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The lemmatization of copulatives in northern Sotho
D.J Prinsloo
Lexikos , 2002,
Abstract: For learners of Northern Sotho as a second or even foreign language, the copulative system is probably the most complicated grammatical system to master. The encoding needs of such learners, i.e. to find enough information in dictionaries in order to actively use copulatives in speech and writing, are poorly served in currently available dictionaries. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatization problems regarding copulatives in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. It will be illustrated that the maximum utilisation of macrostructural and microstructural strategies as well as the mediostructure is called for in order to reach this objective. Prerequisites will be to reconstruct the entire copulative system in a user-friendly way, to abstract the rules governing the use of copulatives and to isolate the appropriate lemmas. The treatment of copulatives in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be critically evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs.
The Lemmatisation of adverbs in northern Sotho
D.J Prinsloo
Lexikos , 2003,
Abstract: To date Northern Sotho metalexicographers have focused their attention on lemma-tisation problems in respect of the so-called main or primary part of speech categories, viz. nouns and verbs. See, for example, Prinsloo and De Schryver (1999) and Prinsloo and Gouws (1996). No attention has been given to the lemmatisation of adverbs. The latter are regarded by Ziervogel and Mokgokong (1975: 114, Introduction) as a "secondary part of speech". The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries is marred by inconsistencies such as omissions from the macrostruc-ture, insufficient and inconsistent labelling, inferior treatment in the microstructure, under-utiliza-tion of the mediostructure and outer texts, and reflects a lack of a strategy of selection of items for lemmatisation. Linguistic descriptions of adverbs in currently available grammars vary substan-tially and therefore confuse learners of the language and inexperienced lexicographers1. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatisation problems regarding adverbs in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be criti-cally evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs.
The Lemmatisation of Adverbs in Northern Sotho*
D.J. Prinsloo
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/13--720
Abstract: : To date Northern Sotho metalexicographers have focused their attention on lemma-tisation problems in respect of the so-called main or primary part of speech categories, viz. nouns and verbs. See, for example, Prinsloo and De Schryver (1999) and Prinsloo and Gouws (1996). No attention has been given to the lemmatisation of adverbs. The latter are regarded by Ziervogel and Mokgokong (1975: 114, Introduction) as a "secondary part of speech". The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries is marred by inconsistencies such as omissions from the macrostruc-ture, insufficient and inconsistent labelling, inferior treatment in the microstructure, under-utiliza-tion of the mediostructure and outer texts, and reflects a lack of a strategy of selection of items for lemmatisation. Linguistic descriptions of adverbs in currently available grammars vary substan-tially and therefore confuse learners of the language and inexperienced lexicographers1. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatisation problems regarding adverbs in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be criti-cally evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs. Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEMMATISATION, ADVERBS, INFORMATION RETRIEV-AL, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY, MACROSTRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, CROSS-REFER-ENCING, MEDIOSTRUCTURE, DICTIONARY, AFRICAN LANGUAGES, BACK MATTER, NORTHERN SOTHO Opsomming: Die lemmatisering van bywoorde in Noord-Sotho. Tot dusver het Noord-Sotho metaleksikograwe hulle aandag bepaal by lemmatiseringsprobleme ten opsigte van die sogenaamde primêre woordkategorie , naamlik naamwoorde en werkwoorde. Vergelyk byvoorbeeld, Prinsloo en De Schryver (1999) en Prinsloo en Gouws (1996). Geen aandag is gegee aan die lemmatisering van bywoorde nie. Laasgenoemde word deur Ziervogel en Mokgokong (1975: 72, Inleiding) as 'n "sekondêre rededeel" beskou. Die bewerking van bywoorde in Noord-Sotho woordeboeke word bederf deur inkonsekwenthede soos weglatings uit die makrostruktuur, onvol-doende en inkonsekwente etikettering, minderwaardige bewerking in die mikrostruktuur, onder-benutting van die mediostruktuur en buitetekste, en vertoon 'n gebrek aan 'n strategie vir seleksie van items vir lemmatisering. Taalkundige beskrywings van bywoorde in tans beskikbare gramma-tikas verskil grootliks en verwar dus aanleerders van die taal en onervare leksikograwe.2 Die doel van hierdie artike
The Lemmatization of Copulatives in Northern Sotho *  [cached]
D.J. Prinsloo
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/12--759
Abstract: : For learners of Northern Sotho as a second or even foreign language, the copulative system is probably the most complicated grammatical system to master. The encoding needs of such learners, i.e. to find enough information in dictionaries in order to actively use copulatives in speech and writing, are poorly served in currently available dictionaries. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatization problems regarding copulatives in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. It will be illustrated that the maximum utilisation of macrostructural and microstructural strategies as well as the mediostructure is called for in order to reach this objective. Prerequisites will be to reconstruct the entire copulative system in a user-friendly way, to abstract the rules governing the use of copulatives and to isolate the appropriate lemmas. The treatment of copulatives in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be critically evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs. Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEMMATIZATION, COPULATIVES, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, ACCESS STRUCTURE, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY, MACROSTRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, CROSS-REFERENCING, MEDIOSTRUCTURE, DICTIONARY, AFRICAN LANGUAGES Opsomming: Die lemmatisering van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho. Vir aanleerders van Noord-Sotho as tweede of vreemde taal is die kopulatief waarskynlik die mees komplekse grammatiese sisteem om te bemeester. Die enkoderende behoeftes van sulke aanleerders, dit is om genoegsame inligting in woordeboeke te verkry ten einde kopulatiewe in spraak en skrif aktief te kan gebruik, word nie bevredig in beskikbare woordeboeke nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om oplossings aan die hand te doen vir die lemmatiseringsprobleme ten opsigte van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho en om gidsinskrywings voor te hou wat as modelle kan dien vir toekomstige papier en elektroniese woordeboeke. Daar sal aangetoon word dat maksimale benutting van makrostrukturele en mikrostrukturele strategie? asook die mediostruktuur 'n vereiste is vir bereiking van hierdie doelwit. 'n Voorvereiste is dat die struktuur van die totale kopulatiewe sisteem op gebruikersvriendelike wyse voorgestel moet word. Die re?ls wat die gebruik van die kopulatief bepaal kan dan geabstraheer word. Daarna moet die toepaslike lemmas ge?dentifiseer word. Die bewerking van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sothowoordeboeke sal ook krities ge?valueer word, veral in terme van gebruiksfrekwensie en gebruikersbehoeftes. Sl
Review: Popular Northern Sotho Dictionary
K Mashamaite
Lexikos , 2000,
Abstract: T.J. Kriel (original compiler), D.J. Prinsloo and B.P. Sathekge (compilers — revised edition). Popular Northern Sotho Dictionary. 1997. 335 pp. ISBN 1 86890 001 0. Cape Town: Pharos. Price R37,95.
The lexicographic treatment of sublexical and multilexical items in a northern Sotho monolingual dictionary: a challenge for lexicographers
M Mphahlele
Lexikos , 2003,
Abstract: Dictionaries have in the past used a word-based approach in which sublexical and multilexical items were not regarded as lemmata. Metalexicography as the theoretical component of lexicography requires that sublexical and multilexical items be lemmatized and treated as inde-pendent lemmata in the macrostructure of dictionaries. One of the greater challenges for compiling a better and user-oriented Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary is to treat sublexical and multi-lexical items as macrostructural elements. Treating these items, the lexicographer faces quite a number of challenges. This article proposes possible ways in which sublexical and multilexical elements could be successfully treated in a Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary. Taking stock of these challenges, the writer comes with suggestions that would assist lexicographers in the compi-lation of a user-friendly, lexicon-based monolingual dictionary that would lead users to successful information retrieval.
Compiling a corpus-based dictionary grammar: an example for northern Sotho
G de Schryver, E Taljard
Lexikos , 2007,
Abstract: In this article it is shown how a corpus-based dictionary grammar may be compiled — that is, a mini-grammar fully based on corpus data and specifically written for use in and inte-grated with a dictionary. Such an effort is, to the best of our knowledge, a world's first. We exem-plify our approach for a Northern Sotho mini-grammar, to be included into a Northern Sotho–English dictionary.
Semi-automatic Term Extraction for the African Languages, with Special Reference to Northern Sotho
E Taljard, G-M de Schryver
Lexikos , 2002,
Abstract: Worldwide, semi-automatically extracting terms from corpora is becoming the norm for the compilation of terminology lists, term banks or dictionaries for special purposes. If Africanlanguage terminologists are willing to take their rightful place in the new millennium, they must not only take cognisance of this trend but also be ready to implement the new technology. In this article it is advocated that the best way to do the latter two at this stage, is to opt for computationally straightforward alternatives (i.e. use 'raw corpora') and to make use of widely available software tools (e.g. WordSmith Tools). The main aim is therefore to discover whether or not the semiautomatic extraction of terminology from untagged and unmarked running text by means of basic corpus query software is feasible for the African languages. In order to answer this question a fullblown case study revolving around Northern Sotho linguistic texts is discussed in great detail. The computational results are compared throughout with the outcome of a manual excerption, and vice versa. Attention is given to the concepts 'recall' and 'precision'; different approaches are suggested for the treatment of single-word terms versus multi-word terms; and the various findings are summarised in a Linguistics Terminology lexicon presented as an Appendix.
Compiling a Corpus-based Dictionary Grammar: An Example for Northern Sotho
Gilles-Maurice de Schryver,Elsabé Taljard
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/17--510
Abstract: : In this article it is shown how a corpus-based dictionary grammar may be compiled — that is, a mini-grammar fully based on corpus data and specifically written for use in and inte-grated with a dictionary. Such an effort is, to the best of our knowledge, a world's first. We exem-plify our approach for a Northern Sotho mini-grammar, to be included into a Northern Sotho–Eng-lish dictionary. Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, CORPUS, FREQUENCY, MIDDLE MATTER, DICTIONARY GRAMMAR, NORTHERN SOTHO (SESOTHO SA LEBOA) Samenvatting: Een corpusgebaseerde woordenboekgrammatica samenstel-len: een voorbeeld voor Noord-Sotho. In dit artikel wordt aangetoond hoe een corpus-gebaseerde woordenboekgrammatica kan samengesteld worden — dit is, een minigrammatica die al z'n gegevens rechtstreeks uit een corpus haalt en die speciaal geschreven werd om in een woor-denboek gebruikt te worden, en er ook volledig mee ge ntegreerd is. Zo'n poging is, voor zover ons bekend, een wereldprimeur. We illustreren onze aanpak voor een minigrammatica van het Noord-Sotho, bedoeld om gebruikt te worden in een Noord-Sotho–Engels woordenboek. Sleutelwoorden: LEXICOGRAFIE, WOORDENBOEK, CORPUS, FREQUENTIE, MID-DENWERK, WOORDENBOEKGRAMMATICA, NOORD-SOTHO
Semi-automatic Term Extraction for the African Languages, with Special Reference to Northern Sotho *  [cached]
Elsabé Taljard,Gilles-Maurice de Schryver
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/12--760
Abstract: : Worldwide, semi-automatically extracting terms from corpora is becoming the norm for the compilation of terminology lists, term banks or dictionaries for special purposes. If Africanlanguage terminologists are willing to take their rightful place in the new millennium, they must not only take cognisance of this trend but also be ready to implement the new technology. In this article it is advocated that the best way to do the latter two at this stage, is to opt for computationally straightforward alternatives (i.e. use 'raw corpora') and to make use of widely available software tools (e.g. WordSmith Tools). The main aim is therefore to discover whether or not the semiautomatic extraction of terminology from untagged and unmarked running text by means of basic corpus query software is feasible for the African languages. In order to answer this question a fullblown case study revolving around Northern Sotho linguistic texts is discussed in great detail. The computational results are compared throughout with the outcome of a manual excerption, and vice versa. Attention is given to the concepts 'recall' and 'precision'; different approaches are suggested for the treatment of single-word terms versus multi-word terms; and the various findings are summarised in a Linguistics Terminology lexicon presented as an Appendix. Keywords: TERMINOLOGY, TERMINOGRAPHY, MANUAL EXCERPTION, READING AND MARKING, SEMI-AUTOMATIC TERM EXTRACTION, RETRIEVAL, AFRICAN LANGUAGES, NORTHERN SOTHO (SEPEDI), RAW CORPORA, PRETORIA SEPEDI CORPUS (PSC), WORDSMITH TOOLS, WEIRDNESS RATIO, KEY WORD, LOG-LIKELIHOOD, RECALL, PRECISION, MOTHER TERM, SINGLE-WORD TERM, MULTI-WORD TERM, STEM, ROOT, KEY-WORD-IN-CONTEXT (KWIC), COLLOCATION, COLLOCATE, LEXICAL GAP, CLUSTER, LINGUISTICS TERMINOLOGY LEXICON Senaganwa: Go nt hwa ga mareo ka tiri o ya seripa sa semot hene malebanale maleme a Afrika, edi ye kgolo e lego Sesotho sa Leboa (Sepedi). Gont hwa ga mareo ka tiri o ya seripa sa semot hene go t wa ka gare ga dikhophase go thomile go ba setlwaedi go hlangweng ga mananeo a mareo, dipanka t a mareo goba dipukunt u mererong yeo eit ego lefaseng ka bophara. Ge e le gore boramareo ba maleme a Afrika ba ikemi edit e go t eamadulo a bona mo mileneamong wo mofsa, ga ba swanela go hlokomela fela tsela ye, eup a baswanet e gape ke go ikemi et a go diri a theknolot i ye mphsa. Mo taodi waneng ye go hlalo wagore mo nakong ye, tsela ye kaone ya go dira dilo t e pedi t e go bolet wego ka t ona ke go kgethaditlhamolo t a thwii t eo di diri ago khomphutha (se se ra gore t homi o ya khophase) le go omi a ditlabak
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