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Kinship Terminology: Problems in Some English-Tshiven a Bilingual Dictionaries  [cached]
Munzhedzi James Mafela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/17--536
Abstract: : With the introduction of a new political dispensation in South Africa; bilingual dictionaries have become a necessary part of daily life. The main function of a bilingual dictionary is to provide one or more equivalents in the target language for the entry words in the source language. Not all bilingual dictionaries realize this objective satisfactorily; Tshiven a bilingual dictionaries included. Some bilingual dictionaries in Tshiven a provide one equivalent instead of all equivalents associated with the entry word of the source language; especially if Tshiven a is the target language. Not providing all equivalents renders a bilingual dictionary inadequate; because users do not always find what they look for. By focusing on kinship terms in some English–Tshiven a bilingual dictionaries; this article discusses examples of inadequate treatment. The article further advocates the inclusion of all possible equivalents under such entry words. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY; CROSS-RELATIONSHIP; DICTIONARY USER; EQUIVALENT; INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE; KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY; ORTHO-RELATION-SHIP; SOURCE LANGUAGE; LEXICAL UNIT; LEXICOGRAPHER; RELATIVES; TARGET LANGUAGE; TRANSLATION Opsomming: Verwantskapsterminologie: Probleme in sommige Engels–Tshiven a tweetalige woordeboeke. Met die invoering van 'n nuwe politieke bedeling in Suid-Afrika het tweetalige woordeboeke 'n noodsaaklike deel van die daaglikse lewe geword. Die hooffunksie van 'n tweetalige woordeboek is om een of meer ekwivalente in die doeltaal vir die trefwoorde in die brontaal te verskaf. Nie alle tweetalige woordeboeke verwesenlik hierdie doel bevredigend nie; Tshiven a tweetalige woordeboeke ingesluit. Sommige tweetalige woordeboeke in Tshiven a verskaf een ekwivalent in plaas van al die ekwivalente wat in verband staan met die trefwoord van die brontaal; veral as Tshiven a die doeltaal is. Deur nie alle ekwivalente te verskaf nie maak 'n tweetalige woordeboek ontoereikend omdat gebruikers nie altyd kry wat hulle soek nie. Deur op verwantskapsterme in sommige Engels–Tshiven a tweetalige woordeboeke te fokus; bespreek hierdie artikel voorbeelde van onvoldoende behandeling. Verder bepleit die artikel die insluiting van alle moontlike ekwivalente onder sulke trefwoorde. Sleutelwoorde: BRONTAAL; DOELTAAL; EKWIVALENT; INHEEMSE TAAL; KRUIS-VERWANTSKAP; LEKSIKALE EENHEID; LEKSIKOGRAAF; ORTOVERWANTSKAP; TWEE-TALIGE WOORDEBOEK; VERTALING; VERWANTE; VERWANTSKAPSTERMINOLOGIE; WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIKER
Meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries
M Mafela
Lexikos , 2005,
Abstract: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard.
Monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specific situation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners' dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in modernday lexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a new language, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especially in closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionary could assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevant lexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function merging are introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-based approach to dictionary usage.
Example Sentences in Bilingual School Dictionaries
L Potgieter
Lexikos , 2012,
Abstract: Dictionaries are written for a specific user group and the content and presentation must therefore be directed/aimed at that specific target group. In the past dictionaries were often compiled without the lexicographers really taking time and researching the intended users and their specific needs. School dictionaries especially were often compiled after very little or no attention being paid to the users and their needs. This article will look at the role of example sentences in dictionary articles, different types of example sentences as well as the criteria for example sentences in bilingual school dictionaries in order to ensure that the final product is natural, typical, informative, intelligible and of use to the user.
Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*
Rufus H. Gouws
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--693
Abstract: : When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especiallyin closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionarycould assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevantlexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function mergingare introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-basedapproach to dictionary usage. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, FALSE FRIENDS, FUNCTION CONDENSATION,FUNCTION MERGING, GENUINE PURPOSE, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION,TYPOLOGICAL HYBRID, TYPOLOGY. Opsomming: Eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke. Wanneerbesluit moet word oor die beste aanleerderwoordeboek vir 'n spesifieke gebruiker en 'n spesifiekegebruiksituasie moet daar dikwels gekies word tussen 'n eentalige en 'n tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboek.Hierdie artikel bespreek bepaalde aspekte van die gebruikersgedrewe benaderingwat kenmerkend is van die moderne leksikografiese denke, fokus breedweg op woordeboektipologieen gee in meer besonderhede aandag aan sekere aspekte van eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke.Bepaalde probleme wat gebruikers ervaar by die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal,bv. taalversteuring en probleme verwant aan die verskynsel van valse vriende, veral in nou verwantetale, kry aandag. Daar word aangedui dat 'n tipologiese hibriede woordeboek van waardekan wees vir sekere gebruikers. Die belang van 'n ondubbelsinnige vasstelling van die tersaaklikewoordeboekfunksies word beklemtoon en die begrippe funksieverdigting en funksiesamesmeltingword aan die orde gestel. Daar word aangetoon dat die tipologiese keuse bepaal moet word deur 'nfunksie-gebaseerde benadering tot woordeboekgebruik. Sleutelwoorde: AANLEERDERWOORDEBOEK, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, FUNKSIESAMESMELTING, FUNKSIEVERDIGTING, LEKSIKOGRAFIESE FUNKSIES, TEKSPRODUKSIE,TEKSRESEPSIE, TIPOLOGIE, TIPOLOGIESE HIBRIED, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, VALSEVRIENDE, WERKLIKE D
The role of the introductory matter in bilingual dictionaries of English and Arabic
H Al-Ajmi
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: Monolingual and bilingual dictionaries for learners of English as foreign language differ from each other in many aspects. Among the differences are the types of information a dictionary provides outside the A–Z word list, especially in its introductory matter. Yet, dictionary introductions have been referred to rather peripherally in the literature on dictionary users and uses. Within the context of lexicographic practice, this study aims to outline the differences between EFL learner's dictionaries and bilingual English–Arabic dictionaries, and to determine to what extent a given set of popular dictionaries provide varied and sufficient information in their introductions. Three categories of dictionaries will be the subject of comparison: EFL dictionaries, European bilingual dictionaries, and bilingual dictionaries in the Arab world.
Problems of Equivalence in Shona- English Bilingual Dictionaries
N Mpofu
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: In compiling bilingual dictionaries, lexicographers are mostly concerned with semantic equivalence. As a result, the practice of bilingual dictionary compilers is usually that of giving one-word equivalents. However, this equivalence is at times difficult to arrive at because of the disparities and incommensurability between languages and cultures. According to Sapir (1921) and Whorf (1956), one cannot expect an exact match between two languages that express different cultural realities. Given this scenario, compilers of bilingual dictionaries end up bridging the gap between languages by giving translational equivalents rather than relying solely on one-word equivalents. The Shona-English bilingual dictionaries, namely Hannan (1974) and Dale (1981), like other bilingual dictionaries, also display this characteristic. This article will discuss the problems of translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable corpora.
Meaning Discrimination in Bilingual Venda Dictionaries  [cached]
Munzhedzi James Mafela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/15-0-18
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, MEANING DISCRIMINATION, EQUIVALENCE, ENTRY-WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, CULTURE, TRANSLATION, SOURCE LANGUAGE, TAR-GET LANGUAGE, SYNONYM, POLYSEMY ***** OPSOMMING: Betekenisonderskeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke. Venda, een van die minderheidstale in Suid-Afrika, het min woordeboeke. Almal is vertalende tweetalige woordeboeke bedoel vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaalsprekers van die taal is nie. Woordeboekgebruikers vind dit moeilik om tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke te gebruik om-dat hulle gekonfronteer word met ekwivalente wat hulle nie kan onderskei nie. In die meeste gevalle word die ekwivalente van die trefwoorde verskaf sonder om betekenisonderskeiding aan te dui. Sonder 'n goeie beheersing van Venda en die aanduiding van betekenisonderskeiding, sal gebruikers dit moeilik vind om die regte keuse van die ekwivalent waarvoor hule soek, te maak. Tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke is dus nie van hulp vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaal-sprekers van die taal is nie. Middele soos die gee van ophelderende voorbeelde, die aantoon van rededele en die byvoeging van etimologie kan gebruik word om die probleem van betekenisonder-skeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke op te los. Hierdie artikel beklemtoon die probleem van die afwesigheid van betekenisonderskeiding en dien oplossings in dié verband aan die hand vir toekomstige Vendaleksikograwe. Sleutelwoorde: TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, BETEKENISONDERSKEIDING, EKWI-VALENSIE, TREFWOORD, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, KULTUUR, V
Outer texts in bilingual dictionaries
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: Dictionaries often display a central list bias with little or no attention to the use of outer texts. This article focuses on dictionaries as text compounds and carriers of different text types. Utilising either a partial or a complete frame structure, a variety of outer text types can be used to enhance the data distribution structure of a dictionary and to ensure a better information retrieval by the intended target user. A distinction is made between primary frame structures and secondary frame structures and attention is drawn to the use of complex outer texts and the need of an extended complex outer text with its own table of contents to guide the user to the relevant texts in the complex outer text. It is emphasised that outer texts need to be planned in a meticulous way and that they should participate in the lexicographic functions of the specific dictionary, both knowledge-orientated and communication-orientated functions, to ensure a transtextual functional approach.
Outer Texts in Bilingual Dictionaries  [cached]
Rufus H. Gouws
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--683
Abstract: : Dictionaries often display a central list bias with little or no attention to the use ofouter texts. This article focuses on dictionaries as text compounds and carriers of different texttypes. Utilising either a partial or a complete frame structure, a variety of outer text types can beused to enhance the data distribution structure of a dictionary and to ensure a better informationretrieval by the intended target user. A distinction is made between primary frame structures andsecondary frame structures and attention is drawn to the use of complex outer texts and the need ofan extended complex outer text with its own table of contents to guide the user to the relevant textsin the complex outer text. It is emphasised that outer texts need to be planned in a meticulous wayand that they should participate in the lexicographic functions of the specific dictionary, bothknowledge-orientated and communication-orientated functions, to ensure a transtextual functionalapproach. Keywords: BACK MATTER, CENTRAL LIST, COMMUNICATION-ORIENTATED FUNCTIONS,COMPLEX TEXT, CULTURAL DATA, EXTENDED COMPLEX TEXT, EXTENDED TEXTS,FRONT MATTER, FRAME STRUCTURE, KNOWLEDGE-ORIENTATED FUNCTIONS, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, OUTER TEXTS, PRIMARY FRAME, SECONDARY FRAME Opsomming: Buitetekste in tweetalige woordeboeke. Woordeboeke vertoondikwels 'n partydigheid ten gunste van die sentrale lys met min of geen aandag aan die buitetekstenie. Hierdie artikel fokus op woordeboeke as tekssamestellings en draers van verskillende tekssoorte.Met die benutting van óf 'n gedeeltelike óf 'n volledige raamstruktuur kan 'n verskeidenheidbuitetekste aangewend word om die dataverspreidingstruktuur van 'n woordeboek te verbeteren om 'n beter herwinning van inligting deur die teikengebruiker te verseker. 'n Onderskeidword gemaak tussen primêre en sekondêre raamstrukture en die aandag word gevestig op kompleksebuitetekste en die behoefte aan 'n uitgebreide komplekse buiteteks met sy eie inhoudsopgawewat die gebruiker kan lei na die relevante tekste binne die komplekse buiteteks. Dit wordbenadruk dat buitetekste sorgvuldig beplan moet word en dat hulle deel moet hê aan die leksikografiesefunksies van die betrokke woordeboek, sowel die kennis- as die kommunikasiegerigtefunksies, om 'n transtekstuele funksionele benadering te verseker. Sleutelwoorde: AGTERTEKSTE, BUITETEKSTE, KENNISGERIGTE FUNKSIES, KOMMUNIKASIEGERIGTEFUNKSIES, KOMPLEKSE TEKS, KULTURELE DATA, LEKSIKOGRAFIESEFUNKSIES, PRIMêRE RAAM, RAAMSTRUKTUUR, SEKONDêRE RAAM, SENTRALE LYS, UITGEBREIDEKOMPLEKSE TEKS, UITGEBREIDE TEKSTE, VOORTEKSTE
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