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ENGLISH PROBLEMATIC CONSONANTS FOR PASHTO SPEAKERS  [PDF]
Ghani Rehman,Abdul Qadir Khan,Nadeem Haider Bukhari
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: The present study aims to look into the problems faced by Pashto speakers, while learning English. The study particularly focuses on the pronunciation of English consonants, which are not found inPashto phonemic inventory. It further looks into the role of L1 in the pronunciation of the target English consonants. The study identifies that five English consonants namely, the labio-dental voiceless fricative /f/, the labiodentals voiced fricative /v/, the dental voiceless fricative /θ/, the dentalmvoiced fricative /e/ and the post-alveolar voiced fricative / / are problematic for Pashto speakers.The study further shows that these consonants are replaced by L1 sounds: 1) English labio dental fricative /f, v/ are pronounced as bilabial voiceless stop /p/ and bilabial approximant /w/; 2) Englishdental fricatives /θ, e/ are replaced by dental stops /t , d / ; 3) palatal voiced fricative / / is replaced by palato-alveolar voiced affricate /d /. It is suggested that English language learners with Pashto background should be properly trained to acquire correct English pronunciation.
Naro Dictionary: Naro–English, English–Naro.
H Batibo
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: Hessel Visser. Naro Dictionary: Naro–English, English–Naro. Fourth edition. 2001, viii + 240 pp. ISBN 99912-938-5-x. D'kar: Kuru Development Trust.
Kirkeby's "English–Swahili" dictionary
J Mdee
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: Kirkeby's English–Swahili Dictionary is a bilingual dictionary of more than 50 000 entries. The most laudable feature of the dictionary is its attempt to be user-friendly especially in the way the entry words have been arranged and the amount of information given. However, a clear objective for the compilation of the ditionary is lacking. The compilers do not seem to know the lexicographical gap they want to fill, the users they are targeting, and their dictionary-using skills. In discussing the strong and weak points of the dictionary, the article will refer to theories of dictionary criticism. Three criteria set by McMillan (1949) will guide this review article: (1) the quantity of the information in the dictionary; (2) the quality of the information presented; and (3) the effectiveness of the presentation of the information. Questions posed in the course of this article will include: Does the dictionary give the information required by the user? Is the information transparently accessible? How is the information presented?
Native Speakers' Perception of Non - Native English Speech  [cached]
Maysa Jaber,Riyad F. Hussein
English Language Teaching , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v4n4p77
Abstract: This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which targeted native speakers of English. The materials for this study were a questionnaire for respondents to fill out and tape recordings of six different short stories, each of which was recorded by a non native speaker of English. The first short story was tape- recorded by a male French speaker and the second by a female French speaker. Similarly, the other four short stories were tape-recorded by male and female Japanese and Jordanian speakers respectively. The respondents or raters consisted of 110 native speakers of English (78 females and 32 females); the majority of them from the USA, but there were others from Britain, Canada, and Australia. They were requested to surf the webpage www. englishforeignaccent .com, especially designed by the researchers, fill out the questionnaire and rate the non-native varieties under investigation, and four months later the number of respondents reached one hundred and ten which constituted the sample of the study. Data obtained indicated that the Jordanian accent was considered as the most intelligible, followed by the French then the Japanese English accent. The native speakers also showed significantly more positive attitudes towards Jordanian English than French and Japanese English. Finally, the positive attitude towards Jordanian English was affirmed by the respondents who assigned the Jordanian English speakers to the most prestigious professions such as medicine and teaching.
Compiling a monolingual dictionary for native speakers.
P Hanks
Lexikos , 2010,
Abstract: This article gives a survey of the main issues confronting the compilers of monolingual dictionaries in the age of the Internet. Among others, it discusses the relationship between a lexical database and a monolingual dictionary, the role of corpus evidence, historical principles in lexicography vs. synchronic principles, the instability of word meaning, the need for full vocabulary coverage, principles of definition writing, the role of dictionaries in society, and the need for dictionaries to give guidance on matters of disputed word usage. It concludes with some questions about the future of dictionary publishing.
Kirkeby's English?Swahili Dictionary
James S. Mdee
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--701
Abstract: : Kirkeby's English–Swahili Dictionary is a bilingual dictionary of more than 50 000entries. The most laudable feature of the dictionary is its attempt to be user-friendly especially inthe way the entry words have been arranged and the amount of information given. However, aclear objective for the compilation of the ditionary is lacking. The compilers do not seem to knowthe lexicographical gap they want to fill, the users they are targeting, and their dictionary-usingskills. In discussing the strong and weak points of the dictionary, the article will refer to theories ofdictionary criticism. Three criteria set by McMillan (1949) will guide this review article: (1) thequantity of the information in the dictionary; (2) the quality of the information presented; and (3)the effectiveness of the presentation of the information. Questions posed in the course of this articlewill include: Does the dictionary give the information required by the user? Is the informationtransparently accessible? How is the information presented? Keywords: DICTIONARY EVALUATION, USER-FRIENDLY, DICTIONARY-USINGSKILLS, LEXICOGRAPHICAL ENTRIES, GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES, SUBGRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, WORD COMBINATIONS, COLLOCATIONS, TRANSLATION EQUIVALENTS Opsomming: Kirkeby se English–Swahili Dictionary. Kirkeby se English–SwahiliDictionary is 'n tweetalige woordeboek met meer as 50 000 inskrywings. Die mees prysenswaardigekenmerk van die woordeboek is sy poging om gebruikersvriendelik te wees, veral deur die manierwaarop die trefwoorde gerangskik is en die hoeveelheid inligting wat verskaf word. 'n Duidelikedoelwit vir die samestelling van die woordeboek ontbreek egter. Die samestellers is skynbaaronseker oor die leksikografiese leemte wat hulle wil vul, en die gebruikers vir wie dit bedoel is enhul woordeboekgebruikersvaardighede. In die bespreking van die sterk en die swak eienskappevan die woordeboek sal die artikel verwys na teorie van woordeboekkritiek. Die kriteria gesteldeur McMillan (1949) sal as gids dien vir hierdie resensieartikel: (1) die hoeveelheid inligting in diewoordeboek; (2) die gehalte van die inligting aangebied; en (3) die doeltreffendheid van die aanbiedingvan die inligting. Vrae wat in die loop van hierdie artikel gestel sal word, sluit in: Gee diewoordeboek die inligting wat deur die gebruiker verlang word? Is die inligting deursigtig beskikbaar?Hoe word die inligting aangebied? Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKBEOORDELING, GEBRUIKERSVRIENDELIK, WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIKSVAARDIGHEDE,LEKSIKOGRAFIESE INSKRYWINGS, GRAMMATIKALEKATEGORIE , SUBGRAMMATIKALE KATEGORIE , WOORDVERB
English Russian Scientific Dictionary  [PDF]
Aleks Kleyn
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: English Russian and Russian English dictionaries presented in this paper are dedicated to help translate a scientific text from one language to another. I also included the bilingual name index into this book.
The compilation of the Shona–English biomedical dictionary: problems and challenges
N Mpofu, E Mangoya
Lexikos , 2005,
Abstract: The bilingual Shona–English dictionary of biomedical terms, Duramazwi reUrapi neUtano, was compiled with the aim of improving the efficiency of communication between doctor and patient. The dictionary is composed of terms from both modern and traditional medicinal practices. The article seeks to look at the methods of production of the dictionary, the presentation of entries in the dictionary and the problems and challenges encountered in the compilation proc-ess, namely, developing Shona medical terminology in the cultural context and especially the as-pect of equivalence between English and Shona biomedical terms.
Compiling a Monolingual Dictionary for Native Speakers
Patrick Hanks
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/20-0-157
Abstract: ABSTRACT: This article gives a survey of the main issues confronting the compilers of monolingual dictionaries in the age of the Internet. Among others, it discusses the relationship between a lexical database and a monolingual dictionary, the role of corpus evidence, historical principles in lexicography vs. synchronic principles, the instability of word meaning, the need for full vocabulary coverage, principles of definition writing, the role of dictionaries in society, and the need for dictionaries to give guidance on matters of disputed word usage. It concludes with some questions about the future of dictionary publishing. OPSOMMING: Die samestelling van 'n eentalige woordeboek vir moedertaalsprekers. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van die hoofkwessies waarmee die samestellers van eentalige woordeboeke in die eeu van die Internet te kampe het. Dit bespreek onder andere die verhouding tussen 'n leksikale databasis en 'n eentalige woordeboek, die rol van korpusgetuienis, historiese beginsels vs sinchroniese beginsels in die leksikografie, die onstabiliteit van woordbetekenis, die noodsaak van 'n volledige woordeskatdekking, beginsels van die skryf van definisies, die rol van woordeboeke in die maatskappy, en die noodsaak vir woordeboeke om leiding te gee oor sake van betwiste woordgebruik. Dit sluit af met 'n aantal vrae oor die toekoms van die publikasie van woordeboeke. Sleutelwoorde: EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEKE, LEKSIKALE DATABASIS, WOORDEBOEKSTRUKTUUR, WOORDBETEKENIS, BETEKENISVERANDERING, GEBRUIK, GEBRUIKSAANTEKENINGE, HISTORIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, SINCHRONIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, REGISTER, SLANG, STANDAARDENGELS, WOORDESKATDEKKING, KONSEKWENSIE VAN VERSAMELINGS, FRASEOLOGIE, SINTAGMATIESE PATRONE, PROBLEME VAN KOMPOSISIONALITEIT, LINGUISTIESE PRESKRIPTIVISME, LEKSIKALE GETUIENIS
Remarks on the elaboration of an English–Spanish wordcombination dictionary
E Godeo
Lexikos , 2010,
Abstract: Through a focus on word-combination analysis in bilingual dictionaries, this article presents the epistemological and methodological background for an ongoing research and editorial project aiming to produce an English–Spanish dictionary of multi-word combinations. After a discussion of the treatment of word combinations as a phenomenon in different types of dictionaries, the lexicographic process guiding the elaboration of the dictionary is described. In addition to the preliminary plan and the fieldwork undertaken for this dictionary-making project, a detailed account is given of the principles determining the inclusion of entries and their presentation within the dictionary. The typology of word combinations included in the dictionary and the structure of entries is accordingly dealt with prior to making some remarks regarding the final presentationand- revision stage currently being carried out. Because this article is based on current research intending to compile an English–Spanish dictionary of multi-word expressions, emphasis is constantly laid on a usage context where the source language is English and the target language Spanish. By considering the potential users of the English–Spanish word-combination dictionary examined here, some concluding remarks are made with regard to the educational implications of this kind of dictionary primarily aimed at intermediate- to advanced-level Spanish-speaking EFL learners.
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