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Respuesta cardiovascular durante el ejercicio físico en normotensos y prehipertensos Cardiovascular response during physical exercise in normotensive and prehypertensive subjects  [cached]
Iliana Cabrera Rojo,Guillermo Izaguirre Rodríguez
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2008,
Abstract: Las pruebas de esfuerzo son útiles al evaluar las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Caracterizar precozmente un desequilibrio del organismo es fundamental, por lo que nos propusimos identificar durante el ejercicio la respuesta presora, alteraciones del ritmo e isquemia del miocardio en sujetos normotensos y prehipertensos. Se realizó prueba ergométrica diagnóstica en bicicleta a 222 sujetos con presión arterial menor 140/90 mmHg, electrocardiograma normal y sin tratamiento farmacológico. Predominaron las mujeres (58.6%) y sujetos de la piel blanca (41.8%). La presión arterial al máximo esfuerzo fue anormal en el 45.7% y de ellos el 88 % era prehipertenso. Esta variable mostró una elevada diferencia significativa (p=0.0000064) entre normotensos y prehipertensos. Se detectó isquemia del miocardio y arritmia en 21 sujetos. Se concluye que la prueba de esfuerzo en estos sujetos evidencia de forma precoz alteraciones en el control de la presión arterial y que la isquemia del miocardio y las arrtimias no son frecuentes en este subgrupo. The exertion tests are useful to evaluate cardiovascular diseases. The early characterization of an unbalance of the organism is essential. That's why, we proposed to identify during the physical exercise the pressure response, rhythm alterations and myocardial ischemia in normotensive and prehypertensive individuals. A diagnostic bicycle ergometric test was performed among 222 subjects with arterial pressure under 140/90 mmHg, normal ECG and with no drug treatment. Females (58.6 %) and white individuals (41.8%) prevailed. Arterial pressure on maximum effort was abnormal in 45.7 % and 88 % of them were prehypertensives. This variable showed an elevated significant difference (p=0.0000064) between normotensive and prehypertensives. Myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia were found in 21 individuals. It was concluded that the exercise test in these subjects evidenced early alterations in the control of arterial pressure and that myocardial ischemias and arrhythmias are not common in this subgroup.
Niveles de la enzima superóxido dismutasa en ni os normotensos, prehipertensos e hipertensos Niveis da enzima superoxido dismutasa nas crian as normotensas, prehipertensas e hipertensas Levels of superoxide dismutase enzyme in normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive children  [cached]
Jesús Alfonso Rodríguez,Danay Heredia Ruiz,Douglas Fernández Caraballo,Marianela Ballestero Hernández
Acta bioqu?-mica cl?-nica latinoamericana , 2012,
Abstract: La hipertensión arterial en los ni os se ha convertido en un problema importante de salud, debido a la frecuencia con que se presenta en la actualidad. Las Especies Reactivas del Oxígeno son uno de los mecanismos involucrados en la fisiopatología de la hipertensión arterial. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la actividad de la enzima superóxido dismutasa y las proteínas totales, por los métodos de Marklund y Lowry en 335 escolares de cuatro escuelas primarias de Santa Clara, según el sexo, color de piel, edad e índice de masa corporal. Para determinar las diferencias significativas entre los ni os normotensos, prehipertensos e hipertensos, se utilizaron los tests de Student, Kruskal-Wallis y de Mann-Whinney, todos del software estadístico SPSS 15. Los prehipertensos e hipertensos tuvieron una disminución significativa de la actividad de la superóxido dismutasa. Algo similar ocurrió con los ni os hipertensos de sexo masculino, de piel blanca, de 8 a os de edad y con los normopesos. La afectación de esta enzima en los ni os hipertensos puede favorecer la presencia de Especies Reactivas del Oxígeno y con ello de da os oxidativos. A hipertens o arterial nas crian as tem se transformado em um problema importante de saúde devido à frequência com que atualmente se está apresentando. As Espécies Reativas do Oxigêno s o um dos mecanismos envolvidos na fisiopatologia da hipertens o arterial. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a atividade da enzima superóxido dismutase e das proteínas totais, pelos métodos de Marklund e Lowry em 335 crian as de 4 escolas primárias de Santa Clara, segundo o sexo, a cor da pele, a idade e o índice de massa corporal. Para determinar as diferen as significativas entre as crian as normotensas, pré-hipertensas e hipertensas foram utilizados os testes de Student, Kruskal-Wallis e de Mann-Whinney, todos do software estatístico SPSS 15. Os pré-hipertensos e hipertensos tiveram uma diminui o significativa da atividade da superóxido dismutase. Algo semelhante aconteceu com as crian as hipertensas de sexo masculino, de pele branca, de 8 anos de idade e com os normopesos. A afeta o desta enzima nas crian as hipertensas pode favorecer a presen a de Espécies Reativas do Oxigênio e com isso danos oxidativos. High blood pressure in children has become a major health problem due to the frequency this disease is appearing today. Reactive oxygen species is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the activity of the superoxide dismutase enzyme and total proteins by the Lowr
Hipertensión arterial en población pediátrica, sus efectos en la dispersión de la onda P y el área auricular izquierda Hipertension in pediatric patients: effects upon P wave dispersion and left atrial area  [cached]
Elibet Chávez,Emilio González,Jesús Castro,María del Carmen Llanes
Revista Chilena de Cardiología , 2010,
Abstract: Antecedentes: Entre los factores descritos para desarrollar fibrilación auricular se encuentra el mayor tama o de la aurícula izquierda; esto lleva a cambios en sus propiedades eléctricas y a mayores valores de dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma. Objetivo: Determinar la dispersión de la onda P con relación al área de la aurícula izquierda en ni os entre 8 a 11 a os. Métodos: Se estudiaron 400 ni os aparentemente sanos de ese rango de edad. Se les realizó electrocardiograma de superficie de 12 derivaciones para medir los valores de P máxima, P mínima y se calculó la dispersión de la onda P; se les midió 4 veces la presión arterial. Se realizó además, ecocardiograma para medición del área auricular izquierda. Resultados: Los valores de media de dispersión de la onda P aumentan desde normotensos a hiper-tensos (32.5 a 38.5 ms, respectivamente), existiendo diferencias significativas intergrupos, encontrando la mayor significación al comparar los normotensos con el grupo de prehipertensos (p=0.001). Un estudio de regresión demostró la dependencia de la dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma en el grupo de normotensos y prehipertensos con r=0,22 y p<0.05. Una regresión lineal para la muestra de ni os hipertensos muestra una correlación positiva para la dependencia de la onda P con el área auricular izquierda. Conclusiones: Existe dependencia de la dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma con el área auricular izquierda, así como diferencias significativas entre valores medios de dispersión de la onda P en los subgrupos de ni os normotensos, prehipertensos e hipertensos. Background: left atrial size is a recognized factor in-creasing the risk of atrial fibrillation. Left atrial electri-cal properties are modified, with a greater dispersión of the P wave on the electrocardiogram. Aim: to determine the relation between left atrial área and P wave dispersión in children. Methods: 400 healthy children from 8 to 11 years of age had a 12 lead ECG. Máximum and mínimum vol-tages of the P wave and P wave dispersión were measu-red. Blood pressure was recorded in 4 sepárate measu-rements. Echocardiography was used to determine left atrial área. Results: Compared to normotensive children, mean dispersión of the P wave was higher in hypertensives (38.5 vs 32.5 ms, respectively). The most significant difference was observed between normotensives and pre-hypertensive children (regression analysis, p=0.001). Linear regression analysis showed a posi-tive correlation of P wave dispersión and left atrial área Conclusion: P wave dispersión and left atria
Sympathovagal Imbalance in Prehypertensive Offspring of Two Parents versus One Parent Hypertensive  [PDF]
G. K. Pal,Pravati Pal,Nivedita Nanda,V. Lalitha,T. K. Dutta,C. Adithan
International Journal of Hypertension , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/263170
Abstract: Objective. Though prehypertension has strong familial predisposition, difference in pathophysiological mechanisms in its genesis in offspring of both parents and single parent hypertensive have not been elucidated. Methods. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), basal heart rate (BHR), blood pressure (BP), HR and BP response to standing, deep breathing difference, BP response to handgrip and spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed in normotensive offspring of two parents hypertensive (Group I), normotensive offspring of one parent hypertensive (Group II), prehypertensive offspring of two parents hypertensive (Group III) and prehypertensive offspring of one parent hypertensive (Group IV). Results. Sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) in prehypertensive offspring was observed due to increased sympathetic and decreased vagal activity. In group III, SVI was more prominent with greater contribution by vagal withdrawal. LF-HF ratio, the marker of SVI was correlated more with diastolic pressure, 30 : 15 ratio and E : I ratio in prehypertensives and the degree of correlation was more in group III prehypertensives. Conclusion. Vagal withdrawal plays a critical role in development of SVI in prehypertensive offspring of hypertensive parents. The intensity of SVI was more in offspring of two parents hypertensive compared to single parent hypertensive.
Sympathovagal Imbalance in Prehypertensive Offspring of Two Parents versus One Parent Hypertensive  [PDF]
G. K. Pal,Pravati Pal,Nivedita Nanda,V. Lalitha,T. K. Dutta,C. Adithan
International Journal of Hypertension , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/263170
Abstract: Objective. Though prehypertension has strong familial predisposition, difference in pathophysiological mechanisms in its genesis in offspring of both parents and single parent hypertensive have not been elucidated. Methods. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), basal heart rate (BHR), blood pressure (BP), HR and BP response to standing, deep breathing difference, BP response to handgrip and spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed in normotensive offspring of two parents hypertensive (Group I), normotensive offspring of one parent hypertensive (Group II), prehypertensive offspring of two parents hypertensive (Group III) and prehypertensive offspring of one parent hypertensive (Group IV). Results. Sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) in prehypertensive offspring was observed due to increased sympathetic and decreased vagal activity. In group III, SVI was more prominent with greater contribution by vagal withdrawal. LF-HF ratio, the marker of SVI was correlated more with diastolic pressure, 30?:?15 ratio and E?:?I ratio in prehypertensives and the degree of correlation was more in group III prehypertensives. Conclusion. Vagal withdrawal plays a critical role in development of SVI in prehypertensive offspring of hypertensive parents. The intensity of SVI was more in offspring of two parents hypertensive compared to single parent hypertensive. 1. Introduction Hypertension runs in families, and parental history of hypertension increases the risk of developing hypertension, especially if both the parents are hypertensives [1]. Autonomic abnormality in the form of increased sympathetic tone has been demonstrated in young normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents [2]. Also, it was observed that youngsters with a parental history of hypertension showed an enhanced reactivity of total peripheral resistance during static exercise without higher BP response as the physiological increase in stroke volume was blunted in these subjects [3]. Recently, it has been reported that cardiovascular autonomic responses to whole body isotonic exercise in normotensive healthy young adult males with parental history of hypertension show signs of sympathetic overactivity [4]. However, till date, no work has been conducted to understand the nature of autonomic imbalance that facilitates the normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents to enter into the stage of prehypertension or hypertension. A recent report from our laboratory suggests that increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activities in young adults alters sympathovagal balance,
Hipertensión arterial en la adultez temprana, implicaciones de la prehipertensión en la adolescencia para su desarrollo Arterial hypertension in early adulthood.prehypertension implications in adolescents' development  [cached]
Ernesto Canciano Chirino,Nancy Silva Vásquez,Elio León López
Revista Habanera de Ciencias M??dicas , 2012,
Abstract: Introducción: Los antecedentes de prehipertensión arterial en el adulto joven hipertenso se consideran posible factor de riesgo vascular. Objetivos: Comparar adultos jóvenes hipertensos, prehipertensos en la adolescencia, con otros hipertensos sin antecedentes en San Antonio de los Ba os, La Habana, desde el 2003_2008 evaluando: cifras tensionales/ grosor íntima media carotídeo (GIMc), presencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI)/sobrepeso, grado de retinopatía hipertensiva y necesidad de polifarmacia antihipertensiva por edades. Pacientes y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos-controles aleatorizando 90 adultos jóvenes hipertensos, prehipertensos desde la adolescencia (grupo A) y 90 hipertensos de igual edad no prehipertensos (grupo B). Resultados: Los más hipertensos fueron del grupo A con mayor GIMc, siendo la prehipertensión factor decisivo. Predominaron los sobrepesos, 57.7% en A, donde HVI fue de 58.8%. El 70% con afectación retiniana perteneció al grupo A para alto riesgo relativo; 46.6% del grupo A necesitó polifarmacia para controlarse, 35,5% menores de 25 a os. Conclusiones: La presencia de prehipertensión arterial en la adolescencia marca tempranamente pronóstico, evolución y respuesta terapéutica del adulto joven hipertenso siendo futuro marcador de riesgo de la enfermedad. Introduction:The antecedent of arterial prehypertension in hypertensive young people are considered as a possible vascular risk factor. Objectives: To compare hypertensive young adults who had prehypertension in adolescence with other group of hypertensive people without any kind of antecedents at San Antonio de los Ba os, Havana in the period 2003-2008 taking into consideration the following: Tensional levels/carotida intimamedia thickness (IMTc), left ventricular hypertrophy (HIV), overweight, retinopathy grade levels and needs of antihypertensive drugs for ages. Patients and Methods: It was carried out a study cases and controls of 90 prehypertensive patients (group A) Being compared to 90 not prehypertensive patients (group B). Results: The larger part of patients with IMTc belonged to group A playing hypertension a decisive factor. Overweight prevailed in group A with a 57,7 % where HIV reached a 58,8 %. Concerning retinopathy affections there was also a prevalence in group A with 70% of the patients. of this group there was a 46,6% of patients who needed more than one drug to control hypertension being a 35,5% under 25 years old. Conclusions: The presence of arterial hypertension in adolescence marks earlier the Prognosis, evolution and therapeutic answer
Respuesta cardiovascular durante el ejercicio físico en normotensos y prehipertensos
Cabrera Rojo,Iliana; Izaguirre Rodríguez,Guillermo;
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2008,
Abstract: the exertion tests are useful to evaluate cardiovascular diseases. the early characterization of an unbalance of the organism is essential. that's why, we proposed to identify during the physical exercise the pressure response, rhythm alterations and myocardial ischemia in normotensive and prehypertensive individuals. a diagnostic bicycle ergometric test was performed among 222 subjects with arterial pressure under 140/90 mmhg, normal ecg and with no drug treatment. females (58.6 %) and white individuals (41.8%) prevailed. arterial pressure on maximum effort was abnormal in 45.7 % and 88 % of them were prehypertensives. this variable showed an elevated significant difference (p=0.0000064) between normotensive and prehypertensives. myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia were found in 21 individuals. it was concluded that the exercise test in these subjects evidenced early alterations in the control of arterial pressure and that myocardial ischemias and arrhythmias are not common in this subgroup.
Essential Oil Inhalation on Blood Pressure and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects
In-Hee Kim,Chan Kim,Kayeon Seong,Myung-Haeng Hur,Heon Man Lim,Myeong Soo Lee
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/984203
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of essential oil inhalation on the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and salivary cortisol level in 83 prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. The experimental group () was asked to inhale an essential oil blended with lavender, ylang-ylang, marjoram, and neroli (20 : 15 : 10 : 2), whereas the placebo group () was asked to inhale an artificial fragrance for 24 hours and the control group received no treatment (). The SBP () and DBP () measured at home in the experimental group were significantly decreased compared with the placebo group and the control group after treatment. The daytime SBP during the 24-hour ambulatory BP measurement of the experimental group presented with significant decreases in comparison with the measurements of the placebo group and the control group (). There was no statistically significant difference in the nighttime SBPs. The daytime DBPs during the 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements of the experimental group presented with significant decreases in comparison with the measurements of the placebo group and the control group (). There was no significant difference in the night time DBPs. The experimental group showed significant decreases in the concentration of salivary cortisol in comparison with the concentrations of the placebo group and the control group (). In conclusion, the inhalation of an essential oil had immediate and continuous effects on the home SBP, daytime BP, and the stress reduction. Essential oils may have relaxation effects for controlling hypertension.
DISPERSIóN DE LA ONDA P EN NI OS HIPERTENSOS, SU RELACIóN CON EL PESO CORPORAL / P wave dispersion in hypertensive children; its relationship with body weight  [PDF]
Elibet Chávez González,Emilio González Rodríguez,María del Carmen Llanes Camacho,Merlin Garí Llanes
CorSalud , 2012,
Abstract: ResumenIntroducción y objetivo: La fibrilación auricular es el paradigma de heterogeneidad eléctrica auricular. La prolongación de la conducción intra e interauricular y la propagación no homogénea del impulso eléctrico, son características electrofisiológicas en la fibrilación auricular paroxística. La obesidad constituye un factor de riesgo potencial de fibrilación auricular. Se han informado valores más elevados de dispersión de la onda P en mujeres obesas. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la relación entre los valores de dispersión de la onda P y el peso corporal en ni os normotensos e hipertensos, entre 8 y 11 a os. Método: Se estudiaron 358 ni os, de 543. Se excluyeron aquellos cuyos padres no desearon que participaran en el estudio y los que tenían enfermedades congénitas conocidas. Se realizó electrocardiograma de superficie de doce derivaciones y se practicaron cuatro tomas de presión arterial. Se midieron los valores máximos y mínimos de la onda P, se calculó su dispersión, y se obtuvieron otras variables como el peso corporal. Resultados: Las diferencias entre los valores medios para la dispersión de la onda P entre normotensos e hipertensos, fue de 31,85 vs. 39,74 ms, respectivamente (p<0.001). Existió un aumento de la dispersión de la onda P con el aumento del peso (r=0,18 y p=0.05). Conclusiones: La dispersión de la onda P y el peso corporal muestran una correlación significativa desde la infancia en la hipertensión arterial. Existen diferencias significativas entre los valores de la dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma entre normotensos e hipertensos desde la infancia. / AbstractIntroduction and Objective: Atrial fibrillation is the paradigm of atrial electrical heterogeneity. The prolongation of intra and interatrial conduction and inhomogeneous propagation of electrical impulses are electrophysiological characteristics in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Obesity is a potential risk factor for atrial fibrillation. There are some reports about higher values of P wave dispersion in obese women. The aim was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion and body weight in normotensive and hypertensive children between 8 and 11 years old. Method: 358 children from a total of 543 were studied. Those whose parents did not want them to participate in the study and those who had known congenital diseases were excluded. A 12-lead surface ECG and 4 blood pressure measurements were conducted. Maximum and minimum P values were measured and P wave dispersion in the electrocardiogram was calculated. Other variables such
Effect of hawthorn standardized extract on flow mediated dilation in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial
Gary N Asher, Anthony J Viera, Mark A Weaver, Rosalie Dominik, Melissa Caughey, Alan L Hinderliter
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-26
Abstract: We used a four-period cross-over design to evaluate brachial artery FMD in response to placebo or hawthorn extract (standardized to 50 mg oligomeric procyanidin per 250 mg extract). Randomly sequenced doses of hawthorn extract (1000 mg, 1500 mg, and 2500 mg) and placebo were assigned to each participant. Doses were taken twice daily for 3 1/2 days followed by FMD and a 4-day washout before proceeding to the next dosing period.Twenty-one prehypertensive or mildly hypertensive adults completed the study. There was no evidence of a dose-response effect for our main outcome (FMD percent) or any of our secondary outcomes (absolute change in brachial artery diameter and blood pressure). Most participants indicated that if given evidence that hawthorn could lower their blood pressure, they would be likely to use it either in conjunction with or instead of lifestyle modification or anti-hypertensive medications.We found no evidence of a dose-response effect of hawthorn extract on FMD. If hawthorn has a blood pressure lowering effect, it is likely to be mediated via an NO-independent mechanism.This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health: NCT01331486.Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) is a thorny shrub that grows commonly in northern temperate regions around the world. Typically the leaf and flower, berry, or a combination of all three are consumed as a powder, tea, or liquid extract. Its therapeutic use is reported as early as the 1st century BCE, and references to its use in cardiovascular diseases date to the 1600's [1].The chemical constituents considered to be the primary bioactive components of hawthorn are the flavonoids and oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) [2]. Hawthorn extracts have been shown to enhance release of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium causing vasodilation, which appears to be associated with the OPC-rich fraction of hawthorn extract [3-5].While traditional indications for use of hawthorn inc
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