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Interpolating Greedy and Reluctant Algorithms  [PDF]
P. Contucci,C. Giardina',C. Giberti,F. Unguendoli,C. Vernia
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: In a standard NP-complete optimization problem we introduce an interpolating algorithm between the quick decrease along the gradient (greedy dynamics) and a slow decrease close to the level curves (reluctant dynamics). We find that for a fixed elapsed computer time the best performance of the optimization is reached at a special value of the interpolation parameter, considerably improving the results of the pure cases greedy and reluctant.
On the Translation of English Movie Titles  [cached]
Lu Yin
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v5n3p171
Abstract: The film, a popular art with both artistic and commercial values, is one of the most influential mass media. Film looks like a piece of mirror, which reflects all the respects of human society, including the material world and the spiritual world as well. With large quantities of English movies being introduced into China, more and more movie titles are translated into Chinese, some well done while some poorly done. Exploring the present situation of film titles, within the framework of audience-oriented approach, this paper tries to generalize some principles, such as faithfulness, cultural awareness, and combination of commercial and aesthetic effects, of film titles with abundant examples. Based on the foregoing analysis, some concrete techniques of film title translation are discussed, such as transliteration, literal translation and explication.
Teen Tech Week: Create, Share, Learn @ Your Library  [cached]
Robyn Vittek
In the Library with the Lead Pipe , 2010,
Abstract: Have you ever noticed how many special events there are in library-land? National Library Week, Read across America Day, Teen Read Week, National Poetry Month, National Children’s Book Week—it becomes difficult to keep track! As much fun as it would be, it’s pretty much impossible to celebrate or even acknowledge each and every one of [...]
TITLES OF RESEARCH PROJECTS  [cached]
Cárdenas Beltrán Melba Libia
Profile Issues in Teachers` Professional Development , 2000,
Abstract: The research reports corresponding to the titles we list in the following pages can be consulted in the Foreign Languages Department at Universidad Nacional de Colombia. There, we can find a detailed account of the theoretical issues that led teachers to undertake classroom research. Reference is also made to research procedures and findings in the teaching settings where investigations were carried out.
Teen mothers and schooling: lacunae and challenges
Agnes Chigona,Rajendra Chetty
South African Journal of Education , 2008,
Abstract: While many girls who become mothers before completing schooling consider academic qualifications to be very important, they may not be able to succeed academically if the support they need to complete their studies is insufficient. Usually, instead of getting support, the teen mothers endure misunderstandings and pressure. The teen mothers may feel disempowered because they are 'othered' and consequently, they develop forms of resistance which in most cases may foster their failure as learners. Our aim was to find out how much support was offered to these girls to facilitate their schooling, thus making it possible for them to complete their education and become self-reliant. A qualitative research approach was employed to gather information for the study. Teen mothers, their educators, and parents were interviewed to gather information about the girls' schooling situation. The results showed that many teen mothers failed to succeed with schooling because they lacked support to avoid the numerous disruptions to school attendance.
Titles versus titles and abstracts for initial screening of articles for systematic reviews
Mateen FJ, Oh J, Tergas AI, Bhayani NH, Kamdar BB
Clinical Epidemiology , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S43118
Abstract: les versus titles and abstracts for initial screening of articles for systematic reviews Original Research (1102) Total Article Views Authors: Mateen FJ, Oh J, Tergas AI, Bhayani NH, Kamdar BB Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 89 - 95 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S43118 Received: 22 January 2013 Accepted: 11 February 2013 Published: 15 March 2013 Farrah J Mateen,1,2 Jiwon Oh,1,2 Ana I Tergas,1,3 Neil H Bhayani,1,4 Biren B Kamdar1,5 1Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Department of Neurology, 3Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Surgery, Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA; 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: There is no consensus on whether screening titles alone or titles and abstracts together is the preferable strategy for inclusion of articles in a systematic review. Methods: Two methods of screening articles for inclusion in a systematic review were compared: titles first versus titles and abstracts simultaneously. Each citation found in MEDLINE or Embase was reviewed by two physician reviewers for prespecified criteria: the citation included (1) primary data; (2) the exposure of interest; and (3) the outcome of interest. Results: There were 2965 unique citations. The titles first strategy resulted in an immediate rejection of 2558 (86%) of the records after reading the title alone, requiring review of 239 titles and abstracts, and subsequently 176 full text articles. The simultaneous titles and abstracts review led to rejection of 2782 citations (94%) and review of 183 full text articles. Interreviewer agreement to include an article for full text review using the titles-first screening strategy was 89%–94% (kappa = 0.54) and 96%–97% (kappa = 0.56) for titles and abstracts combined. The final systematic review included 13 articles, all of which were identified by both screening strategies (yield 100%, burden 114%). Precision was higher in the titles and abstracts method (7.1% versus 3.2%) but recall was the same (100% versus 100%), leading to a higher F-measure for the titles and abstracts approach (0.1327 versus 0.0619). Conclusion: Screening via a titles-first approach may be more efficient than screening titles and abstracts together.
Titles versus titles and abstracts for initial screening of articles for systematic reviews  [cached]
Mateen FJ,Oh J,Tergas AI,Bhayani NH
Clinical Epidemiology , 2013,
Abstract: Farrah J Mateen,1,2 Jiwon Oh,1,2 Ana I Tergas,1,3 Neil H Bhayani,1,4 Biren B Kamdar1,51Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Department of Neurology, 3Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Surgery, Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA; 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USABackground: There is no consensus on whether screening titles alone or titles and abstracts together is the preferable strategy for inclusion of articles in a systematic review.Methods: Two methods of screening articles for inclusion in a systematic review were compared: titles first versus titles and abstracts simultaneously. Each citation found in MEDLINE or Embase was reviewed by two physician reviewers for prespecified criteria: the citation included (1) primary data; (2) the exposure of interest; and (3) the outcome of interest.Results: There were 2965 unique citations. The titles first strategy resulted in an immediate rejection of 2558 (86%) of the records after reading the title alone, requiring review of 239 titles and abstracts, and subsequently 176 full text articles. The simultaneous titles and abstracts review led to rejection of 2782 citations (94%) and review of 183 full text articles. Interreviewer agreement to include an article for full text review using the titles-first screening strategy was 89%–94% (kappa = 0.54) and 96%–97% (kappa = 0.56) for titles and abstracts combined. The final systematic review included 13 articles, all of which were identified by both screening strategies (yield 100%, burden 114%). Precision was higher in the titles and abstracts method (7.1% versus 3.2%) but recall was the same (100% versus 100%), leading to a higher F-measure for the titles and abstracts approach (0.1327 versus 0.0619).Conclusion: Screening via a titles-first approach may be more efficient than screening titles and abstracts together.Keywords: meta-analysis, research methods, epidemiology, systematic review
Reluctant altruism and peer pressure in charitable giving  [PDF]
Diane Reyniers,Richa Bhalla
Judgment and Decision Making , 2013,
Abstract: Subjects donate individually (control group) or in pairs (treatment group). Those in pairs reveal their donation decision to each other. Average donations in the treatment group are significantly higher than in the control group. Paired subjects have the opportunity to revise their donation decision after discussion. Pair members shift toward each others' initial decisions. Subjects are happier with their decision when their donations are larger, but those in pairs are less happy, controlling for amount donated. These findings suggest reluctant altruism due to peer pressure in charitable giving.
Reluctant Paraphrase: Textual Restructuring under an Optimisation Model  [PDF]
Mark Dras
Computer Science , 1997,
Abstract: This paper develops a computational model of paraphrase under which text modification is carried out reluctantly; that is, there are external constraints, such as length or readability, on an otherwise ideal text, and modifications to the text are necessary to ensure conformance to these constraints. This problem is analogous to a mathematical optimisation problem: the textual constraints can be described as a set of constraint equations, and the requirement for minimal change to the text can be expressed as a function to be minimised; so techniques from this domain can be used to solve the problem. The work is done as part of a computational paraphrase system using the XTAG system as a base. The paper will present a theoretical computational framework for working within the Reluctant Paraphrase paradigm: three types of textual constraints are specified, effects of paraphrase on text are described, and a model incorporating mathematical optimisation techniques is outlined.
Religiosity and teen birth rate in the United States
Joseph M Strayhorn, Jillian C Strayhorn
Reproductive Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-6-14
Abstract: The present study compiled publicly accessible data on birth rates, conservative religious beliefs, income, and abortion rates in the U.S., aggregated at the state level. Data on teen birth rates and abortion originated from the Center for Disease Control; on income, from the U.S. Bureau of the Census, and on religious beliefs, from the U.S. Religious Landscape Survey carried out by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. We computed correlations and partial correlations.Increased religiosity in residents of states in the U.S. strongly predicted a higher teen birth rate, with r = 0.73 (p < 0.0005). Religiosity correlated negatively with median household income, with r = -0.66, and income correlated negatively with teen birth rate, with r = -0.63. But the correlation between religiosity and teen birth rate remained highly significant when income was controlled for via partial correlation: the partial correlation between religiosity and teen birth rate, controlling for income, was 0.53 (p < 0.0005). Abortion rate correlated negatively with religiosity, with r = -0.45, p = 0.002. However, the partial correlation between teen birth rate and religiosity remained high and significant when controlling for abortion rate (partial correlation = 0.68, p < 0.0005) and when controlling for both abortion rate and income (partial correlation = 0.54, p = 0.001).With data aggregated at the state level, conservative religious beliefs strongly predict U.S. teen birth rates, in a relationship that does not appear to be the result of confounding by income or abortion rates. One possible explanation for this relationship is that teens in more religious communities may be less likely to use contraception.The children of teen mothers in the U.S., on the average, have worse outcomes in a number of ways. They score lower in school achievement tests, have a greater likelihood of repeating a grade, are rated more unfavorably by teachers while in high school, have worse physical health, are
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