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Are some taxpayers treated more equally than others? A theoretical analysis to determine the ambit of the constitutional right to equality in South African tax law
GK Goldswain
Southern African Business Review , 2011,
Abstract: The general ambit of the South African constitutional right to equality in revenue matters in general and taxation matters in particular is not defi ned. Thus, taxpayers, their advisors and even the revenue authorities themselves experience diffi culty in deciding whether revenue legislation or the practices of the revenue authorities actually violate the constitutional right to equality. The aim of this study was to analyse the ambit of the right from a theoretical point of view using Constitutional Court decisions and other literature relevant to the study. The conclusion reached is that the right must be widely and liberally interpreted. There are still many provisions in the Income Tax Act and the practices of the revenue authorities that, prima facie, violate the right to equality, and these provisions and practices still need to be evaluated against the theory discussed in this study.
A ΔclpB Mutant of Francisella tularensis Subspecies holarctica Strain, FSC200, Is a More Effective Live Vaccine than F. tularensis LVS in a Mouse Respiratory Challenge Model of Tularemia  [PDF]
Igor Golovliov, Susan M. Twine, Hua Shen, Anders Sjostedt, Wayne Conlan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078671
Abstract: Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is a highly virulent pathogen for humans especially if inhaled. Consequently, it is considered to be a potential biothreat agent. An experimental vaccine, F. tularensis live vaccine strain, derived from the less virulent subsp. holarctica, was developed more than 50 years ago, but remains unlicensed. Previously, we developed a novel live vaccine strain, by deleting the chaperonin clpB gene from F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain, SCHU S4. SCHU S4ΔclpB was less virulent for mice than LVS and a more effective vaccine against respiratory challenge with wild type SCHU S4. In the current study, we were interested to determine whether a similar mutant on the less virulent subsp. holarctica background would also outperform LVS in terms of safety and efficacy. To this end, clpB was deleted from clinical holarctica strain, FSC200. FSC200ΔclpB had a significantly higher intranasal LD50 than LVS for BALB/c mice, but replicated to higher numbers at foci of infection after dermal inoculation. Moreover, FSC200ΔclpB killed SCID mice more rapidly than LVS. However, dermal vaccination of BALB/c mice with the former versus the latter induced greater protection against respiratory challenge with SCHU S4. This increased efficacy was associated with enhanced production of pulmonary IL-17 after SCHU S4 challenge.
Albania’s challenge for access and competitiveness in EU Market: When good will requires more than legal regulation. An inside of Albania’s efforts to increase the presence of its domestic product in EU markets.  [PDF]
Edi Spaho
Academicus : International Scientific Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.7336/academicus.2012.06.11
Abstract: Through the presentation of two case studies this paper aims to engage the theoretical debate on the persistence of public space in the contemporary city, and focuses the attention on the way people practice these spaces and on the policies which are regulating their uses. Starting from the description of different ways in which some urban spaces in Rome (Italy) are used by two different communities of people, one mainly composed by immigrants and the other by young city users, and the diverse ways in which their different practices are seen and tolerated, the aim of this paper is to reflect on public spaces. Observing how city users practice public spaces, and analysing the way in which these practices are considered, are particularly exciting perspectives that can offer an interesting vision of the spatial and social reality of the city and of hegemonic relations which govern it.
Challenges posed by transgender - passing within ambiguities and interrelations  [PDF]
Jules Tamas Fuetty
Graduate Journal of Social Science , 2010,
Abstract: This article critically interrogates current academic knowledge productions on transgender exemplified by figurations of passing. Following a deconstructivist approach, I challenge normalizations and silenced differences within dominant conceptionalizations of passing related to transgender. By investigating interconnected positionings of transgender within power relations, I will argue in favor of intersectional approaches to transgender. Regarding interrelations ofknowledge productions and power relations, I will end by suggesting politics of articulation as means for epistemological-political-transformations referring to transgender.
Sets with more sums than differences  [PDF]
Melvyn B. Nathanson
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: Let A be a finite subset of the integers or, more generally, of any abelian group, written additively. The set A has "more sums than differences" if |A+A|>|A-A|. A set with this property is called an MSTD set. This paper gives explicit constructions of families of MSTD sets of integers.
Sets with more differences than sums  [PDF]
Jan-Christoph Schlage-Puchta
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s00013-009-0014-7
Abstract: We show that a random set of integers with density 0 has almost always more differences than sums. This proves a conjecture by Martin and O'Bryant.
IS EQ IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN IQ
TIWARI VINIT KUMAR
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: In this study an attempt has been taken to compare the importance of IQ and EQ. IQ refers student's level of knowledge but EQ refers the level of a student's ability to emotionally judge situations and fit into groups by managing their personal interactions. In math's class IQ is more important but EQ is useful for living better life. The importance of life is more than class so we can say that EQ development is most necessary for students.
Is there more than one thermal source?  [PDF]
Michael Murray,BRAHMS Collaboration
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/074
Abstract: BRAHMS has the ability to study relativistic heavy ion collisions over a wide range of pT and rapidity. This allows us to test whether thermal models can be generalized to describe the rapidity dependence of particle ratios. This appears to work with the baryo-chemical potential changing more rapidly than the temperature. Using fits to BRAHMS data for the 5% most central Au+Au collisions we are able to describe Xi and Omega ratios from other experiments. This paper is dedicated to Julia Thompson who worked to bring South African teachers into physics.
Survivability Is More Fundamental Than Evolvability  [PDF]
Michael E. Palmer, Marcus W. Feldman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038025
Abstract: For a lineage to survive over long time periods, it must sometimes change. This has given rise to the term evolvability, meaning the tendency to produce adaptive variation. One lineage may be superior to another in terms of its current standing variation, or it may tend to produce more adaptive variation. However, evolutionary outcomes depend on more than standing variation and produced adaptive variation: deleterious variation also matters. Evolvability, as most commonly interpreted, is not predictive of evolutionary outcomes. Here, we define a predictive measure of the evolutionary success of a lineage that we call the k-survivability, defined as the probability that the lineage avoids extinction for k generations. We estimate the k-survivability using multiple experimental replicates. Because we measure evolutionary outcomes, the initial standing variation, the full spectrum of generated variation, and the heritability of that variation are all incorporated. Survivability also accounts for the decreased joint likelihood of extinction of sub-lineages when they 1) disperse in space, or 2) diversify in lifestyle. We illustrate measurement of survivability with in silico models, and suggest that it may also be measured in vivo using multiple longitudinal replicates. The k-survivability is a metric that enables the quantitative study of, for example, the evolution of 1) mutation rates, 2) dispersal mechanisms, 3) the genotype-phenotype map, and 4) sexual reproduction, in temporally and spatially fluctuating environments. Although these disparate phenomena evolve by well-understood microevolutionary rules, they are also subject to the macroevolutionary constraint of long-term survivability.
Why genomics is more than genomes
Jeffrey G Lawrence
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2004-5-12-357
Abstract: The meetings on the molecular genetics of bacteria and bacteriophages are the oldest and smallest of the conferences that originated at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which was the venue for this year's meeting. The toolbox of molecular genetics has expanded immensely since the first of the 'phage meetings' was held at Cold Spring Harbor in the 1950s. Then, bacteriophages were used as model systems to elucidate fundamental aspects of biology at the molecular level, including the nature of mRNA, colinearity of genes and proteins, the action of restriction enzymes and DNA ligase, roles of molecular chaperones and anti-termination. Much was understood in the absence of genomic data. Ultimately, the release of the complete genome sequence of bacteriophage λ in 1982 perhaps raised more questions about λ biology than it answered. Complete genome sequences of prokaryotes number nearly 200 at the time of writing and they offer a powerful route to understanding aspects of a microorganism's biology. Yet, as shown at the 2004 meeting, there are always new aspects of biology to be discovered that are not at all evident from a genome sequence but are crucial for its interpretation.Successful inference of gene regulation from genome sequences has progressed steadily in the past few decades, as the binding sites for regulatory proteins have become better characterized and algorithms for finding cognate sites have improved. Yet the ability to make inferences about regulation on the basis of sequence alone is limited by incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms used by the cell. In the late 1970s, translational attenuation was discovered in both Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. This mechanism for regulating gene expression depends on interactions between the ribosome, RNA polymerase and structures in the mRNA that either permit or inhibit transcription. The S. enterica his operon and the E. coli trp operon provided models for the detection of leader peptides and alternativ
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