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Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning  [PDF]
Rajesh Kumar
American Journal of Engineering Research , 2013,
Abstract: This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.
EXHAUST EMISSIONS EVALUATION OF COLOMBIAN COMMERCIAL DIESEL FUELS  [cached]
Jaime Torres,Arcesio Bello,Jose Sarmiento,Jacek Rostkowski
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro , 2003,
Abstract: Ecopetrol, based on the results obtained in the study "The Effect of Diesel Properties on the Emissions of Particulate Matter" (Bello et al., 2000), reformulated the diesel fuel distributed in Bogotá, becoming it lighter and with a lower sulfur content. In order to evaluate the environmental benefits that the reformulation of diesel fuel generate in Bogotá, Instituto Colombiano del Petróledo (ICP), with the assistance of Emissions Research and Measurement Division (ERMD) from Environment Canada, arranged a research project to determine the changes in CO, THC, NOx, CO2 and Particulate Matter emissions. The research program was developed in two steps. First one, developed in Bogotá, involved a fleet test with 15 public service buses that normally operate in Bogota’s Savannah, using a portable emissions sampling technology developed for ERMD (DOES2) and following a representative transient driving cycle. Second step, carried out in ERMD’s Heavy-Duty Engine Emissions Laboratory in Ottawa, tested a 1995 caterpillar 3406E 324,5 kW (435 HP) diesel truck engine on the same samples of Colombian diesel fuels used in the fleet tests performed in Bogotá, baselining the tests with a Canadian Commercial Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. The two commercial Colombian diesel fuels used had the following properties: High Sulfur Diesel (HSD), with 3000 ppm (0,3 wt%) of sulfur and a Final Boiling Point (FBP) of 633 K and the new reformulated diesel fuel, with 1000 ppm (0,1 wt%) of sulfur and FBP of 613 K, which is currently been distributed in Bogotá. Fleet test show small reduction on CO, THC and TPM, and small increments on CO2 and NOx, but with not statistically significant results, while engine testing shows an strong reduction of 40,8% in TPM when you use the new reformulated diesel fuel (0,1wt% of sulfur) instead of high sulfur diesel. Ecopetrol, basado en los resultados obtenidos en el estudio "Efecto de las Propiedades del Diesel sobre la Emisiones de Material Particulado" (Bello et al., 2000), reformuló el combustible diesel que se distribuye en Bogotá, haciéndolo más liviano y con un contenido de azufre más bajo. Con el objeto de evaluar los beneficios medioambientales que la reformulación del combustible diesel genera en Bogotá, el Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo (ICP), con la asistencia de la División de Investigación y Medición de Emisiones (ERMD) del Ministerio del Medio Ambiente de Canadá, organizaron un proyecto de investigación para determinar los cambios en las emisiones de CO, THC, NOx, CO2 y Material Particulado. El programa de investigación fue desarrollado en
Applications of Space Technologies to Commercial Sector
Kumar Krishen
Advances in Industrial Engineering and Management , DOI: 10.7508/AIEM-V1-N1-1-9
Abstract: Several nations across the globe are actively pursuing the exploration of space through space observatories, robotic systems, and humans. These efforts are enabled by the development of needed transformative technologies and methodologies. The complexity of these efforts is underscored by the need to use planetary resources and reuse resources taken from Earth to ensure the safety and cost effectiveness of future exploration missions. With revolutionary logistics methodologies, these efforts will enable sustainable and affordable space exploration. The importance of new technologies for energizing the economic engines of many nations is making it essential to transfer space technologies to the commercial sector. The U.S., through NASA, has implemented programs to transfer patented technologies to the commercial sector for marketplace products and services. In this presentation, examples of several space technologies that have been successfully transferred to the commercial sector are detailed. This multi-use of technologies results not only in addressing unique market needs, but also results in new products that can disruptively influence older technologies and methodologies. Technology transfer areas include health/medical, communication, environment monitoring, sustainability, national security, Earth phenomena sensing, home/office, and recreation. Some of these will be discussed in this paper. A brief mention will also be included on the process of technology transfer.
Timelines for mitigating methane emissions from energy technologies  [PDF]
Mandira Roy,Morgan R. Edwards,Jessika E. Trancik
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane and carbon dioxide vary in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the different atmospheric lifetimes of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) emissions equivalency metric do not reveal these dynamic impacts, and may not provide the information needed to assess technologies and emissions mitigation opportunities in the context of broader climate policy goals. Here we formulate a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts as a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target is approached. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher methane-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by methane-light technologies as the stabilization year approaches. The model is applied to transportation technology pairs and shows that, by accounting for the differing decay behavior of gases, optimal switching portfolios allow energy consumption gains of up to 50% compared to relying on the higher methane-emitting technology alone. The results allow for estimates of target timelines for mitigating methane emissions from energy technologies.
Impact of the Air-Conditioning System on the Power Consumption of an Electric Vehicle Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery  [PDF]
Brahim Mebarki,Belkacem Draoui,Boumediène Allaou,Lakhdar Rahmani,Elhadj Benachour
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/935784
Abstract: The car occupies the daily universe of our society; however, noise pollution, global warming gas emissions, and increased fuel consumption are constantly increasing. The electric vehicle is one of the recommended solutions by the raison of its zero emission. Heating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is a part of the power system of the vehicle when the purpose is to provide complete thermal comfort for its occupants, however it requires far more energy than any other car accessory. Electric vehicles have a low-energy storage capacity, and HVAC may consume a substantial amount of the total energy stored, considerably reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters for EV acceptability. The basic goal of this paper is to simulate the air-conditioning system impact on the power energy source of an electric vehicle powered by a lithium-ion battery. 1. Introduction The energy production throughout the world is mainly based on the hydrocarbons combustion, and it is envisaged to increase by 60% during the 20 next years [1, 2]. Since 1973, transport is the most intensive oil sector; its share in worldwide consumption increased considerably to reach more than 61.5% in 2010, whereas shares of industry and other sectors (agriculture, public and commercial services, not specified residences, and other sectors), respectively, decreased by 10.9% and of 10.7%. Indeed, the high and increasing share of transport in the oil worldwide consumption can be mainly explained by the number of the cars which more than doubled since 1973 [3]. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon combustion has a major impact on the global environment because it is responsible for 80% of the greenhouse gas emissions, which are the principal cause of climate warming and air pollution [2], not to mention adverse consequences in terms of noise and land use, in terms of risk, or in terms of social harm (accidents, congestion). To overcome these problems, the governments and automobile manufacturers are obliged to develop a new generation of vehicles based on environmentally-friendly technologies of energy utilization [4, 5]. Most of the commercial zero emission vehicles (ZEV) available today are pure electric vehicles (EV) powered with batteries. A battery electric vehicle (BEV) is fully powered by grid electricity stored in a large onboard battery. EV use energy much more efficiently than ICEV; a traditional ICEV fuel efficiency is 15–18%, while a BEV represents a high efficiency about 60–70% [6, 7]. The viable EV batteries are chemical batteries and ultra-capacitors or
Image Fusion Technologies In Commercial Remote Sensing Packages  [PDF]
Firouz Abdullah Al-Wassai,N. V. Kalyankar
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Several remote sensing software packages are used to the explicit purpose of analyzing and visualizing remotely sensed data, with the developing of remote sensing sensor technologies from last ten years. Accord-ing to literature, the remote sensing is still the lack of software tools for effective information extraction from remote sensing data. So, this paper provides a state-of-art of multi-sensor image fusion technologies as well as review on the quality evaluation of the single image or fused images in the commercial remote sensing pack-ages. It also introduces program (ALwassaiProcess) developed for image fusion and classification.
Improving city transport with the objective to reduce CO2 emissions
Marjan STERNAD,Matja? KNEZ,Bojan ROSI
Transport Problems : an International Scientific Journal , 2010,
Abstract: In the past few years traffic volume is increasing. As a consequence, negative external traffic effects are increasing too, in particular CO2 emissions, which result in global warming and climate changes. CO2 emissions, a by-product of vehicles are much higher in cities due to traffic density. According to European standards, Celje is not a large city; however its traffic poses a great problem that the city authorities will soon be confronted with. This paper focuses on the city centre of Celje, where traffic flow was measured and CO2 emissions calculated. Using alternative solutions the aim was to present impacts on the environment in the municipality of Celje in an event of changed traffic regimes. In order to reach the guidelines of sustainable transport development in the municipality of Celje, in the future, different measures for reducing negative external effects of city transport will have to be put into force, for only this way the quality of city life can be improved and compatibility of environmental, economic and social objectives provided.
Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing  [PDF]
Qiang Zhai,Huajun Cao,Xiang Zhao,Chris Yuan
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4101478
Abstract: Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.
Energy Recovery from End-of-Life Tyres: Untapped Possibility to Reduce CO2 Emissions
Ilze Dzene, Claudio Rochas, Dagnija Blumberga, Marika Rosa, Andris Erdmanis
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University. Environmental and Climate Technologies , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10145-010-0015-6
Abstract: In this paper the possibility to reduce CO2 emissions by energy recovery from waste tyres is discussed. The objective of the study is to analyze the end-of-life tyre market in Latvia, to assess the amount of used tyres available and to calculate the potential reduction of CO2 emissions by energy recovery from tyres in mineral products industry. Calculation results show that an improved collection and combustion of end-of-life tyres in the cement industry can save up to 17% of the present CO2 emissions in the mineral products industry.
Decreasing CO2 Emissions in Metallurgy  [PDF]
Roubí?ek, V.,Pustějovská, P.,Bilík, J.,Janík, I.
Metalurgija , 2007,
Abstract: Modern trends in iron metallurgy. Global carbon emissions from iron production. New solution for iron and steelmaking in a way reduce the CO2 emission to the level, where this might be needed in the post - Kyoto period. New blast furnace technology, which operate with very low CO2 emissions based on drastically reduced consumption of carbon containing input materials. Injection of reducing gases and oils into the furnace. Injection of materials containing hydrogen permits material recycling and influencing the coke consumption of the blast furnace process. Direct reduction and eliminating CO2 emissions in Iron metallurgy. Technologies and processes with CO2 removal. Cost optimized CO2 reduction.
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