were evaluated at before (baseline) and after intervention period. There were no significant differences on those anthropometric parameters at baseline and after the dietary intervention.Sesame seeds supplementation shows no significant effect in serum TC, LDL-C, TG, TG/HDL-C levels after 6 weeks of intervention. Concerning the serum antioxidant levels, no significant alteration in MDA concentrations were demonstrated at the end of the study. Ingestion of 40 g sesame seed daily posed no beneficial effects on serum lipids profile and oxidative status after 6 weeks of consumption. Higher doses of sesame seed consumption may be suggested for future study in order to obtain beneficial effects in lipid profiles. In addition, crushed sesame might be recommended to increase bioavailability of sesame lignans.
Benefits of blackberry nectar (Rubus spp.) relative to hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation
Ferreira de Araujo,P. R.; da Silva Santos,V.; Rodrigues Machado,A.; Gevehr Fernandes,C.; Silva,J. A.; da Silva Rodrigues,R.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2011,
Abstract: introduction: in humans, the normal metabolic activity produces free radicals that constantly, along with other risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia may be responsible for the onset of degenerative diseases. some bioactive compounds present in blackberry (rubus spp.) have the ability to act as natural antioxidants can make the food to minimize effects on the body caused by reactive oxygen species. objective: this study verified the benefits of blackberry nectar through the quantification of triglycerides, total and fraction cholesterol hdl (high density lipoprotein) and ldl-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein), blood glucose and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. methods: two groups were treated with hypercholesterolemic diets (0.1% cholesterol), one of them receiving an additional 5 ml of nectar daily, and a third (control group) treated only with a standard diet. in the blood the quantification of lipids, blood glucose and lipid peroxidation was performed. in the brain, liver and small intestine the lipid peroxidation was determined and in other organs, histopathological evaluations were carried out. results: the blackberry nectar reduced the triglycerides serum levels, total cholesterol and ldl-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters, without influencing the hdl and blood glucose concentrations. a decrease in the initiation of lipid peroxidation reactions in the blood, brain and small intestine was also observed. only the liver showed histopathological changes (steatosis), due to excess cholesterol, with no positive influence from the nectar.
Effect of microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia
Bertolin, Telma Elita;Pilatti, Dayane;Giacomini, Ana Cristina Vendrametto Varrone;Bavaresco, Caren Serra;Colla, Luciane Maria;Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132009000500024
Abstract: studies have been conducted on microalga spirulina platensis (arthrospira platensis) due to its therapeutic potential in several areas, including the capacity for preventing and decreasing the damages caused by hyperlipidemia and the antioxidant activity. the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of microalga spirulina platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia during 60 days. the measurement of hippocampus lipoperoxidation did not demonstrate significant difference (p>0.05) when spirulina platensis was added to hypercholesterolemic diet. the evaluation of lipid profile showed that the administration of the microalga in therapeutic and preventive ways led to a significant protective effect (p<0.05) from hypercholesterolemia.
Levels of plasma testosterone, antioxidants and oxidative stress in alcoholic patients attending de-addiction centre
Sameer R Kulkarni,K Pratibha Ravindra,CY Dhume,P Rataboli
Biology and Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: In men chronic heavy drinking interferes with reproductive hormones which are responsible for sexual maturation,sperm development and fertility. Alcohol is directly toxic to the testes; causing reduced testosterone levels.Thepresent study was designed with an aim to elucidate the effect of oxidative stress on plasma testosterone level andhypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis function in alcoholics. The plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone andfollicle stimulating hormone were investigated in alcohols (n=200) (25–45 years) and were compared with normal nonalcoholic controls (n=160). Alcohol abusers displayed significantly lower levels of plasma testosterone, luteinizinghormone, follicle stimulating hormone, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, - Carotene, Glutathione and Superoxide Dismutase,Glutathione Reductase activities accompanied with significantly higher levels of Protein carbonyl content andMalondialdehyde levels than controls (P<0.001).Decreased serum testosterone level in alcoholics might be due toincreased oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant levels.
Simulation studies of stratum corneum lipid mixtures  [PDF]
Chinmay Das,Massimo G. Noro,Peter D. Olmsted
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2009.06.054
Abstract: We present atomistic molecular dynamics results for fully hydrated bilayers composed of ceramide NS-24:0, free fatty acid 24:0 and cholesterol, to address the effect of the different components in the stratum corneum (the outermost layer of skin) lipid matrix on its structural properties. Bilayers containing ceramide molecules show higher in-plane density and hence lower rate of passive transport compared to phospholipid bilayers. At physiological temperatures, for all composition ratios explored, the lipids are in a gel phase with ordered lipid tails. However, the large asymmetry in the lengths of the two tails of the ceramide molecule leads to a fluid like environment at the bilayer mid-plane. The lateral pressure profiles show large local variations across the bilayer for pure ceramide or any of the two component mixtures. Close to the skin composition ratio, the lateral pressure fluctuations are greatly suppressed, the ceramide tails from the two leaflets interdigitate significantly, the depression in local density at the inter-leaflet region is lowered, and the bilayer have lowered elastic moduli. This indicates that the observed composition ratio in the stratum corneum lipid layer is responsible for both the good barrier properties and the stability of the lipid structure against mechanical stresses.
Effects of Aging and Hypercholesterolemia on Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice  [PDF]
Clarissa L. Tonini,Bianca P. Campagnaro,Lis P. S. Louro,Thiago M. C. Pereira,Elisardo C. Vasquez,Silvana S. Meyrelles
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14023325
Abstract: Recent evidence from apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE ?/ ?) mice shows that aging and atherosclerosis are closely associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage in some cells and tissues. However, bone marrow cells, which are physiologically involved in tissue repair have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of aging and hypercholesterolemia on oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in bone marrow cells from young and aged apoE ?/ ? mice compared with age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 (C57) mice, using the comet assay and flow cytometry. The production of both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in bone marrow cells was higher in young apoE ?/ ? mice than in age-matched C57 mice, and reactive oxygen species were increased in aged C57 and apoE ?/ ? mice. Similar results were observed when we analyzed the DNA damage and apoptosis. Our data showed that both aging and hypercholesterolemia induce the increased production of oxidative stress and consequently DNA damage and apoptosis in bone marrow cells. This study is the first to demonstrate a functionality decrease of the bone marrow, which is a fundamental extra-arterial source of the cells involved in vascular injury repair.
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