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Taxonomía y registros de Chrysopidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) en el Estado de Morelos, México
Luis Aurelio Valencia Luna,Jesús Romero Nàpoles,Jorge Valdez Carrasco,José Luis Carrillo Sànchez
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2006,
Abstract: Se presentan 21 especies de Chrysopidae que ocurren en el Estado de Morelos, agrupadas en ochogéneros de la subfamilia Chrysopinae. Se proporciona una clave para los géneros y claves para lasespecies de cada género, diagnosis y datos de distribución de cada especie, así como imágenes queilustran las claves. Las especies identificadas fueron: Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider), Ceraeochrysacubana (Hagen), Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks), Ceraeochrysa sanchezi (Navás), Ceraeochrysa valida(Banks), Chrysopa sp., Chrysoperla comanche (Banks), Chrysoperla exotera (Navás), Chrysoperla rufilabris(Burmeister), Eremochrysa hageni Banks, Leucochrysa maculata Navás, Leucochrysa pretiosa Banks, Leucochrysa texana Adams, Meleoma antennensis Tauber, Meleoma colhuaca Banks, Meleoma mexicanaBanks, Meleoma pipai Tauber, Meleoma tezcucana (Banks), Plesiochrysa brasiliensis (Schneider), Plesiochrysa elongata (Navás) y Yumachrysa apache (Banks); 15 especies son nuevos registros paraMorelos, una de las cuales (P. elongata) representa un nuevo registro para México. Ceraeochrysa y Meleoma fueron los géneros con mayor número de especies, aunque Ceraeochrysa fue el género con elmayor número de individuos. Las especies más importantes por su abundancia en orden descendente fueron: Ceraeochrysa cincta, C. valida, C. cubana, Leucochrysa texana y Chrysoperla comanche.
Contribución al conocimiento de los hemeróbidos de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Insecta, Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae)  [cached]
Monserrat, Víctor J.
Graellsia , 2003,
Abstract: New data on the biology and distribution of 10 species of brown-lacewings collected in 48 localities of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego are given. Larvae of Hemerobius bolivari Banks, 1910, Hemerobius chilensis Nakahara, 1965, Hemerobius stenopterus Monserrat, 1996, Sympherobius gayi Navás, 1910, Nomerobius cuspidatus Oswald, 1990 and Gayomyia falcata (Blanchard in Gay, 1851) are described. Larval stages of genera Nomerobius and Gayomyia are described for the first time. Se aportan nuevos datos sobre la biología y distribución de 10 especies de hemeróbidos capturadas en 48 localidades de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego. Se describen las larvas de Hemerobius bolivari Banks, 1910, Hemerobius chilensis Nakahara, 1965, Hemerobius stenopterus Monserrat, 1996, Sympherobius gayi Navás, 1910, Nomerobius cuspidatus Oswald, 1990 y Gayomyia falcata (Blanchard en Gay, 1851). Los estadios larvarios en los géneros Nomerobius y Gayomyia eran desconocidos hasta ahora.
Los estadios larvarios de los Crisópidos ibéricos (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae), nuevos elementos sobre la morfología larvaria aplicables a la sistemática de la familia  [cached]
Monserrat, V. J.,Díaz-Aranda, L. M.
Graellsia , 2012,
Abstract: After a brief historical introduction to the knowledge of chrysopid immature stages, their biology, behaviour, and especially interesting morphological features, we review the preimaginal stages of the Iberian species (38 of the 49 Iberian species, belonging to the 13 Iberian genera). Our presentation includes information from the literature and new descriptions by the authors after collecting gravid females, obtaining eggs and rearing larvae. Specifically, it provides new information on the biology, behavior, appearance, pigmentation and detailed chaetotaxy of the neonate and mature larvae of these 38 species, and describes for the first time the preimaginal stages of Chrysopa dorsalis, Nineta guadarramensis, Suarius iberiensis and Italochrysa stigmatica. We propose a series of morphological characters that differentiate the Iberian larvae at subfamilial, tribal, generic, and species levels. At the subfamilial level: morphology of the antenna and sensilla number of the last segment of labial palp. At the generic level: cephalic chaetotaxy, presence or absence of a transverse row of setae on the mesonotum, number of dorsal and laterodorsal tubercles on the abdomen, morphology and size of the lateral tubercles of the thorax, and morphology of the setae. And at the species level: cephalic pigmentation, morphology of the claw, shape of the mesothoracic spiracle, shape of the prothoracic laterodorsal sclerite, number and length of the setae on lateral and laterodorsal abdominal tubercles, number of setae of the posteroventral row on the tenth abdominal segment, and integumentary coloration. Based on these characters, the article offers a key that enables the identification of subfamilies, genera and Iberian species of Chrysopidae. We found that the use of larval morphological characters supports, in general, the current classification based on imagoes, but the study of the larval morphology of these species, has allowed us to detect a number of anomalies that question the validity or the taxonomic identity of what, until now, we understood about some Iberian species (Pseudomallada prasinus, Chrysopa nigricostata, Chrysopa phyllochroma, and Chrysopa viridana). Globally, general ignorance of the larval morphology of many genera in this family limits, for now, the used of larval morphological characters in general taxonomic and systematic studies. Thus we recommend more detailed and complete larval descriptions of a larger number of species in a greater number and broader range of genera, tribes, and subfamilies worldwide. In addition to the morphological infor
A charismatic new species of green lacewing discovered in Malaysia (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): the confluence of citizen scientist, online image database and cybertaxonomy  [cached]
Shaun Winterton,Hock Ping Guek,Stephen Brooks
ZooKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.214.3220
Abstract: An unusual new species of green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Semachrysa jade sp. n.) is described from Selangor (Malaysia) as a joint discovery by citizen scientist and professional taxonomists. The incidental nature of this discovery is underscored by the fact that the species was initially photographed and then released, with images subsequently posted to an online image database. It was not until the images in the database were randomly examined by the professional taxonomists that it was determined that the species was in fact new. A subsequent specimen was collected at the same locality and is described herein along with another specimen identified from nearby Sabah.
Indicadores morfométricos em cabe?as de espécies brasileiras de Chrysoperla (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae)
Freitas, Sérgio de;Morales, Adriana Coletto;
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0085-56262009000400001
Abstract: the species c. externa, c. defreitasi, c. raimundoi and c. genanigra (neuroptera, chrysopidae) have great differences in the genitalia. these species were studied morphometrically by the distances between points of the head (eight linear measurements) to better identify them. the results, analyzed by multivariate statistics, showed that it is possible to identify measures that distinguish the individual, although some species are more distinguishable by morphometry. the canonical analysis showed that three of the four species, c. raimundoi, c. genanigra and c. externa, showed no major overlap between them, and their possible discrimination within the group, only c. defreitasi presented a low resolution according to this analysis, being overlapped with c. externa and c. genanigra, however, it is totally broken in c. raimundoi. the measures that contributed most to differentiation are related to the size of the head and especially the length of wrasse on the edge of the head, until the level of the eyes and antenna.
Effects of pesticides on eggs of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and consequences on subsequent development Efectos de los plaguicidas en huevos de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) y las consecuencias sobre su desarrollo
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2012,
Abstract: The effects of six pesticides applied to the coffee crop on eggs and their consequences on the subsequent developmental stages of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The pesticides and water (control) were sprayed on eggs using a Potter's tower. After spraying, forty eggs per treatment were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in a climatic chamber, in order to evaluate immature development of this predator. The treatments showed significant differences for egg viability and survival of first-instar larvae. Chlorpyrifos, sulphur and copper oxichlorate reduced the treated egg viability, whereas both sulphur and betacyfluthrin reduced the survival of first-instar larvae. Endosulphan and azociclotin reduced the daily oviposition of this green lacewing species. The harmless products (Class 1, E < 30%), can be recommended for use in integrated pest management programs in coffee crops, in order to preserve this predator. Los efectos de seis plaguicidas aplicados al cultivo de café sobre los huevos y etapas de desarrollo posteriores de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), fueron evaluados bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los plaguicidas y el agua (control) fueron aplicados en los huevos usando una torre de Potter. Después de la aplicación, cuarenta huevos por tratamiento fueron individualizados en tubos de vidrio y mantenidos en cámara bioclimática, con el objetivo de verificar las posibles anormalidades en el desarrollo de este depredador. Los tratamientos mostraron diferencias significativas para la viabilidad de los huevos y la supervivencia del primer instar larval. Chlorpyrifos, azufre y oxicloruro de cobre redujeron la viabilidad de los huevos tratados, mientras que el azufre y el betacyfluthrin redujeron la supervivencia del primer instar larval. Endosulfán y azociclotin redujo la oviposición diaria de esta especie crisopa. Los productos inocuos (Clase 1, E < 30%), pueden recomendarse para su uso en programas integrados de manejo de plagas en los cultivos de café, a fin de preservar este depredador.
Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) cultivada organicamente  [cached]
M.A. Costa,W.S. Tavares,A.I.A. Pereira,I. Cruz
Planta Daninha , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s0100-83582012000300001
Abstract: Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larvae can avoid foraging on plants of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) after the issuance of floral buds, when the prey of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) incorporate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this plant. This reduces the predation and favors increasing the number of adults and eggs of this defoliator on crops of this plant. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate some biological and ecological aspects of C. externa and U. ornatrix on the organic crop of C. juncea in the EMBRAPA Maize and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chrysoperla externa and U. ornatrix were more abundant in the vegetative and flowering stages of C. juncea, respectively, with caterpillars of this defoliator feeding on leaves and seeds of this plant. The duration of the stages/instars, survival, lifetime fecundity, and oviposition showed that the branches of C. juncea are a suitable food for U. ornatrix. The abundance of adults and larvae of C. externa was lower in the flowering and pods stages of C. juncea, respectively, when the postures of U. ornatrix are present, probably due to the toxicity of the eggs of this prey to this predator. During these stages, C. externa may be reared with alternative hosts, and when the crops of C. juncea are scarce, an artificial diet should be used for rearing this defoliator in the laboratory for biological research and the development of biological control tactics. Larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) podem evitar o forrageamento sobre plantas de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) após a emiss o de bot es florais, quando presas de Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) incorporam alcalóides pirrolizidínicos tóxicos dessa planta. Isso reduz a preda o e favorece o aumento do número de adultos e ovos desse desfolhador sobre cultivos dessa planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos e ecológicos de C. externa e U. ornatrix sobre cultivo organico de C. juncea na EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, em Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Chrysoperla externa e U. ornatrix foram mais abundantes nos estádios vegetativo e de florescimento de C. juncea, respectivamente, com lagartas desse desfolhador se alimentando sobre folhas e sementes dessa planta. A dura o dos estágios/estádios, sobrevivência, fecundidade de vida e oviposi o mostraram que ramos de C. juncea é um alimento adequado para U. ornatrix. A abundancia de adultos e larvas de C. externa foi menor nas fases de flora o e vagens de C. juncea, respectivamente, quando posturas de
Diferenciación morfológica y molecular de especies de crisópidos (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Morphological and molecular differentiation of lacewing species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)  [cached]
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2007,
Abstract: En el Valle del Cauca (Colombia), se estudió la distribución e identificación de las especies más abundantes de crisópidos en zonas donde se cultiva la ca a de azúcar (Saccharum spp.) con mayor intensidad. Así, se han determinado las especies que podrían ser utilizadas para contrarrestar el efecto del pulgón amarillo Sipha flava (Hemiptera: Aphididae) sobre la producción total de la ca a de azúcar. Aunque las especies y morfotipos del presente estudio son separados utilizando caracteres morfológicos, se evaluó la validez de dichos caracteres. Para esto, se realizó una diferenciación morfológica mediante genitalia interna y una diferenciación molecular, empleando la técnica PCR-RFLP sobre la región 18S del ADN ribosomal, de 11 especies de tres géneros de la familia Chrysopidae (Ceraeochrysa, Chrysoperla y Leucochrysa), algunas de las cuales podrían ser importantes como agentes de control biológico del pulgón amarillo de la ca a de azúcar, S. flava. Los caracteres empleados resultaron ser útiles para distinguir las especies. En el caso de la genitalia interna, mostraron diferentes patrones de las estructuras. En el caso de los datos moleculares, las especies fueron diferenciadas utilizando solo una combinación de iniciadores NS para la amplificación del ADN y la digestión del amplificado producida con una enzima de restricción (NS5-NS6+DraI). Esta información se adiciona al conocimiento taxonómico que se tiene sobre la familia, además puede ayudar a resolver problemas sistemáticos al interior de los géneros. In the Cauca Valley (Colombia), the distribution and identification of the most abundant lacewing species were studied in zones where sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is cultivated. It has therefore been possible to determine the species that could be used to counter the effect of the yellow aphid Sipha flava (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on the overall production of sugar cane. Although the lacewing species and morphotypes in the current study can be separated using morphological characters, the validity of those characters was studied. To do that, we established a morphological differentiation using internal genitalia and a molecular differentiation using a PCR-RFLP analysis of the 18S rDNA region of 11 species from three genera of the family Chrysopidae (Ceraeochrysa, Chrysoperla, and Leucochrysa), some of whom could be important biological control agents of the yellow sugar cane aphid S. flava. The characters used proved to be useful for distinguishing the species. In the case of internal genitalia, there were different patterns of the structures. In the case
Rasgos biológicos y poblacionales del depredador Ceraeochrysa sp. nr. cincta /México) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Manuel Ramírez Delgado,J. Isabel López Arroyo,Alejandro González Hernández,Mohammad H. Badii Zabeh
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2007,
Abstract: Ceraeochrysa sp. nr. cincta (México) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) es un depredador con larvas crípticas que atacan diversos artrópodos plaga en frutales de México. Para contribuir al posible aprovechamiento de este insecto benéfico en el control biológico de plagas, esta investigación fue realizada con el objetivo de determinar sus rasgos biológicos y parámetros poblacionales. Los estudios se realizaron bajo condiciones controladas de laboratorio con tres cohortes de 50 individuos de C. sp. nr. cincta. Los resultados mostraron que el tiempo de desarrollo de huevo hasta la emergencia de adultos fue de 29 días, con una supervivencia general de 96%. Los estadísticos demográficos estimados, fueron: Ro = 95, T = 59 días, Td = 8 días y rm= 0.081 hijas/hembra/día. Estos rasgos son similares a los indicados para otras especies de Chrysopidae; en cambio, el porcentaje de hembras fecundadas y fertilidad de huevos fueron menores, y el periodo de preoviposición fue mayor. Estas características reproductivas fueron estudiadas en un experimento subsecuente, donde las hembras permanecieron con diferentes proporciones de machos (1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 y 1:5) en forma temporal. Excepto por la condición de hembras sin machos (1:0), cuando éstas se mantuvieron en forma temporal con 1, 2, 3 y 5 machos, mostraron un período de preoviposición más corto; también existieron valores altos de hembras en oviposición, fertilidad de huevos y fecundidad. El número de apareamientos bajo las diferentes proporciones de hembras:machos no fue significativamente diferente. Los resultados indican el potencial de C. sp. nr. cincta para ser producida masivamente para su aprovechamiento en el control biológico de plagas en México.
Haplotype characterization of the COI mitochondrial gene in Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from different environments in Jaboticabal, state of S?o Paulo, southeastern Brazil
Morales, AC.;Freitas, S.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842010000500030
Abstract: the green lacewings (chrysopidae) belong to the order neuroptera and are described as voracious predators in the larval stage and sometimes also in their adulthood. they are an important group used in integrated biological control in field and horticultural crops. individuals of chrysoperla externa were collected during 2007 until march 2008 in five different locations in jaboticabal, sp, with all the seasons sampled. thirty six sequences with 805 pairs of bases for the gene mitochondrial citochrome oxidase i (coi) were analysed. the genetic parameters revealed 24 haplotypes for this population, a total of 36 mutations and haplotype diversity of 0.956. the data of genetic distance and population structure calculated for this population considering the different areas and seasons, revealed a great genetic similarity and high degree of genetic sharing between individuals sampled. it showed that the species chrysoperla externa from jaboticabal, sp, is a single population, without genetic structure neither due to the area of origin nor to the seasons of the year.
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