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The use of an improved access structure in dictionaries
RH Gouws
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: Dictionary consultation procedures often fail because the structure of a dictionary impedes the user from sufficient access to the data. Modern-day metalexicography has identified the access structure as one of the most important structural components of a dictionary. The access structure represents the search route a user follows to reach the required data in order to retrieve the necessary information. This paper focuses on a few aspects of the access structure. It is argued that a frame structure and an improved use of outer texts can enhance access to the lexicographic data. Different macrostructural ordering procedures are discussed and it is suggested that the lexicographers of bilingual dictionaries should avoid multiple niching. The presentation of inner texts in clearly identifiable text blocks can assist the user in rapidly reaching the desired search zone. Although the emphasis is on bilingual dictionaries many of the suggestions also apply to monolingual dictionaries.
Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator
R Gauton
Lexikos , 2008,
Abstract: Abstract: This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilingual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific reference to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexicographer has to deal with and take cognisance of when compiling a translation dictionary. Of these, the main problem is the basic lack of equivalence or anisomorphism which exists between languages. This non-equivalence between languages is also the root cause of the difficulties with which the translator or user of the bilingual dictionary has to contend. The problems experienced by translators therefore overlap to a great extent with those which the lexicographer experiences in compiling a bilingual dictionary. It is concluded that the user of a bilingual dictionary should not only know what to expect to find in a translation dictionary, but must also treat such a dictionary with caution and discernment. It is also shown that there are clear criteria which the lexicographer can follow in compiling a bilingual dictionary, which would then enable the user (and in particular the translator as user) to disambiguate the recorded information successfully.
The Utilisation of Outer Texts in the Practical Lexicography of African Languages
E Chabata, D Nkomo
Lexikos , 2010,
Abstract: In this article, an analysis of the utilisation of outer texts in recently compiled dictionaries of African languages is presented. The analysis is undertaken in the context of an upsurge of the compilation of dictionaries in the African languages. It is undertaken with a view to do a qualitative evaluation of the many new dictionaries of African languages that have come on the market in recent years. The point of departure is that prior to the recent lexicographic developments, the then available dictionaries were compiled in the context of the limited role the African languages played. It has been found that most of those dictionaries are limited in scope, perspective and function and hence less effective now that the languages are being assigned a greater social role. The evaluation of outer texts in modern dictionaries is therefore a way of measuring the extent to which lexicographic practice in the African languages is applying theoretical developments to produce better dictionaries.
Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator
Rachélle Gauton
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--479
Abstract: : This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilingual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific reference to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexicographer has to deal with and take cognisance of when compiling a translation dictionary. Of these, the main problem is the basic lack of equivalence or anisomorphism which exists between languages. This non-equivalence between languages is also the root cause of the difficulties with which the translator or user of the bilingual dictionary has to contend. The problems experienced by translators therefore overlap to a great extent with those which the lexicographer experiences in compiling a bilingual dictionary. It is concluded that the user of a bilingual dictionary should not only know what to expect to find in a translation dictionary, but must also treat such a dictionary with caution and discernment. It is also shown that there are clear criteria which the lexicographer can follow in compiling a bilingual dictionary, which would then enable the user (and in particular the translator as user) to disambiguate the recorded information successfully. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHER, TRANSLATOR, ISIZULU,PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY LEXICOGRAPHERS, PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY TRANSLATORS,NONEQUIVALENCE BETWEEN LANGUAGES, CHARACTER, SHORTCOMINGSAND ADVANTAGES OF BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES Opsomming: Tweetalige woordeboeke, die leksikograaf en die vertaler.Die fokus van hierdie artikel is op die probleme, en voor- en nadele van die tweetalige woordeboekvanuit die oogpunt van sowel die leksikograaf as die vertaler, met spesifieke verwysing na tweetaligeZuluwoordeboeke. Daar word aangetoon dat daar baie en uiteenlopende probleme is waaraandie leksikograaf moet aandag gee en waarvan hy/sy moet kennis neem by die samestelling van 'nvertalende woordeboek. Die vernaamste van hierdie probleme is die basiese gebrek aan ekwivalensieof anisomorfisme wat tussen tale bestaan. Hierdie nie-ekwivalensie tussen tale is ook diegrondoorsaak van die moeilikhede waarmee die vertaler of gebruiker van die tweetalige woordeboekmoet worstel. Die probleme ondervind deur vertalers oorvleuel dus tot 'n groot mate met diéwat die leksikograaf ondervind by die samestellling van 'n tweetalige woordeboek. Daar word totdie slotsom gekom dat die gebruiker van 'n tweetalige woordeboek nie net moet weet wat om van'n vertalende woordeboek te verwag nie, maar ook so 'n woordeboek omsigtig en oordeelkund
Meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries
M Mafela
Lexikos , 2005,
Abstract: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard.
Monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specific situation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners' dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in modernday lexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a new language, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especially in closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionary could assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevant lexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function merging are introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-based approach to dictionary usage.
The Use of an Improved Access Structure in Dictionaries*  [cached]
Rufus H. Gouws
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/11--842
Abstract: : Dictionary consultation procedures often fail because the structure of a dictionary impedes the user from sufficient access to the data. Modern-day metalexicography has identified the access structure as one of the most important structural components of a dictionary. The access structure represents the search route a user follows to reach the required data in order to retrieve the necessary information. This paper focuses on a few aspects of the access structure. It is argued that a frame structure and an improved use of outer texts can enhance access to the lexicographic data. Different macrostructural ordering procedures are discussed and it is suggested that the lexicographers of bilingual dictionaries should avoid multiple niching. The presentation of inner texts in clearly identifiable text blocks can assist the user in rapidly reaching the desired search zone. Although the emphasis is on bilingual dictionaries many of the suggestions also apply to monolingual dictionaries. Keywords: METALEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, BILINGUAL, ACCESS STRUCTURE, FRAME STRUCTURE, MULTIPLE NICHING, NESTING, INNER TEXTS, OUTER TEXTS Opsomming: Die gebruik van 'n verbeterde toegangstruktuur in woordeboeke.Naslaanpogings in woordeboeke misluk dikwels omdat die woordeboekstruktuur diegebruiker van doeltreffende toegang tot die data weerhou. In die hedendaagse metaleksikografieword die toegangstruktuur as een van die belangrikste strukturele komponente van 'n woordeboekbeskou. Die toegangstruktuur verteenwoordig die soekroete wat 'n gebruiker volg om die verlangdedata te bereik en die nodige inligting te ontsluit. Hierdie artikel fokus op enkele aspekte vandie toegangstruktuur. Daar word aangetoon dat 'n raamstruktuur en 'n verbeterde gebruik vanbuitetekste die toegang tot leksikografiese data kan verbeter. Verskeie makrostrukturele ordeningsmetodesword bespreek en daar word voorgestel dat leksikograwe van vertalende woordeboekemoet probeer om veelvuldige nisting te vermy. Die plasing van binnetekste in duidelik identifiseerbareteksblokke, kan die gebruiker help om 'n verlangde soeksone vinnig te bereik. Alhoeweldie klem op tweetalige woordeboeke is, geld baie van die opmerkings ook eentalige woordeboeke. Sleutelwoorde: METALEKSIKOGRAFIE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, WOORDEBOEK, TWEETALIG, TOEGANGSTRUKTUUR, RAAMSTRUKTUUR, VEELVULDIGE NISTING, NESTING,BINNETEKSTE, BUITETEKSTE
Example Sentences in Bilingual School Dictionaries
L Potgieter
Lexikos , 2012,
Abstract: Dictionaries are written for a specific user group and the content and presentation must therefore be directed/aimed at that specific target group. In the past dictionaries were often compiled without the lexicographers really taking time and researching the intended users and their specific needs. School dictionaries especially were often compiled after very little or no attention being paid to the users and their needs. This article will look at the role of example sentences in dictionary articles, different types of example sentences as well as the criteria for example sentences in bilingual school dictionaries in order to ensure that the final product is natural, typical, informative, intelligible and of use to the user.
Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*
Rufus H. Gouws
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--693
Abstract: : When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especiallyin closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionarycould assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevantlexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function mergingare introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-basedapproach to dictionary usage. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, FALSE FRIENDS, FUNCTION CONDENSATION,FUNCTION MERGING, GENUINE PURPOSE, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION,TYPOLOGICAL HYBRID, TYPOLOGY. Opsomming: Eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke. Wanneerbesluit moet word oor die beste aanleerderwoordeboek vir 'n spesifieke gebruiker en 'n spesifiekegebruiksituasie moet daar dikwels gekies word tussen 'n eentalige en 'n tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboek.Hierdie artikel bespreek bepaalde aspekte van die gebruikersgedrewe benaderingwat kenmerkend is van die moderne leksikografiese denke, fokus breedweg op woordeboektipologieen gee in meer besonderhede aandag aan sekere aspekte van eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke.Bepaalde probleme wat gebruikers ervaar by die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal,bv. taalversteuring en probleme verwant aan die verskynsel van valse vriende, veral in nou verwantetale, kry aandag. Daar word aangedui dat 'n tipologiese hibriede woordeboek van waardekan wees vir sekere gebruikers. Die belang van 'n ondubbelsinnige vasstelling van die tersaaklikewoordeboekfunksies word beklemtoon en die begrippe funksieverdigting en funksiesamesmeltingword aan die orde gestel. Daar word aangetoon dat die tipologiese keuse bepaal moet word deur 'nfunksie-gebaseerde benadering tot woordeboekgebruik. Sleutelwoorde: AANLEERDERWOORDEBOEK, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, FUNKSIESAMESMELTING, FUNKSIEVERDIGTING, LEKSIKOGRAFIESE FUNKSIES, TEKSPRODUKSIE,TEKSRESEPSIE, TIPOLOGIE, TIPOLOGIESE HIBRIED, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, VALSEVRIENDE, WERKLIKE D
The role of the introductory matter in bilingual dictionaries of English and Arabic
H Al-Ajmi
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: Monolingual and bilingual dictionaries for learners of English as foreign language differ from each other in many aspects. Among the differences are the types of information a dictionary provides outside the A–Z word list, especially in its introductory matter. Yet, dictionary introductions have been referred to rather peripherally in the literature on dictionary users and uses. Within the context of lexicographic practice, this study aims to outline the differences between EFL learner's dictionaries and bilingual English–Arabic dictionaries, and to determine to what extent a given set of popular dictionaries provide varied and sufficient information in their introductions. Three categories of dictionaries will be the subject of comparison: EFL dictionaries, European bilingual dictionaries, and bilingual dictionaries in the Arab world.
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