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Natural science and technology terminology in the sesotho sa leboa monolingual dictionary
W.M Mojapelo, VM Mojela
Lexikos , 2009,
Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural science and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called), which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolingual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicography Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolingual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation definition' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.
Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary
W.M. Mojapelo,V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/19--448
Abstract: : The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called), which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries. Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word) wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die Departement Kuns en Kultuur saamgestel word, het die Sesotho sa Leboa Nasionale Leksikografie-eenheid op die oomblik geen eentalige woordeboek wat spesialiseer in spesifieke onderwerpe soos die natuurwetenskap en tegnologie nie. As 'n begin het die Leksikografie-eenheid besluit om hierdie gespesialiseerde terminologie in die tweede uitgawe van sy omvattende eentalige woordeboek in te sluit. Die hoofdoel vir die lemmatisering van hierdie natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie is om hierdie leksikale items omvattende definisies in Sesotho sa Leboa te gee in plaas van " 'n eenwoordvertalingdefinisie" soos die geval is in die tw
The lexicographic treatment of the demonstrative copulative in Sesotho sa Leboa — an exercise in multiple cross-referencing
G de Schryver, E Taljard, M.P Mogodi, S Maepa
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: In this research article an in-depth investigation is presented of the lexicographic treatment of the demonstrative copulative (DC) in Sesotho sa Leboa. This one case study serves as an example to illustrate the so-called 'paradigmatic lemmatisation' of closed-class words in the African languages. The need for such an approach follows a discussion, in Sections 1 and 2 respectively, of the present and missing directions in African-language metalexicography. A theoretical conspectus of the DC in Sesotho sa Leboa is then offered in Section 3, while Section 4 examines the treatment of the DC in the four existing desktop dictionaries for this language. The outcomes from the two latter sections are then used in Section 5, which analyses the problems of and options for a sound lexicographic treatment of the DC in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries. The next two sections proceed with a review of the practical implementation of the DC lemmatisation suggestions in PyaSsaL, i.e. the Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa 'Explanatory Sesotho sa Leboa Dictionary' — with Section 6 focussing on the hardcopy and Section 7 on the online version. In the process, the very first fully monolingual African-language dictionary on the Internet is introduced. Section 8, finally, concludes briefly.
The Lexicographic Treatment of the Demonstrative Copulative in Sesotho sa Leboa ? An Exercise in Multiple Cross-referencing
Gilles-Maurice de Schryver,Elsabé Taljard,M.P. Mogodi,Salmina Maepa
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--682
Abstract: : In this research article an in-depth investigation is presented of the lexicographictreatment of the demonstrative copulative (DC) in Sesotho sa Leboa. This one case study serves asan example to illustrate the so-called 'paradigmatic lemmatisation' of closed-class words in theAfrican languages. The need for such an approach follows a discussion, in Sections 1 and 2 respectively,of the present and missing directions in African-language metalexicography. A theoreticalconspectus of the DC in Sesotho sa Leboa is then offered in Section 3, while Section 4 examines thetreatment of the DC in the four existing desktop dictionaries for this language. The outcomes fromthe two latter sections are then used in Section 5, which analyses the problems of and options for asound lexicographic treatment of the DC in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries. The next twosections proceed with a review of the practical implementation of the DC lemmatisation suggestionsin PyaSsaL, i.e. the Pukunt utlhalo i ya Sesotho sa Leboa 'Explanatory Sesotho sa Leboa Dictionary'— with Section 6 focussing on the hardcopy and Section 7 on the online version. In the process,the very first fully monolingual African-language dictionary on the Internet is introduced. Section8, finally, concludes briefly. Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, PARADIGMATIC LEMMATISATION, AFRICAN LANGUAGES,SESOTHO SA LEBOA (NORTHERN SOTHO, SEPEDI), DEMONSTRATIVE COPULATIVE,CROSS-REFERENCING, CORPUS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, HARDCOPY, ONLINE, INTERNET, EXPLANATORY SESOTHO SA LEBOA DICTIONARY(PYASSAL), SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK (SF) Senaganwa: Tokelotlhalo o ya le ala upi-leba ka mo pukunt ung ya Sesothosa Leboa — Tiri o ka go upana go gont i. Ka go sengwalwana se sa nyaki i o,nyaki i o yeo e tsenelet ego e laet wa ka ga go lokelwa le go hlalo wa ga le ala upi-leba ka mopukunt ung ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Thutwana ya mohuta wo ya nyaki i o e oma bjalo ka mohlalago laet a seo se bit wago 'tokelo ya mant u ka lenaneo' (paradigmatic lemmatisation) ya mant u alegoro leo le tswalet wego ka go maleme a Afrika. Tlhokego ya nyaki i o ya mohuta wo e tla kamorago ga theri ano ya ditaet o t a gonabjale le t eo di sego gona ka go tlhamopukunt u ya teoriya maleme a Afrika. Ditaba t e di hlalo wa ka go dikarolo 1 le 2. Tlhalo o ya teori ya le ala upilebaka go Sesotho sa Leboa e fiwa ka go karolo 3, mola karolo 4 e hlahloba tokelo le tlhalo o yale ala upi-leba ka go dipukunt u t e nne t eo di lego gona mo polelong ye. Dipoelo t a dikarolo 3le 4 di omi wa karolong ya 5, yeo e sekasekago mathata le dikgonego t a tokelotl
Standardization or Stigmatization? Challenges Confronting Lexicography and Terminography in Sesotho sa Leboa
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--480
Abstract: : The article investigates the effects of the underutilization of the abundant vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa, which results from a one-sided standardization approach owing to the disregard and stigmatization of most dialects. Sesotho sa Leboa has several dialects differing greatly concerning terminology, pronunciation and vocabulary. The situation is complicated and aggravated by a standardization which has sidelined more than half of the dialects because of factors such as the influence of colonialism and lack of government co-ordination, the missionary activities, and the influence of early writers and publications. The strict and narrow standardization of Sesotho sa Leboa resulted in the exclusion of large parts of the dialectal vocabulary, the forcing of dialect speakers to accept a foreign standard language, the creation of 'prestige' and 'inferior' dialects, the separation of the standard language from its own dialects and the awakening of a nationalistic spirit among some dialect-speaking communities. Finally solutions for the challenges caused by these developments are afforded. Keywords: COLONIALISM, CORPUS, DIALECT, INFERIOR DIALECTS, LEMMATIZATION,LEXICOGRAPHY, MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES, NATIONALISM, ORTHOGRAPHY,PRESTIGE DIALECTS, STANDARD LANGUAGE, STANDARD DICTIONARY, SIDELINEDDIALECTS, STIGMATIZED DIALECTS, TERMINOGRAPHY Opsomming: Standaardisasie of stigmatisasie? Uitdagings waarvoor leksikografieen terminografie in Sesotho sa Leboa te staan kom. Die artikel ondersoekdie uitwerking van die onderbenutting van die ryk woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa watvolg uit 'n eensydige standaardisasiebenadering deur die miskenning en stigmatisasie van diemeeste dialekte. Sesotho sa Leboa het verskeie dialekte wat sterk verskil ten opsigte van terminologie,uitspraak en woordeskat. Die situasie word gekompliseer en vererger deur 'n standaardisasiewat meer as die helfte van die dialekte gesylyn het vanwe faktore soos die invloed van kolonialismeen die ontbreking van regeringsamewerking, die sendingaktiwiteite, en die invloed vanvroe re skrywers en publikasies. Die streng en eng standaardisasie van Sesotho se Leboa het gelei tot die uitsluiting van groot dele van die dialektiese woordeskat, die dwang van dialeksprekers om'n vreemde standaardtaal te aanvaar, die totstandkoming van "invloedryke" en "ondergeskikte"dialekte, die skeiding van die standaardtaal van sy eie dialekte, en die opwekking van 'n nasionalistiesegees by sommige van die dialeksprekende gemeenskappe. Laastens word oplossings aangebiedvir die uitdagings veroorsaak deur hierdie ontwikk
Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired Lexical Items in Sesotho sa Leboa
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/20-0-163
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The influence of foreign languages in Sesotho sa Leboa, or Northern Sotho, results in borrowing, which ultimately leads to an increase in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa. The languages influencing developments in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa include, inter alia, English, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tshivend√a and the Nguni languages. This article aims to give a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the adoption of foreign lexical items in the lemmatization of vocabulary in Sesotho sa Leboa dictionaries. Most puristic inclined academics and intellectuals are reluctant to adopt loan words as a means of developing the Sesotho sa Leboa vocabulary. When confronted with borrowing, the purists usually prefer coinage, using indigenous lexical items to name foreign concepts. This is disadvantageous to the development of the vocabulary of the language because (1) there is no increase in the number of the lexical items in the language since only the meanings of the foreign lexical item are added to existing indigenous lexical items, and (2) in most cases, previously adopted loan words are mistaken for indigenous lexical items and given preference to newly acquired lexical items which have direct and accurate bearing on the meaning of the newly discovered or designed concepts or objects. OPSOMMING: Ontlening en leenwoorde: Die lemmatisering van nuutverworwe leksikale items in Sesotho sa Leboa. Die invloed van vreemde tale op Sesotho sa Leboa, of Noord-Sotho, het ontlening tot gevolg, wat uiteindelik lei tot 'n toename in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa. Die tale wat ontwikkelinge in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa be nvloed, sluit onder andere Engels, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tsivend√a en die Ngunitale in. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n kritiese ontleding van die voordele en nadele van die oorneem van vreemde leksikale items by die lemmatisering van die woordeskat in woordeboeke van Sesotho sa Leboa te gee. Die meeste puristies gesinde akademici en intellektuele is onwillig om leenwoorde oor te neem as 'n manier om die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa te ontwikkel. Wanneer hulle met ontlening gekonfronteer word, verkies puriste gewoonlik nuutskeppinge deur gebruikmaking van inheemse leksikale items om vreemde konsepte te benoem. Dit is nadelig vir die ontwikkeling van die woordeskat van die taal omdat (1) daar geen toename in die aantal leksikale items is nie aangesien slegs die betekenisse van die vreemde leksikale items tot die bestaande inheemse leksikale items toegevoeg word, en (2) in die meeste gevalle voorheen oorgene
Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired Lexical Items in Sesotho sa Leboa
V.M Mojela
Lexikos , 2010,
Abstract: The influence of foreign languages in Sesotho sa Leboa, or Northern Sotho, results in borrowing, which ultimately leads to an increase in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa. The languages influencing developments in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa include, inter alia, English, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tshivend√a and the Nguni languages. This article aims to give a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the adoption of foreign lexical items in the lemmatization of vocabulary in Sesotho sa Leboa dictionaries. Most puristic inclined academics and intellectuals are reluctant to adopt loan words as a means of developing the Sesotho sa Leboa vocabulary. When confronted with borrowing, the purists usually prefer coinage, using indigenous lexical items to name foreign concepts. This is disadvantageous to the development of the vocabulary of the language because (1) there is no increase in the number of the lexical items in the language since only the meanings of the foreign lexical item are added to existing indigenous lexical items, and (2) in most cases, previously adopted loan words are mistaken for indigenous lexical items and given preference to newly acquired lexical items which have direct and accurate bearing on the meaning of the newly discovered or designed concepts or objects.
Etymological aspects of idiomatic and proverbial expressions in the lexicographic development of Sesotho sa Leboa — a semantic analysis
V.M Mojela
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: Idiomatic and proverbial expressions are important components of the oral tradition of Sesotho sa Leboa, and therefore a knowledge of the literal meaning of words as they appear in dictionaries without inclusion of their figurative meaning seems to be a shortcoming. An idiom or a proverb possesses one basic meaning, i.e. the meaning to which the idiom or proverb is basically meant to refer, but each idiom or proverb is made up of several lexical items. Each of these lexical items has its own meaning, which usually differs from the figurative sense of the idiom or proverb. Even though the meaning of the words in an idiomatic or proverbial expression seems to differ from the sense of the idiom or proverb, there is to a certain extent a relationship. It is this relationship which lexicographers can assist to explain in their definitions in order to clarify both the literal and the figurative meanings of words in Sesotho sa Leboa. This article aims to stress the importance of having specialized dictionaries which will give users detailed etymological explanations of the meaning of idiomatic and proverbial expressions as used in Sesotho sa Leboa. The etymological analysis of the meaning of these lexical items (idioms and proverbs) will provide a better understanding of these expressions and enrich dictionaries with detailed definitions. This will create a better understanding of the relationship between the literal meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative) meanings.
Etymological Aspects of Idiomatic and Proverbial Expressions in the Lexicographic Development of Sesotho sa Leboa ? A Semantic Analysis*
V.M. Mojela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--697
Abstract: : Idiomatic and proverbial expressions are important components of the oral traditionof Sesotho sa Leboa, and therefore a knowledge of the literal meaning of words as they appear indictionaries without inclusion of their figurative meaning seems to be a shortcoming. An idiom or aproverb possesses one basic meaning, i.e. the meaning to which the idiom or proverb is basicallymeant to refer, but each idiom or proverb is made up of several lexical items. Each of these lexicalitems has its own meaning, which usually differs from the figurative sense of the idiom or proverb.Even though the meaning of the words in an idiomatic or proverbial expression seems to differfrom the sense of the idiom or proverb, there is to a certain extent a relationship. It is this relationshipwhich lexicographers can assist to explain in their definitions in order to clarify both the literaland the figurative meanings of words in Sesotho sa Leboa.This article aims to stress the importance of having specialized dictionaries which will giveusers detailed etymological explanations of the meaning of idiomatic and proverbial expressions asused in Sesotho sa Leboa. The etymological analysis of the meaning of these lexical items (idiomsand proverbs) will provide a better understanding of these expressions and enrich dictionarieswith detailed definitions. This will create a better understanding of the relationship between theliteral meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative) meanings. Keywords: DIACHRONIC ANALYSIS, ETYMOLOGY, FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION, IDIOM,LEMMATIZATION, LEXICOLOGY, METAPHOR, METAPHORIC EXPRESSION, PROVERB,SYNCHRONIC ANALYSIS, TERMINOGRAPHY. Opsomming: Etimologiese aspekte van idiomatiese en spreekwoordelikeuitdrukkings in die leksikografiese ontwikkeling van Sesotho sa Leboa — 'nsemantiese ontleding. Idiomatiese en spreekwoordelike uitdrukkings is belangrike komponentevan die mondelinge tradisie van Sesotho sa Leboa en gevolglik skyn die letterlike betekenisvan woorde soos hulle in woordeboeke voorkom sonder insluiting van hul figuurlike betekenis, 'ntekortkoming te wees. 'n Idioom of spreekwoord besit een basiese betekenis, d.i. die betekenis waarna die idoom of spreekwoord bedoel is om basies te verwys, maar elke idioom of spreekwoordbestaan uit verskeie leksikale items. Hierdie leksikale items het elk sy eie betekenis watgewoonlik verskil van die figuurlike betekenis van die idioom of spreekwoord. Selfs al skyn diebetekenis van die woorde in 'n idiomatiese of spreekwoordelike uitdrukking te verskil van dieidioom of spreekwoord, is daar in sekere mate 'n
The Treatment of Polysemy and Homonymy in Monolingual General-purpose Dictionaries with Special Reference to "Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele"
E Ndlovu, S Sayi
Lexikos , 2010,
Abstract: This article focuses on the treatment of polysemy and homonymy in general-purpose monolingual dictionaries with special reference to "Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele". It was found that there are some inconsistencies in the treatment of polysemous and homonymous entries in this dictionary. The article shows that an overreliance on one criterion, particularly etymology, to distinguish polysemy and homonymy is often misleading and unreliable. Polysemy itself has its own inherent complexities, among these being the problem of determining the exact number of meanings of a polysemous lemma. When the meanings of a polysemous lemma are listed, the central or primary meaning, which is not always easily ascertainable, should come first. A holistic approach is proposed to distinguish polysemy and homonymy, which entails the use of the following criteria: etymology, relatedness vs unrelatedness of meaning, componential analysis, the identification of the central or core meaning and the test of ambiguity. Whatever results are obtained from a particular criterion, these findings must be compared with those of other criteria, and verified against native speakers' intuitive knowledge and introspective judgements.
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