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Natural science and technology terminology in the sesotho sa leboa monolingual dictionary
W.M Mojapelo, VM Mojela
Lexikos , 2009,
Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural science and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called), which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolingual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicography Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolingual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation definition' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.
Polysemy and Homonymy: Challenges Relating to Lexical Entries in the Sesotho sa Leboa?English Bilingual Dictionary
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/17--537
Abstract: : This article outlines the challenges relating to the lemmatization of the lexical items which are either polysemous or homonymous, as experienced during the compilation of the Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dictionary. These problems can be ascribed to a lack of objectivity result-ing from an inadequate knowledge regarding the etymological relationships of the meanings of some lexical items which are subsequently misclassified as either homonyms or polysemous words. This often causes improper lexical entries in dictionaries, i.e. polysemous words may be lemma-tized as homonyms and vice versa. To unambiguously distinguish between lexical items which are either homonyms or polyse-mous words, lexicographers should in this regard consider the criteria suggested by scholars: — In accordance with the relatedness/unrelatedness criterion, the lexicographer will need to determine the extent to which the lexical items are related before entering them in the dic-tionary. — The etymological criterion will help the lexicographer to determine the relatedness of the lexical items for inclusion in the dictionary according to their historical connection. Using these criteria to lemmatize a lexical item properly in the dictionary, the lexicographer will be required to determine whether a lexical item can be regarded as one word with more than one meaning (a polysemous word), or as two different lexical items which have the same spelling (homonyms). To make this distinction, the lexicographer will need to research the historical back-ground of the lexical item. Even though these criteria are important aids for distinguishing polysemy and homonymy, the problem of subjectivity is not altogether removed since the criteria do not specify the level or degree of relatedness/unrelatedness at which the lexical item(s) can be said to be polysemous or homonymous. Keywords: SEMANTIC SHIFT, POLYSEMY, HOMONYMY, MEANING, SENSE RELA-TION, LEXICAL ITEM, ETYMOLOGY, METAPHOR, METAPHORIC SENSE, EUPHEMISM, LEMMATIZATION Opsomming: Polisemie en homonimie: Uitdagings betreffende leksikale inskrywings in die Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dictionary. Die artikel skets die uitdagings betreffende die lemmatisering van leksikale items wat óf poliseem óf homo-niem is soos te gekom gedurende die samestelling van die Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dic-tionary. Hierdie probleme kan toegeskryf word aan 'n gebrek aan objektiwiteit wat die gevolg is van 'n onvoldoende kennis aangaande die etimologiese verwantskappe van die betekenisse van sommige leksikale items wat gevolglik foutiewelik gek
Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary
W.M. Mojapelo,V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/19--448
Abstract: : The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called), which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries. Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word) wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die Departement Kuns en Kultuur saamgestel word, het die Sesotho sa Leboa Nasionale Leksikografie-eenheid op die oomblik geen eentalige woordeboek wat spesialiseer in spesifieke onderwerpe soos die natuurwetenskap en tegnologie nie. As 'n begin het die Leksikografie-eenheid besluit om hierdie gespesialiseerde terminologie in die tweede uitgawe van sy omvattende eentalige woordeboek in te sluit. Die hoofdoel vir die lemmatisering van hierdie natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie is om hierdie leksikale items omvattende definisies in Sesotho sa Leboa te gee in plaas van " 'n eenwoordvertalingdefinisie" soos die geval is in die tw
Standardization or Stigmatization? Challenges Confronting Lexicography and Terminography in Sesotho sa Leboa
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--480
Abstract: : The article investigates the effects of the underutilization of the abundant vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa, which results from a one-sided standardization approach owing to the disregard and stigmatization of most dialects. Sesotho sa Leboa has several dialects differing greatly concerning terminology, pronunciation and vocabulary. The situation is complicated and aggravated by a standardization which has sidelined more than half of the dialects because of factors such as the influence of colonialism and lack of government co-ordination, the missionary activities, and the influence of early writers and publications. The strict and narrow standardization of Sesotho sa Leboa resulted in the exclusion of large parts of the dialectal vocabulary, the forcing of dialect speakers to accept a foreign standard language, the creation of 'prestige' and 'inferior' dialects, the separation of the standard language from its own dialects and the awakening of a nationalistic spirit among some dialect-speaking communities. Finally solutions for the challenges caused by these developments are afforded. Keywords: COLONIALISM, CORPUS, DIALECT, INFERIOR DIALECTS, LEMMATIZATION,LEXICOGRAPHY, MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES, NATIONALISM, ORTHOGRAPHY,PRESTIGE DIALECTS, STANDARD LANGUAGE, STANDARD DICTIONARY, SIDELINEDDIALECTS, STIGMATIZED DIALECTS, TERMINOGRAPHY Opsomming: Standaardisasie of stigmatisasie? Uitdagings waarvoor leksikografieen terminografie in Sesotho sa Leboa te staan kom. Die artikel ondersoekdie uitwerking van die onderbenutting van die ryk woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa watvolg uit 'n eensydige standaardisasiebenadering deur die miskenning en stigmatisasie van diemeeste dialekte. Sesotho sa Leboa het verskeie dialekte wat sterk verskil ten opsigte van terminologie,uitspraak en woordeskat. Die situasie word gekompliseer en vererger deur 'n standaardisasiewat meer as die helfte van die dialekte gesylyn het vanwe faktore soos die invloed van kolonialismeen die ontbreking van regeringsamewerking, die sendingaktiwiteite, en die invloed vanvroe re skrywers en publikasies. Die streng en eng standaardisasie van Sesotho se Leboa het gelei tot die uitsluiting van groot dele van die dialektiese woordeskat, die dwang van dialeksprekers om'n vreemde standaardtaal te aanvaar, die totstandkoming van "invloedryke" en "ondergeskikte"dialekte, die skeiding van die standaardtaal van sy eie dialekte, en die opwekking van 'n nasionalistiesegees by sommige van die dialeksprekende gemeenskappe. Laastens word oplossings aangebiedvir die uitdagings veroorsaak deur hierdie ontwikk
Polysemy and Homonymy: Challenges Relating to Lexical Entries in the Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dictionary
V.M Mojela
Lexikos , 2007,
Abstract: This article outlines the challenges relating to the lemmatization of the lexical items which are either polysemous or homonymous, as experienced during the compilation of the Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dictionary. These problems can be ascribed to a lack of objectivity result-ing from an inadequate knowledge regarding the etymological relationships of the meanings of some lexical items which are subsequently misclassified as either homonyms or polysemous words. This often causes improper lexical entries in dictionaries, i.e. polysemous words may be lemma-tized as homonyms and vice versa. To unambiguously distinguish between lexical items which are either homonyms or polyse-mous words, lexicographers should in this regard consider the criteria suggested by scholars: — In accordance with the relatedness/unrelatedness criterion, the lexicographer will need to determine the extent to which the lexical items are related before entering them in the dic-tionary. — The etymological criterion will help the lexicographer to determine the relatedness of the lexical items for inclusion in the dictionary according to their historical connection. Using these criteria to lemmatize a lexical item properly in the dictionary, the lexicographer will be required to determine whether a lexical item can be regarded as one word with more than one meaning (a polysemous word), or as two different lexical items which have the same spelling (homonyms). To make this distinction, the lexicographer will need to research the historical back-ground of the lexical item. Even though these criteria are important aids for distinguishing polysemy and homonymy, the problem of subjectivity is not altogether removed since the criteria do not specify the level or degree of relatedness/unrelatedness at which the lexical item(s) can be said to be polysemous or homonymous.
Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired Lexical Items in Sesotho sa Leboa
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/20-0-163
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The influence of foreign languages in Sesotho sa Leboa, or Northern Sotho, results in borrowing, which ultimately leads to an increase in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa. The languages influencing developments in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa include, inter alia, English, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tshivend√a and the Nguni languages. This article aims to give a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the adoption of foreign lexical items in the lemmatization of vocabulary in Sesotho sa Leboa dictionaries. Most puristic inclined academics and intellectuals are reluctant to adopt loan words as a means of developing the Sesotho sa Leboa vocabulary. When confronted with borrowing, the purists usually prefer coinage, using indigenous lexical items to name foreign concepts. This is disadvantageous to the development of the vocabulary of the language because (1) there is no increase in the number of the lexical items in the language since only the meanings of the foreign lexical item are added to existing indigenous lexical items, and (2) in most cases, previously adopted loan words are mistaken for indigenous lexical items and given preference to newly acquired lexical items which have direct and accurate bearing on the meaning of the newly discovered or designed concepts or objects. OPSOMMING: Ontlening en leenwoorde: Die lemmatisering van nuutverworwe leksikale items in Sesotho sa Leboa. Die invloed van vreemde tale op Sesotho sa Leboa, of Noord-Sotho, het ontlening tot gevolg, wat uiteindelik lei tot 'n toename in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa. Die tale wat ontwikkelinge in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa be nvloed, sluit onder andere Engels, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tsivend√a en die Ngunitale in. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n kritiese ontleding van die voordele en nadele van die oorneem van vreemde leksikale items by die lemmatisering van die woordeskat in woordeboeke van Sesotho sa Leboa te gee. Die meeste puristies gesinde akademici en intellektuele is onwillig om leenwoorde oor te neem as 'n manier om die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa te ontwikkel. Wanneer hulle met ontlening gekonfronteer word, verkies puriste gewoonlik nuutskeppinge deur gebruikmaking van inheemse leksikale items om vreemde konsepte te benoem. Dit is nadelig vir die ontwikkeling van die woordeskat van die taal omdat (1) daar geen toename in die aantal leksikale items is nie aangesien slegs die betekenisse van die vreemde leksikale items tot die bestaande inheemse leksikale items toegevoeg word, en (2) in die meeste gevalle voorheen oorgene
Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired Lexical Items in Sesotho sa Leboa
V.M Mojela
Lexikos , 2010,
Abstract: The influence of foreign languages in Sesotho sa Leboa, or Northern Sotho, results in borrowing, which ultimately leads to an increase in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa. The languages influencing developments in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa include, inter alia, English, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tshivend√a and the Nguni languages. This article aims to give a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the adoption of foreign lexical items in the lemmatization of vocabulary in Sesotho sa Leboa dictionaries. Most puristic inclined academics and intellectuals are reluctant to adopt loan words as a means of developing the Sesotho sa Leboa vocabulary. When confronted with borrowing, the purists usually prefer coinage, using indigenous lexical items to name foreign concepts. This is disadvantageous to the development of the vocabulary of the language because (1) there is no increase in the number of the lexical items in the language since only the meanings of the foreign lexical item are added to existing indigenous lexical items, and (2) in most cases, previously adopted loan words are mistaken for indigenous lexical items and given preference to newly acquired lexical items which have direct and accurate bearing on the meaning of the newly discovered or designed concepts or objects.
The lexicographic treatment of the demonstrative copulative in Sesotho sa Leboa — an exercise in multiple cross-referencing
G de Schryver, E Taljard, M.P Mogodi, S Maepa
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: In this research article an in-depth investigation is presented of the lexicographic treatment of the demonstrative copulative (DC) in Sesotho sa Leboa. This one case study serves as an example to illustrate the so-called 'paradigmatic lemmatisation' of closed-class words in the African languages. The need for such an approach follows a discussion, in Sections 1 and 2 respectively, of the present and missing directions in African-language metalexicography. A theoretical conspectus of the DC in Sesotho sa Leboa is then offered in Section 3, while Section 4 examines the treatment of the DC in the four existing desktop dictionaries for this language. The outcomes from the two latter sections are then used in Section 5, which analyses the problems of and options for a sound lexicographic treatment of the DC in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries. The next two sections proceed with a review of the practical implementation of the DC lemmatisation suggestions in PyaSsaL, i.e. the Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa 'Explanatory Sesotho sa Leboa Dictionary' — with Section 6 focussing on the hardcopy and Section 7 on the online version. In the process, the very first fully monolingual African-language dictionary on the Internet is introduced. Section 8, finally, concludes briefly.
The Lexicographic Treatment of the Demonstrative Copulative in Sesotho sa Leboa ? An Exercise in Multiple Cross-referencing
Gilles-Maurice de Schryver,Elsabé Taljard,M.P. Mogodi,Salmina Maepa
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--682
Abstract: : In this research article an in-depth investigation is presented of the lexicographictreatment of the demonstrative copulative (DC) in Sesotho sa Leboa. This one case study serves asan example to illustrate the so-called 'paradigmatic lemmatisation' of closed-class words in theAfrican languages. The need for such an approach follows a discussion, in Sections 1 and 2 respectively,of the present and missing directions in African-language metalexicography. A theoreticalconspectus of the DC in Sesotho sa Leboa is then offered in Section 3, while Section 4 examines thetreatment of the DC in the four existing desktop dictionaries for this language. The outcomes fromthe two latter sections are then used in Section 5, which analyses the problems of and options for asound lexicographic treatment of the DC in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries. The next twosections proceed with a review of the practical implementation of the DC lemmatisation suggestionsin PyaSsaL, i.e. the Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa 'Explanatory Sesotho sa Leboa Dictionary'— with Section 6 focussing on the hardcopy and Section 7 on the online version. In the process,the very first fully monolingual African-language dictionary on the Internet is introduced. Section8, finally, concludes briefly. Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, PARADIGMATIC LEMMATISATION, AFRICAN LANGUAGES,SESOTHO SA LEBOA (NORTHERN SOTHO, SEPEDI), DEMONSTRATIVE COPULATIVE,CROSS-REFERENCING, CORPUS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, HARDCOPY, ONLINE, INTERNET, EXPLANATORY SESOTHO SA LEBOA DICTIONARY(PYASSAL), SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK (SF) Senaganwa: Tokelotlhalo o ya le ala upi-leba ka mo pukunt ung ya Sesothosa Leboa — Tiri o ka go upana go gont i. Ka go sengwalwana se sa nyaki i o,nyaki i o yeo e tsenelet ego e laet wa ka ga go lokelwa le go hlalo wa ga le ala upi-leba ka mopukunt ung ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Thutwana ya mohuta wo ya nyaki i o e oma bjalo ka mohlalago laet a seo se bit wago 'tokelo ya mant u ka lenaneo' (paradigmatic lemmatisation) ya mant u alegoro leo le tswalet wego ka go maleme a Afrika. Tlhokego ya nyaki i o ya mohuta wo e tla kamorago ga theri ano ya ditaet o t a gonabjale le t eo di sego gona ka go tlhamopukunt u ya teoriya maleme a Afrika. Ditaba t e di hlalo wa ka go dikarolo 1 le 2. Tlhalo o ya teori ya le ala upilebaka go Sesotho sa Leboa e fiwa ka go karolo 3, mola karolo 4 e hlahloba tokelo le tlhalo o yale ala upi-leba ka go dipukunt u t e nne t eo di lego gona mo polelong ye. Dipoelo t a dikarolo 3le 4 di omi wa karolong ya 5, yeo e sekasekago mathata le dikgonego t a tokelotl
Dobletes etimológicos en fraseología / Etymological doublets in phraseology  [PDF]
Oksana Gorelova
Ogigia. Revista Electrónica de Estudios Hispánicos , 2010,
Abstract: RESUMEN: El artículo analiza un grupo de frases proverbiales espa olas que proceden de un mismo étimo latino pero que entraron en la lengua espa ola por dos vías diferentes: la escrita y la hablada, lo que permite llegar a la conclusión de que en el sistema fraseológico espa ol existen dobletes etimológicos.ABSTRACT: The article analyses a group of Spanish proverbial sayings that originate in the same Latin etymon but entered the Spanish language though two two different routes - the written one and the spoken one. This allows us draw conclusions about the existence of etymological doublets in the Spanish phraseological system.
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