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Mitochondrial Mutations in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands  [PDF]
Suhail K. Mithani,Chunbo Shao,Marietta Tan,Ian M. Smith,Joseph A. Califano,Adel K. El-Naggar,Patrick K. Ha
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008493
Abstract: The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas.
Immunohistochemical expression of progesterone receptors in adenoid cystic carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands
Eslami M,Eshghyar N,Ensani F,Seifi S
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Aim: The hormone receptor status in breast cancer has been pivotal in determining the likelihood of response to hormonal manipulation. Tumors which are both estrogen and progesterone receptor positive are much more likely to respond to anti-hormone therapy than negative tumors. There is well-established similarity between breast tissue and salivary glands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the progesterone receptor expression in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, immunohistochemical staining with progesterone antibody was performed on 14 pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and 15 adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) paraffin blocks. The percentage of positive cells was determined using an eye piece graticule. Immunoreactivity was categorized as either positive (reactivity more than 5%) or negative (reactivity less than 5%). In addition the existence of progesterone receptor in tumor cells, stromal cells (fibroblasts), inflammatory cells and salivary glands around tumors was evaluated. Data were analyzed with T and Mann Whitney U tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Immunohistochemical staining for progesterone receptor was negative in 15 ACC and 13 PA. Only one case of PA showed immunoreactivity for progesterone receptor. Also, 12 normal salivary glands around tumor were positive. Inflammatory cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts did not show immunoreactivity in most cases. Conclusion: The results indicate the lack of progesterone receptor expression in ACC and PA of salivary glands.
Prognostic value of expression of molecular markers in adenoid cystic cancer of the salivary glands compared with lymph node metastasis: a retrospective study  [cached]
Lee Seok Ki,Kwon Min Su,Lee Yoon Se,Choi Seung-Ho
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-10-266
Abstract: Background Adenoid cystic cancer arising in the salivary glands has distinctive features such as perineural invasion, distant metastasis, and a variable prognosis. In salivary gland cancer, c-kit, EGFR, and VEGF are representative molecular markers that may predict remnant and recurrent tumors. In this study, the expression of c-kit, EGFR, and VEGF in adenoid cystic cancer was evaluated, and the relationships between the expression of these markers and the clinical findings were investigated. Methods The medical records of 48 patients who were treated for parotid adenoid cystic cancer from January 1990 to January 2006 were reviewed. The tumor location, size, histological subtypes, perineural invasion, the resected margin status, and lymph node metastasis were assessed. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantitative analysis of c-kit, EGFR and VEGF were performed. The relationship between the expression of each marker and the clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Results Positive c-kit immunostaining was present in 45 patients (94%), with weak positivity (+1) in 23, moderate positivity (+2) in 19 and strong positivity (+3) in three. Positive EGFR immunostaining was observed in 27 (56%), with weak positivity (+1) in 19 and moderate positivity (+2) in eight with no strong positive staining. Positive VEGF immunostaining was present in 42 patients (88%) with weak positivity (+1) in 12, moderate positivity (+2) in 17, and strong positivity (+3) in 13. Only the expression of VEGF was significantly higher in parotid gland tumors than in any other gland (P = 0.032). Marginal involvement was associated with strong VEGF expression (P = 0.02). No marker was significantly correlated with recurrence or the survival rate. Lymph node status was related to the survival rate. Conclusions The expression of c-kit, EGRF, and VEGF had no predictive value for recurrence or the prognosis of adenoid cystic cancer. Only the lymph node status was related to the prognosis.
Cystic adenoid carcinoma of sphenoidal sinus
Fuente-Ca?ibano R,Mu?oz-Herrera AM
Revista de la Sociedad Otorrinolaringológica de Castilla y León, Cantabria y La Rioja , 2012,
Abstract: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant epithelial tumor of the salivary glands, which usually gives metastases late, but his persistent and aggressive because of its ability to infiltrate surrounding tissue and nerve fibers. ACC of paranasals sinus may spread following the path of the cranial nerves. The close relationship with vital structures prevents complete tumor resection leaving positive margins up to 80 % of patients, mainly at the base of the skull with a high rate of local recurrences and late metastases, aggressive due to its ability to infiltrate surrounding tissue and nerve fibers.
TUMORS OF SALIVARY GLANDS  [cached]
Gaurav Solanki
International Journal of Pharmacological Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpr.v1i2.355
Abstract: The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aerodigestive submucosa. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. Salivary glands tumors are uncommon and are subdivided into benign neoplasms, tumor-like conditions, and malignant neoplasms. They can be removed surgically or one can undergo radiation therapy for there cure. This article throws light on the types of salivary gland tumors, their signs and symptoms, treatment etc.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid metastasizing to liver: case report
K Harish, SR Mangala Gouri
BMC Cancer , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-4-41
Abstract: We report a 60 year old female patient who presented with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland. She underwent a total conservative parotidectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. While on follow up, patient developed multiple liver metastases which manifested three years later. Patient lived for another two years before she died of her disease.Although distant metastases of adenoid cystic carcinoma develop frequently, isolated metastasis to liver is unusual. Even after manifestation of distant metastasis, patients can be expected to live for a number of years. Palliative chemotherapy can be considered in symptomatic cases while the usefulness of metastatectomy is controversial.Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland. Salivary gland neoplasms constitute 3% of cancers of all sites, of which, 10–15% are malignant [1,2]. Though ACC is the most common malignant tumor of the submandibular, sublingual and minor salivary glands, it accounts for only 15% of parotid cancers [3]. They are generally slow growing and spread relentlessly to adjacent structures. Hematogenous spread is more common than lymphatic spread, the common sites of metastasis being the lung, bone and viscera [4,5]. We present a case of multiple liver metastases occurring 3 years after surgery for ACC of the parotid gland. The primary therapy, metastasis and outcome of ACC are discussed.A 60 year old woman presented with a small swelling beneath the right ear lobe of 4 months duration. The swelling measured 2 × 1 cm placed in the superficial part of the parotid and was not fixed. There was no facial nerve palsy or palpable cervical nodes. A fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was carried out which showed the lesion to be ACC [6]. The clinical staging was T1, N0, M0. The patient underwent a total conservative parotidectomy after metastatic work up. Histopathology revealed ACC with cribriform pattern and perineural invasion (Figure 1). 60 Gy adjuvant exter
Peripheral Neuropathy and VIth Nerve Palsy Related to Randall Disease Successfully Treated by High-Dose Melphalan, Autologous Blood Stem Cell Transplantation, and VIth Nerve Decompression Surgery
C. Foguem,P. Manckoundia,P. Pfitzenmeyer,J.-L. Dupond
Case Reports in Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/542925
Abstract: Randall disease is an unusual cause of extraocular motor nerve (VI) palsy. A 35-year-old woman was hospitalized for sicca syndrome. The physical examination showed general weakness, weight loss, diplopia related to a left VIth nerve palsy, hypertrophy of the submandibular salivary glands, and peripheral neuropathy. The biological screening revealed renal insufficiency, serum monoclonal kappa light chain immunoglobulin, urinary monoclonal kappa light chain immunoglobulin, albuminuria, and Bence-Jones proteinuria. Bone marrow biopsy revealed medullar plasma cell infiltration. Immunofixation associated with electron microscopy analysis of the salivary glands showed deposits of kappa light chains. Randall disease was diagnosed. The patient received high-dose melphalan followed by autostem cell transplantation which led to rapid remission. Indeed, at the 2-month followup assessment, the submandibular salivary gland hypertrophy and renal insufficiency had disappeared, and the peripheral neuropathy, proteinuria, and serum monoclonal light chain had decreased significantly. The persistent diplopia was treated with nerve decompression surgery of the left extraocular motor nerve. Cranial nerve complications of Randall disease deserve to be recognized.
SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW  [cached]
Gaurav Solanki
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i3.352
Abstract: The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists of other compounds such as electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various enzymes. A review of some patents on salivary glands is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.
Salivary glands neoplasms  [cached]
Ogawa, Allex Itar,Takemoto, Lucio Eidy,Navarro, Paulo de Lima,Heshiki, Rosana Emiko
International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Salivary glands neoplasms represent a rare and diverse group of tumors with different characteristics. To avoid complications and unnecessary procedures, the treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis. Objective: Review the literature emphasizing the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment. Method: An electronic research was performed on MEDLINE, OVID, PubMed and SciELO databases articles in a period between 1997 and 2007. Conclusion: The proper diagnosis of salivary glands neoplasms is complex, and the otorhinolaryngologist/head and neck surgeon needs to investigate the histological subtype to ensure ideal treatment. Frequently, diagnostic exams conflict, and careful case by case evaluation is required.
Capecitabine and sixth cranial nerve palsy  [cached]
Dasgupta Sonali,Adilieje Chineme,Bhattacharya Amlan,Smith Bruce
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics , 2010,
Abstract: Capecitabine is an oral chemotherapeutic agent converted to 5 flourouracil (5-FU). Neurotoxicity associated with the medication encompasses both central and peripheral nervous systems. We describe a 60 year old man with colonic carcinoma who developed diplopia due to a sixth nerve palsy following the use of capecitabine which is an orally administered prodrug of 5-FU. An MRI of brain did not reveal a space occupying lesion or vascular insult to account for his cranial nerve palsy. The sixth nerve palsy resolved spontaneously once capecitabine was withdrawn. Physicians in all walks of life are increasingly likely to come across such patients and should familiarize themselves with toxicities consequent to chemotherapy. Further research is needed to elucidate the cause of capecitabine associated neurotoxicity.
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