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The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.
Bruce Jenks
International Development Policy/Revue Internationale de Politique de Développement , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/poldev.991
Abstract: Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN) most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.
The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations’ post-Cold War experiences in Africa
JO Opiyo
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2012,
Abstract: The United Nations Organisation (UN) is best endowed to conduct preventive diplomacy (PD) by preventing disputes and conflicts arising from interstate and intrastate relationships. The UN has the means to prevent such conflicts and disputes from emerging and escalating into armed confrontation. This article examines the challenges faced by the United Nations as it practises PD with specific reference to Africa. The Charter of the UN sets out the legal basis of PD for the UN, and for regional and sub-regional organisations. Contributions of four UN Secretary-Generals on matters of PD are examined, and special note is taken of the way in which the current Secretary-General, Mr. Ban Ki-moon, uses a four-pronged approach to matters of PD in Africa. The UN has performed well in PD in Africa, especially in collaboration with sub-regional organisations. While the UN derives its mandate to conduct PD from Articles in its Charter, its options are limited to peaceful settlement of disputes, and its action is restricted by rules of international law on intervention, especially with regard to the prohibition of the use of force. The UN is challenged by its inherent problems such as its structures, and its lack of early warning systems and finances. Challenges arising from the principle of state sovereignty also limit the UN in preventing internal problems, especially at the pre-conflict stages. This article concludes by proposing that strengthening the Secretary-General’s good offices, enhancing conflict early warning systems and encouraging the international community to work together could give legitimacy to UN preventive diplomacy endeavours. Fundamentally, the realisation that violent political problems require political solutions is instrumental in order for the UN to play its PD role.
From AMIS to UNAMID: The African Union, the United Nations and the challenges of sustainable peace in Darfur, Sudan  [cached]
Saka Luqman,Omede A. J
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2319
Abstract: Since, 2003 when hostilities broke out in Darfur region of Western Sudan, the African Union has been leading international community efforts at restoring peace to this trouble region. The organization deployed ceasefire monitoring commission, peacekeeping force and under Nigeria leadership broker peace agreement between the warring parties. From all indications the Darfur Peace Accord [DPA], brokered in Abuja, Nigeria has not resulted into the normalization of the security and political situation in Darfur as was envisaged. The apparent lack of robust capacity by the African Union Mission, AMIS to stabilize the security situation in Darfur reinforces the call for the United Nations to intervention. With a robust mandate, secure resource base and better logistic capabilities, the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Mission in Darfur, UNAMID has been proactive in enhancing the protection of its personnel, bases and equipments and greater capacity in the provision of security for safe delivery of humanitarian assistance and protection of civilians. Much as the deployment of UNAMID mission has brought semblance of security, there continue to exist challenges that are undermining security and militating against the achievement of durable peace in Darfur this paper argued. Key words: African Union; Conflict; Darfur; Peacekeeping; Security Résumé Depuis 2003, lorsque les hostilités ont éclaté dans la région du Darfour au Soudan occidental, l’Union africaine a dirigé les efforts de la communauté internationale à rétablir la paix dans cette région trouble. L’organisation a déployé commission de suivi cessez-le-maintien de la paix la force et sous la direction du Nigeria courtier accord de paix entre la guerre parties. de toutes les indications de l’Accord de paix sur le Darfour [DPA], négocié à Abuja, au Nigeria ne s’est pas traduite dans la normalisation de la situation sécuritaire et politique au Darfour comme cela a été envisagé. le manque apparent de forte capacité par la Mission de l’Union africaine, la MUAS à stabiliser la situation sécuritaire au Darfour renforce l’appel à l’Organisation des Nations Unies à l’intervention. Avec un mandat robuste, base de ressources en sécurité et de meilleures capacités logistiques, l’Union africaine- Nations Unies au Darfour, la MINUAD a été proactif dans le renforcement de la protection de son personnel, des bases et des équipements et une plus grande capacité dans la fourniture de sécurité pour une livraison s re de l’aide humanitaire et la protection des civils. Tout comme le déploiement de la mission de la MINUAD a a
HIPAA, HIPAA, Hooray? Current Challenges and Initiatives in Health Informatics in the United States
Sanjaya Joshi
Biomedical Informatics Insights , 2012,
Abstract: A review of the current challenges, trends and initiatives around the various regulations as related to Health Informatics in the United States is presented. A summary of the functions in a workflow-based approach organized into the process and compliance for HIPAA, secure email and fax communications interfaces, e-prescriptions and patient safety and the health information technology savings claims versus costs follows: HIPAA compliance is complex; data interoperability and integration remains difficult. Email and faxing is possible with current over-the-shelf technologies within the purview of the HIPAA Security and Privacy rule. Integration of e-prescribing and NPI data is an area where health informatics can make a real difference. Medical errors remain high. There are no real savings yet from the usage of health information technologies; the costs for implementation remain high, and the business model has not evolved to meet the needs. Health Information Technology (Health IT) projects continue to have a significant failure rate; Open Source technologies are a viable alternative both for cost reduction and scalability. A discussion on the macro view of health informatics is also presented within the context of healthcare models and a comparison of the U.S. system against other countries.
HIPAA, HIPAA, Hooray? Current Challenges and Initiatives in Health Informatics in the United States
Sanjaya Joshi
Biomedical Informatics Insights , 2008,
Abstract: A review of the current challenges, trends and initiatives around the various regulations as related to Health Informatics in the United States is presented.A summary of the functions in a workflow-based approach organized into the process and compliance for HIPAA, secure email and fax communications interfaces, e-prescriptions and patient safety and the health information technology savings claims versus costs follows: * HIPAA compliance is complex; data interoperability and integration remains difficult. * Email and faxing is possible with current over-the-shelf technologies within the purview of the HIPAA Security and Privacy rule. * Integration of e-prescribing and NPI data is an area where health informatics can make a real difference. * Medical errors remain high. * There are no real savings yet from the usage of health information technologies; the costs for implementation remain high, and the business model has not evolved to meet the needs. * Health Information Technology (Health IT) projects continue to have a significant failure rate; Open Source technologies are a viable alternative both for cost reduction and scalability.A discussion on the macro view of health informatics is also presented within the context of healthcare models and a comparison of the U.S. system against other countries.
Judgment of the European Court of Justice in Kadi: Challenges to International Law, the United Nations Sanctions Regime and Fundamental Rights
Siiri Aulik
Acta Societatis Martensis , 2010,
Abstract: On 3 September 2008, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) delivered its long-awaited judgment in joined cases C-402/05 and C-415/05 P Yassin Abdullah Kadi and Al Barakaat International Foundation v Council and Commission. In its decision, the ECJ set aside two judgments of the Court of First Instance (CFI), in which the CFI held that it had no jurisdiction to review measures adopted by the Community giving effect to resolutions of the United Nations Security Council. Whereas the CFI had bowed to the supremacy of international treaty law in accordance with Article 103 of the UN Charter, the ECJ emphasized the autonomy of the European Community (EC) legal order and reasserted its authority to subject all community acts to full judicial review. Thus, within a span of just under three years, the European Court delivered two fundamentally opposing opinions on the correct understanding of the relationship between European Union (EU) law and public international law, particularly with regard to the UN Charter and Security Council resolutions adopted under Chapter VII. These cases, both in the first instance and on appeal, have received considerable attention by academic writers. Consequently, the purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the various arguments presented in the courts and of some of the main issues that have been scrutinized by leading authors. While the ECJ has been accused of delivering “an unprecedented and stunning blow” to the UN sanctions regime, it is submitted that this judgment has rather served to better the sanctions regime, with an important positive effect on the cause of human rights and the coherence of their protection at national, supranational and international level. To conclude, this article briefly examines possible future developments, as similar cases are still pending before the Community courts. The article reflects developments as of September 2009.
Bayesian Population Projections for the United Nations  [PDF]
Adrian E. Raftery,Leontine Alkema,Patrick Gerland
Statistics , 2014, DOI: 10.1214/13-STS419
Abstract: The United Nations regularly publishes projections of the populations of all the world's countries broken down by age and sex. These projections are the de facto standard and are widely used by international organizations, governments and researchers. Like almost all other population projections, they are produced using the standard deterministic cohort-component projection method and do not yield statements of uncertainty. We describe a Bayesian method for producing probabilistic population projections for most countries which are projections that the United Nations could use. It has at its core Bayesian hierarchical models for the total fertility rate and life expectancy at birth. We illustrate the method and show how it can be extended to address concerns about the UN's current assumptions about the long-term distribution of fertility. The method is implemented in the R packages bayesTFR, bayesLife, bayesPop and bayesDem.
Current Challenges to the United States’ AIDS Drug Assistance Program and Possible Implications of the Affordable Care Act  [PDF]
Kathleen A. McManus,Carolyn L. Engelhard,Rebecca Dillingham
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/350169
Abstract: AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, enacted through the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act of 1990, are the “payer of last resort” for prescription medications for lower income, uninsured, or underinsured people living with HIV/AIDS. ADAPs face declining funding from the federal government. State funding of ADAP is discretionary, but some states increased their contributions to meet the gap in funding. The demand for ADAP support is increasing as people living with HIV are living longer; the antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have been changed to recommend initiation of treatment for all; the United States is increasing HIV testing goals; and the recession continues. In the setting of increased demand and limited funding, ADAPs are employing cost containment measures. Since 2010, emergency federal funds have bailed out ADAP, but these are not sustainable. In the coming years, providers and policy makers associated with HIV care will need to navigate the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Lessons learned from the challenges associated with providing sustainable access to ART for vulnerable populations through ADAP should inform upcoming decisions about how to ensure delivery of ART during and after the implementation of the ACA. 1. Introduction AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) were enacted through the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act of 1990. These programs, an integral component of HIV care in the United States, are the “payer of last resort” for prescription medications for lower income, uninsured, or underinsured people living with HIV (PLWH). The provision of these medications to all provides an important incentive for HIV testing, as testing agencies can assure those tested that treatment will be available regardless of ability to pay. In addition, an uninterrupted supply of subsidized HIV medications provides the best opportunity for enrolled individuals to maintain an undetectable viral load, reducing their risk of transmitting the virus. In 2006, ADAP accounted for 41% of the CARE Act’s $1.93 billion budget [1]. According to the National Association of State and Territorial AIDS Directors, ADAP provides ART to 1 in 4 PLWH, indicating that the “safety net” is holding a substantial population. Unfortunately, ADAPs have not been able to meet the demand for their support, and they recently faced the worst funding crisis since their inception [2]. ADAP funds vary based on annual federal allocations and discretionary state support, making planning difficult. With the Affordable Care Act
The Origin of the United Nations
William B. Messmer,Carlos Yordan
Historia Actual Online , 2010,
Abstract: Este artículo explica los orígenes de sistema global antiterrorista de las Naciones Unidas. Nosotros argüimos que tres factores determinan las características de un sistema descentralizado y de estados centralizados. El primero es la reacción de la ONU contra los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El segundo factor es la cada vez mayor relevancia de las redes de gobierno transnacional. La tercera fuerza son los intereses y los asuntos del Consejo de Seguridad permanente, que últimamente determina la arquitectura del sistema. 9/11, United Nations, Security Council, transnacional governance networks,counter-terrorism system. ___________________________ ABSTRACT: This article explains the origins of the United Nations’ global counter-terrorism system. We argue that three factors shaped the system’s decentralized and state-centered characteristics. The first is the UN’s reactions to terrorism prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. The second factor is the growing relevance of transnational governance networks. The third force is the interests and concerns of the Security Council’s permanent representative interests, which ultimately shaped the system’s architecture. Keywords: 9/11; United Nations; Security Council; transnacional governance networks; counter-terrorism system
The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI)  [PDF]
M. Ochiai,I. Dietlein,A. Niu,H. Haubold,W. Balogh,T. Doi
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) has been launched under the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications with its aims of promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among United Nations Member States on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. The International Space Station (ISS), being operational with a permanent crew of six (6), is an unprecedented facility for research on science and technology and can be regarded as one of the greatest resources for humankind to explore space. The HSTI seeks to promote human space technology and to expand ISS utilization. This report describes the background, objectives, and current three-year work plan of HSTI which is composed of organizing expert meetings, seminars, and workshops as well as building capacity by distributing educational materials and zero-gravity experiment instruments.
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