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Del enfoque reduccionista al enfoque de sistema en la agricultura cubana: un necesario cambio de visión
Machado,Hilda; Suset,A; Martín,G. J; Funes-Monzote,F. R;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2009,
Abstract: the transformations of world economy in recent years, characterized by instability in the price of food and fuels, have repercussion on cuban economy, affected by the collapse of the socialist countries, the inviability of the implemented economic model, the devastating effect of hurricanes and the blockade by the united states; this has compelled to perform a process of changes in agriculture and other sectors of society, which should be accompanied by an intense preparation of people. it is necessary to "transform the people who change things, not the things to change people"1 with the inclusion and consideration of an alternative that evaluates the improvement of the conditions of the rural communities associated to livestock production. in that sense, there is an urgent need to carry out actions aimed at influencing a change of paradigm in producers and managers, academics and researchers, which would allow to assimilate new direction and management methods of the productive process. for that, a new world vision is needed, in addition to a new mental model, changing values, concepts, approaches and models that support a new paradigm to shape the way of thinking and acting of the social, economic, political and institutional stakeholders related to the process of agriculture and economy development in the country. in this work the authors intend to approach the problems that limit the innovating capacity of the cuban livestock production enterprise from a systemic perspective.
An Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide Designed with a Reductionist Approach Stimulates Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Reduces Atherosclerosis in Mice  [PDF]
Michael Ditiatkovski, Wilissa D’Souza, Rajitha Kesani, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Judy B. de Haan, Alan Remaley, Dmitri Sviridov
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068802
Abstract: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are considered a promising novel therapeutic approach to prevent and/or treat atherosclerosis. An apoA-I mimetic peptide ELK-2A2K2E was designed with a reductionist approach and has shown exceptional activity in supporting cholesterol efflux but modest anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in vitro. In this study we compared these in vitro properties with the capacity of this peptide to modify rates of reverse cholesterol transport and development of atherosclerosis in mouse models. The peptide enhanced the rate of reverse cholesterol transport in C57BL/6 mice and reduced atherosclerosis in Apoe?/? mice receiving a high fat diet. The peptide modestly reduced the size of the plaques in aortic arch, but was highly active in reducing vascular inflammation and oxidation. Administration of the peptide to Apoe?/? mice on a high fat diet reduced the levels of total, high density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. It increased the proportion of smaller HDL particles in plasma at the expense of larger HDL particles, and increased the capacity of the plasma to support cholesterol efflux. Thus, ELK-2A2K2E peptide reduced atherosclerosis in Apoe?/? mice, however, the functional activity profile after chronic in vivo administration was different from that found in acute in vitro studies.
Tackling NCDs: a different approach is needed Confrontando las ENT: es necesario un enfoque diferente Combatendo as DCNT: uma abordagem diferente é necessária*
Jan De Maeseneer,Richard G Roberts,Marcelo Marcos Piva Demarzo,Iona Heath
Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade , 2011, DOI: 10.5712/rbmfc6(19)401
Abstract: A “Alian a DCNT” (“NCD Alliance”)1 visa colocar as doen as cr nicas n o transmissíveis (DCNT) na agenda global de saúde, a fim de enfrentar a chamada “crise das DCNT”. Melhorar os indicadores de morbidade e mortalidade em 2015 dependerá, em grande medida, da preven o e controle das DCNT, especialmente nos países em desenvolvimento2. *Reprinted with permission from Elsevier (The Lancet, 2011, 6 September 2011, online first) - Reprodu o autorizada do original em inglês, publicado no periódico The Lancet, detentor dos copyrights: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61135-5
Beyond the Reductionist Thinking-Doing  [cached]
Theodridis, Fotis
Nordicum-Mediterraneum , 2008,
Abstract: Drawing upon Castoriadis’ work, modernity is conceived to emerge as a conflict and mutual contamination between the two great projects of the West, the project of freedom, which has been pursued by different social movements as individual and social autonomy, and the project of the unlimited expansion of "rational mastery" over the world, which has been pursued by the institutions of capitalism as a ceaseless economic growth, associated to a ceaseless scientific and technological development. Both these projects have been emerged within a reductionist logic-ontology, which presupposes the determinacy and the identity-unity of being, and which thereby posits an imperative upon the Western thinking-doing: to provide a rational foundation of its projects – of freedom and of "rational mastery". As en epoch, postmodernity is defined by the retreat from the project of autonomy and by the increasing domination and globalization of the project of (pseudo-)rational (pseudo-)mastery. As an intellectual current, it has deconstructed the reductionism of modernity and thereby relativezed its political and socioeconomic projects, falling however into a political embarrassment and into the principle of "anything goes".
Enfoque actual de la salud ambiental Current approach of environmental health  [cached]
Dianelys Pérez Jiménez,Yosian Diago Garrido,Beatriz Corona Miranda,René Espinosa Díaz
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiología , 2011,
Abstract: La salud de una comunidad está directamente relacionada con factores que condicionan la relación entre salud y enfermedad, y la necesidad básica humana de un ambiente seguro. La salud ambiental ofrece el marco conceptual para lograr mejores condiciones desde el punto de vista sanitario, ambiental y socioeconómico, y para esto incorpora múltiples sectores y disciplinas. Este trabajo tiene la finalidad de exponer los aspectos más importantes y actuales en relación con la salud ambiental, así como la necesidad de aplicar con más énfasis el enfoque ecosistémico en la salud humana. El enfoque ecosistémico para la salud humana (Ecosalud) presenta muchos desafíos, ya que atraviesa las fronteras tradicionales de la investigación. De hecho, constituye un nuevo enfoque que conecta la gestión ambiental integrada con una comprensión holística de la salud humana, tomando en cuenta los factores sociales, económicos y culturales inherentes a un ecosistema dado. Community health is directly related to factors fitting the relation between health and disease and the basic human need of a safe environment. The environmental health offers a conceptual frame to achieve better conditions from the health, environmental and socioeconomic point of view and thus incorporate multiples sectors and disciplines. The aim of present paper is to expose the more significant and current features in relation to environmental health, as well as the need to apply with a great emphasis the ecosystem approach in human health. Above mentioned approach (Ecohealth) has many challenges, since cross the traditional frontiers of research. In reality, it is a new approach connecting the integrated environmental management with a holistic comprehension of human health, taking into account the social, economic and cultural factors inherent to a given ecosystem.
Teoría y estudio no reduccionista de lo social  [cached]
Carmen Vallarino Bracho
Utopia y Praxis Latinoamericana , 2004,
Abstract: Cuá les son los ca mi nos de la teo ría so cial post-po si ti vis ta? Más allá de los tres gran des ti pos de teorías contem poráneas estudiadas en el pre - sente trabajo, cuyas presuposiciones ontológicas fusionan estructura y agente, se impone un estudio de la so cie dad en el re co no ci mien to de las pro pie - dades y de los distintos poderes emergentes que caracterizan tanto la estructura como el agente y exigen un examen no-reduccionista de sus interre - laciones. La aproximación genérica no-fusionista puede servir para explicar la doble morfogénesis del ac tor mis mo, así como la ma ne ra como los agen tes se tras for man a sí mis mos a lo lar go de un proceso auto-satisfac torio de búsqueda de trans - for ma ción so cial, en la me di da que no sean consideradas recetas-milagro que dispen sarían al in - vestigador de un trabajo riguroso y profundo.
La Medicina General Integral y su enfoque social y humanista Comprehensive general medicine and its social and humanistic approach  [cached]
Alina María Segredo Pérez,Irene Perdomo Victoria
Educaci?3n M??dica Superior , 2012,
Abstract: En este artículo se reflexiona sobre el enfoque social y humanista de la Medicina General Integral cubana. Se tiene en cuenta el desarrollo histórico de la medicina familiar en el mundo y en Cuba en los escenarios de la atención primaria de salud. Asimismo se muestra este enfoque socio-humanista en el modelo de formación del especialista en Medicina General Integral y la significación de la educación en valores. Se enfatiza en los valores como pautas que orientan el comportamiento humano hacia la transformación social y la realización de la persona, así como el proceso de valoración del ser humano. También, se destaca la aplicación de los principios éticos en las funciones del médico familiar cubano y la importancia de estos en su práctica profesional. This article thoroughly analyzed the social and humanistic approach of the Cuban comprehensive general medicine. It took into account the historical development of the family medicine worldwide and in Cuba in the primary health care settings. Likewise, the same social and humanistic approach was reflected on the formation model of the comprehensive general physician and the significance of the value system development. It made emphasis on the values as guidelines that direct the human behaviour to the social transformation and to individual fulfilment, as well as the process of assessing the human being. The application of the ethical principles in the functions of the Cuban family physician and their importance in their professional performance was also underlined.
El Enfoque Biográfico: Trayectorias, Desarrollos Teóricos y Perspectivas The Biographical Approach: Trajectories, Theoretical Developments, and Perspectives
Marcela Cornejo
Psykhe (Santiago) , 2006,
Abstract: En el escenario de las metodologías cualitativas, el enfoque biográfico ha ido adquiriendo un lugar relevante. Este enfoque, en la intersección de lo social y lo psicológico, sostiene que los individuos están marcados por una dinámica contradictoria entre la acción de determinantes sociales y familiares y el trabajo que el propio sujeto efectúa sobre su historia para intentar controlar su curso y otorgarle un sentido. De esta manera, se concibe al sujeto como un producto, un productor y un actor de su historia. Se presenta en este artículo una revisión del enfoque biográfico analizándolo y situándolo como un enfoque cualitativo y clínico para el quehacer científico. Se revisa la trayectoria que este enfoque ha tenido en las ciencias sociales, a través del aporte que diferentes disciplinas han ido realizando. Se presentan las principales corrientes de desarrollo del enfoque, así como las principales opciones teóricas que fundan y orientan el quehacer desde él. The biographical approach has been acquiring a relevant position in the field of qualitative methods. This approach, in the intersection of the social and the psychological, upholds that individuals are marked by a contradictory dynamic between the actions of social and family determinants and the agency that the own individual has and carries out over his history to try to control its course and give it a meaning. In this way, the individual is conceived as a product, a creator, and an actor of his own history. This article presents a revision of the biographical approach analyzing it and placing it as a qualitative and clinical approach for scientific work. It revises the trajectory that this approach has had in the social sciences, through the contributions that different disciplines have been making. The article also presents the principal paths of development of this approach, as well as the principal theoretical options that form the fundamentals of and guide its applications.
Agricultural Labor Demand in Chile: A Cointegration Approach Demanda por Trabajo Agrícola en Chile: Un Enfoque de Cointegración  [cached]
Rodrigo Saens N,Germán Lobos A,Edinson Rivera A
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2008,
Abstract: International evidence shows that the positive relationship between product and agricultural labor has weakened during the last 30 years, especially in emergent economies. Chilean agriculture has not been left out of this phenomenon The main purpose of this reseach was to estimate the causality relationships that govern the product, employment and salaries in the Chilean silviculture-agricultural-livestock sector, using a cointegration approach. Quarterly data from the 1996-2005 period were employed to estimate agricultural labor demand. A Cobb-Douglas agricultural production function was employed and from it were derived the minimum cost function and the labor demand as bases of this study; the latter was approximated log-linearly to find different measures of elasticity. The main results shows that the estimated demand for agricultural labor has long-run employment-product and employment-salary elasticities of 0.38 and -0.88, respectively. An important conclusion suggests that, compared with the employment-product and employment-salary elasticities of labor demand on the aggregated level, agricultural employment in the long run results less sensitive to changes in the product, but more sensitive to changes in salaries. La evidencia internacional muestra que la relación positiva entre producto y empleo agrícola se ha debilitado en los últimos 30 a os, especialmente en economías emergentes. La agricultura en Chile no ha estado al margen de este fenómeno. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue estimar las relaciones de causalidad que rigen al producto, el empleo y los salarios en el sector silvoagropecuario chileno, utilizando un enfoque de cointegración. Para la estimación de la demanda por trabajo agrícola se utilizaron datos trimestrales del período 1996 a 2005. Se utilizó una función de producción agrícola tipo Cobb-Douglas, a partir de la cual se derivó la función de costo mínimo y la demanda por trabajo base de este estudio; esta última se aproximó log-linealmente para encontrar distintas medidas de elasticidades. Los principales resultados muestran que la demanda por trabajo agrícola estimada presenta elasticidades empleo-producto y empleo-salario de largo plazo de 0,38 y -0,88, respectivamente. Una importante conclusión sugiere que, comparado con las elasticidades empleo-producto y empleo-salario de la demanda por trabajo a nivel agregado, el empleo agrícola en el largo plazo resulta ser menos sensible a cambios en el producto, pero más sensible a cambios en salarios.
Un enfoque ordinal para medir la pobreza Poverty: an ordinal approach to measurement  [cached]
Sen Amartya
Cuadernos de Economía , 1998,
Abstract: Este articulo se propone un nuevo indicador de pobreza que evita algunas deficiencias de los indicadores que hoy utilizan. Para deducir el indicador se utiliza un enfoque axiomático. La concepción de bienestar usada para establecer el conjunto de axiomas es ordinal. La información requerida para el nuevo indicador es bastante limitada, lo que permite su utilización practica. The primary aim of this paper is to propose a new measure of poverty, which should avoid some of the shortcomings of the mea sures currently in use. An axiomatic approach is used to derive the measure. The conception of welfare in the axiom set is ordinal. The information required for the new measure is quite limited, permitting practical use.
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