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Microbiology of Raw Minced Beef  [PDF]
A. Aslam,I. Mariam,I.Haq,S. Ali
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: The present study describes the microbial examination of the samples of raw minced beef. Samples were tested for total viable count, mould and yeast count, sporeformers and coliforms. Bacterial count was highest in the raw minced beef as 319 x 103. Moulds were found present in all the samples while yeasts were found absent in all the samples. Among the sporeformers, aerobic sporeformers were found present in all the samples while anaerobic sporeformers were found absent in few samples. Coliforms were found present in all the samples. Fecal coliforms were found absent in few samples, while non-fecal coliforms were present in all the samples.
Geospatial Database Template for Urban Management in Fez (Morocco)  [PDF]
Abdelkader El Garouani, Rachid Ahmed Barry, Said El Garouani, Abderrahim Lahrach
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2012.44038
Abstract: In order to develop an urban GIS of Fez, we began with the scoping and feasibility study of the system. This strategic review has identified the characteristics of the urban areas, their problems, needs and existing potential, both in terms of data, equipment or personnel. This contribution focuses on a conceptual modeling of the geospatial database, the proposed template for the system and the quality assurance plan for the project. According to the feasibility study conducted during the first phase, the system must have an architecture respecting the intervention of actors in the city. Therefore, the implementation of the system requires an adequate hardware and software platform for optimum operation of the proposed urban GIS. After identifying technical choices, the financing plan of this scenario has been proposed. This arrangement is structured in three parts: Hardware, Software and Development/Training.
Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of scorpion stings in children in fez, Morocco
Abourazzak, S;Achour, S;El Arqam, L;Atmani, S;Chaouki, S;Semlali, I;Soulaymani Bencheikh, R;Bouharrou, A;Hida, M;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992009000200008
Abstract: scorpion stings are a public health problem in morocco, especially among children, who experience the most severe cases. epidemiological and clinical findings on scorpion stings in fez, morocco, were evaluated in this investigation. of 163 cases that required medical attention, 62.6% were male children. the mean age of patients was 4.8 ± 3.4 years. the mean time between stings and first medical attention was 3.36 ± 2.5 hours. almost all cases occurred in the summer (94%) and extremities represented the most frequent sting sites (86.5%). local pain, hyperemia, scarification, vomiting, sweating, restlessness, tachycardia and tachypnea were the observed clinical symptoms. regarding severity, 55.2% of patients belonged to class iii, followed by class ii (26.4%) and class i (18.4%). none of our patients received antivenom; however, all of them were treated symptomatically depending on clinical manifestations.
Bacterial contaminations of informally marketed raw milk in Ghana
E.S Donkor, K.G Aning, J Quaye
Ghana Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Milk has an outstanding nutritional quality but is also an excellent medium for bacterial growth and an important source of bacterial infection when consumed without pasteurization. Objective: To estimate the bacterial health risk of milk consumption in Accra and Kumasi, the twomajor cities in Ghana. Method: A total of 96 raw milk samples collected in 2002 from the two sites were cultured and the isolated organisms identified by standard bacteriological methods. Results: Overall, the organisms identified and their prevalence rates were Yersinia spp. (19.8%), Klebsiella spp (16.7%), Proteus spp. (7.3%), Enterobacter spp. (6.3%), Escherichia coli (2.1%), and Staphylococcus spp (14.6%), Bacillus spp. (11.5%) and Mycobacterium spp. (1%). Most of the organisms identified were enterobacteria indicating probable faecal contamination of the milk as a result of poor hygiene. Most of the bacteria identified in the milk sampled are potential foodborne pathogens, and though some of them occurred in few samples, the practice of pooling milk from different sources by traders, and the absence of pasteurization generally observed among them could increase the risk posed by such organisms. Conclusion: The study has shown that informally marketed raw milk in the two cities could be an important source of infection with a wide range of organisms, particularly enterobacteria. There is the need for instituting effective control measures including improved hygienic handling of milk and its pasteurization to protect public he
A.Rassam,A. Chaouch,B. Bourkhiss,M. Ouhssine
Technologies de Laboratoire , 2012,
Abstract: The goal of this study is to characterize the effluent of the city of Oujda (Morocco) and to evaluate its pollution in relation to the demographic and socio-economic profile of the population connected to the sewerage in order to make the possibility to reuse it in irrigation. The physicochemical characterization of raw wastewater revealed that this liquid rejection is very charged out of organic matter expressed in term with COD (Avg. = 1104mg/L±52,2) with a load of 44160Kg/d, in BOD5 (Avg. =540,1mg/L±31,1) with a load of 21604 Kg/d, in Suspend Solid (Avg. =568,4mg/L±222) with a load of 22736 Kg/d, and out of mineral matter expressed in Electric Conductivity (Avg. =3280μS/cm±1120) with a pH of 7,96 (±0,8). The average content of NTK and Orthophosphates are about 88,02mg/L (± 2,8) and 16,76mg/L (±1,1). Although this wastewater presents a high organic load BOD5/COD = 0,5 et SS/ BOD5 = 1,05), they have a satisfactory biodegradation. The examination of report COD/BOD5 = 2,07 underlines well the biodegradable character to which a biological treatment appears completely suitable.
Pregnancy-Related Acute Kidney Injury: Experience of the Nephrology Unit at the University Hospital of Fez, Morocco  [PDF]
Mohamed Arrayhani,Randa El Youbi,Tarik Sqalli
ISRN Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/109034
Abstract: Introduction. Acute kidney injury (PRAKI) continues to be common in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to study AKI characteristics in pregnancy and identify the factors related to the unfavorable evolution. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez, Morocco, from February 01, 2011 to January 31, 2012. All patients presenting PRAKI were included. Results. 37 cases of PRAKI were listed. Their ages varied from 20 to 41 years old, with an average of 29.03 ± 6.3 years and an average parity of 1.83. High blood pressure was the most common symptom (55.6%). Thirty-nine percent were oliguric. PRAKI occurred during the 3rd trimester in 66.6% of the cases and 25% of the cases in the postpartum. Hemodialysis was necessary in 16.2% of cases. The main causes were preeclampsia, hemorrhagic shocks, and functional, respectively, in 66.6%, 25%, and 8.3% of the cases. The outcome was favorable, with a complete renal function recovery for 28 patients. Poor prognosis was related to two factors: age over 38 years and advanced stage of AKI according to RIFLE classification. Conclusion. Prevention of PRAKI requires an improvement of the sanitary infrastructures with the implementation of an obligatory prenatal consultation. 1. Introduction Acute kidney injury represents a challenging clinical when it occurs during pregnancy. The worldwide incidence of pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) has decreased markedly in the past 50 years from 20–40% in 1960 to less than 10% in the current series through the legalization of abortion and improvement of antenatal and obstetric care [1]. In the recent years, the incidence of PRAKI has decreased in developed countries to only 1% to 2.8%. It is a rare complication of pregnancy following the disappearance of septic abortion and a better perinatal care [2, 3]. However, PRAKI is still frequent in developing countries; the incidence is around 4.2–15% [2]. Caring for women diagnosed with acute kidney injury is a real challenge for nephrologists and all the medical team. PRAKI is usually caused by septic abortion in early pregnancy, by pregnancy toxemia, hemorrhages during pregnancy (antepartum and postpartum), and acute tubular necrosis in late pregnancy [4, 5]. Acute fatty liver is an uncommon cause of PRAKI. It occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy. Puerperal sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathy are seen in the postpartum period. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is the most common condition with a good prognosis compared to other pathology like severe eclampsia, HELLP
Hbs antigen, what prevalence among pregnant women in Morocco? Preliminary results of a prospective study conducted in Hospital University Hassan II, Fez  [PDF]
Laila Sedreddine, Meryem Sekkat, Sidi Adil Ibrahimi, Noureddine Aqodad
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2013.37054

The chronic viral hepatitis B is a public health problem and remains a global challenge with 350 million carriers of HBs antigen (HBsAg). The prevalence of HBsAg varies from one country or continent to another. In France, it is estimated to be 0.5%. In Morocco, the data are rare but some studies have estimated the prevalence to be 2.5%. Our aim is to estimate the prevalence of HBsAg among women who have recently given birth at the maternity CHU Hassan II of Morocco Fez, and to describe the epidemiological profile and risk factors for infection. In pregnancy, infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is dominated by the risk of mother to child transmission (vertical transmission), which can be avoided by serovaccination of the newborn. The search for HBsAg should be performed in all pregnant women.


Study on the Level of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Raw and Processed Milk Marketed in Kathmandu Valley  [PDF]
Pratap Kafle,Damodar Sedai,Krishna Prasad Rai,Bishow Bandhu Pokharel
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10598
Abstract: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated AFB1 metabolite mainly present in milk. In this study the levels of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Raw and Pasteurized milk marketed in Kathmandu valley was estimated. Altogether 32 milk samples (Raw 16, Pasteurized 16) obtained from different areas of Kathmandu valley were analysed for AFM1 by Thin Layer Chromatography. The milk samples were analyzed according to the official AOAC methods, which included extraction of toxin using chloroform, clearing by silica gel column chromatography, qualitative analysis by Thin Layer Chromatography and quantification by Visual comparison of the spots. AFM1 was found in 14 (43.75%) of milk samples examined. The levels of AFM1 in 7 (21.87%) samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (0.05 μg/l) accepted by some European countries while none of the samples exceeded the prescribed limit of US regulations. The mean concentration of AFM1 was higher in Raw milk (0.030 ± 0.042 μg/l) compared to pasteurized (0.022 ± 0.039) but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). This ?finding reflects that milk marketed in Kathmandu valley contains residual level of Aflatoxin M1 and pose public health risk. Therefore, milk and milk products have to be screened for AFM1 contamination periodically. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10598 ? J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (52-56), 2012 ?
The Architecture of the Hammams of Fez, Morocco
Kamal Raftani,Hassan Radoine
Archnet-IJAR : International Journal of Architectural Research , 2008,
New data on the total lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid composition of raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi
Bragagnolo,Neura; Rodriguez-Amaya,Délia B.;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2003,
Abstract: summary. simultaneous analyses of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids were carried out on raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi trimmed of external fat. cholesterol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the fatty acids by gas chromatography. mean total lipid (g/100 g) ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 for raw beef and 3.5 to 4.0 for grilled beef steaks. cholesterol levels (mg/100 g) ranged from 40 to 43 for raw beef and 67 to 70 for grilled beef steaks. the main intramuscular fatty acids of the raw and grilled meat were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9, 18:1n7 and 18:2n6. grilled lean beef steaks had significantly higher contents of the principal fatty acids and most of the minor fatty acids. the higher values for the three components in the grilled meat were due to loss of moisture during grilling. there was no significant difference between the apparent and true retentions values, both indicating no significant loss or degradation of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids during grilling.
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