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Pictorial essay: Mammography of the male breast  [cached]
Popli Manju,Popli V,Bahl P,Solanki Y
Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging , 2009,
Abstract: Mammography is an imaging modality that is widely perceived to be of use only in women for the detection and diagnosis of breast pathologies. Here, we present a pictorial essay on the mammographic spectrum of male breast pathologies.
Effective x-ray attenuation coefficient measurements from two full field digital mammography systems for data calibration applications
John J Heine, Jerry A Thomas
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-7-13
Abstract: Logarithmic response calibration curves and effective x-ray attenuation coefficients were measured from two full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems with breast tissue equivalent phantom imaging and compared. Normalization methods were studied to assess the possibility of reducing the amount of calibration data collection. The percent glandular calibration map functional form was investigated. Spatial variations in the calibration data were used to assess the uncertainty in the calibration application by applying error propagation analyses.Logarithmic response curves are well approximated as linear. Measured effective x-ray attenuation coefficients are characteristic quantities independent of the imaging system and are in agreement with those predicted numerically. Calibration data collection can be reduced by applying a simple normalization technique. The calibration map is well approximated as linear. Intrasystem calibration variation was on the order of four percent, which was approximately half of the intersystem variation.FFDM systems provide a quantitative output, and the calibration quantities presented here may be used for data acquired on similar FFDM systems.Early detection is a key element in reducing breast cancer mortality [1]. Mammography screening is an essential surveillance component for early detection [2]. Similarly, there is interest in developing total cancer care methods in clinical practice so that disease screening and treatment can be tailored to the patient [3]. The development of accurate breast cancer risk models may play an important role in designing risk based cancer control strategies. Because breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor [4], it may be useful to include it in the clinical setting for risk assessment. The Gail breast cancer risk model is used for intervention studies and counseling [5] but does not include breast density beyond research purposes. There is a critical need to incorporate all available i
Latest on Laser Mammography in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
M.Sh. Arshad,Sh. Allami
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Objective: Breast compression and radiation fears/dangers are the most prevalent causes reported by women avoiding mammography, rou-tinely or otherwise. This study was carried out to find out the accuracy/precision and quality of laser mam-mography in diagnosing breast cancer amongst women and compared the results with routine meth-ods of mammography. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with the di-agnosis of breast cancer by routine/ordinary mam-mography were also studied by laser mammography in two hospitals in Canada and one hospital in the United States of America the results of which I saw during a recent academic trip to those countries. The apparatus consists of a table on which the woman lies down and her breast hangs through a hole in the ta-ble. The laser beam rotates at an angle of 360 degrees around the hanging breast and images are obtained and stored in a computer. Biopsy may also be ob-tained simultaneously. Results: Excellent high quality images of breast tu-mors are obtained with specific precise localization of them far superior to those images obtained by ordi-nary/routine mammography, and simultaneous bi-opsy confirming the diagnosis. We will screen a video film about the methods and results of this technique at the congress too. Conclusion: Laser mammography is safe, accurate, reliable, pain free, compression free mammography. It is assumed that laser mammography will establish its place in mammography and will replace the cur-rent methods of mammography.
Mammography in detection clinically occult breast carcinoma
Golubi?i? I.V.,Pavlovi? T.M.,Borojevi? N.,Dodi? R.
Acta Chirurgica Iugoslavica , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/aci0703027g
Abstract: Aim: The significance of mammography in detection of nonpalpable breast cancer Material and methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Institute for oncology and radiology of Serbia in Belgrade. It involved 198 asymptomatic women with performed screening mammography, 154 specimen mammography, out of witch 38 had stereotaxic mark, "ex tempore" biopsy, while 44 women had "ex tempore" biopsy and adequate surgery. Results: Screening mammography revealed suspect microcalcifications in 148 cases, impaired structural tissue in 59 and focal condensation in 55 cases. Histologic examination verified breast carcinoma in 80 patients with very statistical significance of ductal type, especially comedo subvariant (p<0.001). Pleomorphic microcalcifications smaller than 0.5 mm of grouped or segmented form are statistically very significant for malignity (p<0,001) as well as associated microcalcifications with altered architectony and focal tissue condensation (p<0.001). Conclusion: Mammography has great significance in detection of occult breast carcinoma which are not only preinvasive, but also microinvasive and invasive. This fact leads to the neccesity of introduction of legal obligation for mammography screening, especially for women aged between 50 and 70 years.
Trends in Breast Cancer Mortality in Sweden before and after Implementation of Mammography Screening  [PDF]
Jari Haukka, Graham Byrnes, Mathieu Boniol, Philippe Autier
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022422
Abstract: Background Incidence-based mortality modelling comparing the risk of breast cancer death in screened and unscreened women in nine Swedish counties has suggested a 39% risk reduction in women 40 to 69 years old after introduction of mammography screening in the 1980s and 1990s. Objective We evaluated changes in breast cancer mortality in the same nine Swedish counties using a model approach based on official Swedish breast cancer mortality statistics, robust to effects of over-diagnosis and treatment changes. Using mortality data from the NordCan database from 1974 until 2003, we estimated the change in breast cancer mortality before and after introduction of mammography screening in at least the 13 years that followed screening start. Results Breast mortality decreased by 16% (95% CI: 9 to 22%) in women 40 to 69, and by 11% (95% CI: 2 to 20%) in women 40 to 79 years of age. Discussion Without individual data it is impossible to completely separate the effects of improved treatment and health service organisation from that of screening, which would bias our results in favour of screening. There will also be some contamination of post-screening mortality from breast cancer diagnosed prior to screening, beyond our attempts to adjust for delayed benefit. This would bias against screening. However, our estimates from publicly available data suggest considerably lower benefits than estimates based on comparison of screened versus non-screened women.
Diagnosis of breast cancer in women age 40 and younger: Mammography and breast ultrasound  [PDF]
Milo?evi? Z.,Karapand?i?-Ple?inac V.,Jovi?evi? A.,Vukovi? V.
Acta Chirurgica Iugoslavica , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/aci0904077m
Abstract: Breast cancer is the leading cause of mortality among women aged 25 to 44 years in Serbia. The purpose of this study was to determine basic clinical and radiological features of breast cancer in young women. 93 women aged 31,0+3,5 years with breast cancer were identified. The analysis included clinical characteristics (TNM classification) and radiological features (mammography and breast ultrasound). 53,8% of the patients had locoregional disease. The mean diameter of breast cancer was 2,6+6 cm. Carcinoma in situ was found in 2,2%. Mammography was performed in 25,8% of the patients and breast ultrasound in 68,8%. The results of our study indicate that the diagnosis of breast cancer in young women is late, in the stage with palpable breast tumor and lymph node metastases. Mammography or breast ultrasound are not routinely used. The implementation of algorithms for breast cancer detection and diagnosis in young women helps in earlier detection of breast cancer and consequently improves outcomes.
Comparison of written reports of mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance mammography for preoperative evaluation of breast lesions, with special emphasis on magnetic resonance mammography
Sabine Malur, Susanne Wurdinger, Andreas Moritz, Wolfgang Michels, Achim Schneider
Breast Cancer Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/bcr271
Abstract: Mammography and sonography are the standard imaging techniques for detection and evaluation of breast disease [1]. Mammography is the most established screening modality [2]. Especially in young women and women with dense breasts, sonography appears superior to mammography, and differentiation between solid tumours and cysts is easier. Sensitivity and specificity of sonography or mammography are higher if sonography and mammography are combined [3].It is generally accepted that MR mammography is the most sensitive technique for diagnosis of breast cancer, whereas the reported specificity of MR mammography varies [4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12]. In those studies, MR mammography was performed and evaluated by highly specialized radiologists in a research setting. It was therefore the purpose of the present prospective study to compare the validity of MR mammography with mammography and sonography in clinical routine practice. Findings for the three diagnostic methods documented on routine reports that were available to the surgeon preoperatively formed the basis of this comparison. Special emphasis was placed on the identification of multifocal and multicentric invasive disease.Between September 1995 and September 1998, 413 patients with abnormal breast findings were referred for histological evaluation to the Department of Gynecology of the Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, Germany. Patients had been selected and referred because of the presence of breast lesions detected by palpation and/or mammography and/or sonography. In addition, MR mammography was performed in all patients. We excluded five patients with invasive cancer who had a history of core-needle or fine-needle biopsy cancer within 2 weeks before referral, because the presence of haematoma may mimic false-positive findings on MR mammography. In addition, five patients who did not keep still during MR mammography were excluded.Analysis of the sonograms taken in patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma in
Are Both Ultrasonography and Mammography Necessary for Cancer Investigation of Breast Lumps in Resource-Limited Countries?  [PDF]
Rungnapa Chairat,Adisorn Puttisri,Asani Pamarapa,Sahatham Samintharapanya,Chamaiporn Tawichasri,Jayanton Patumanond
ISRN Oncology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/257942
Abstract: Objective. To reevaluate the diagnostic value of breast imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer in areas where health resources are limited. Methods. Patients were women presenting with breast lumps in two university-affiliated tertiary hospitals, Thailand, during 2006 and 2010. Clinical data were abstracted from the breast cancer registration database and patient records. The diagnostic predictive ability of ultrasonography and mammography was obtained from logistic regression analysis and presented with areas under the receiver operating characteristics (AuROCs) curves. Results. Among 3129 breast lumps (3069 women), 854 were diagnosed with breast cancer by certified pathologists. Age and size of lumps alone already predicted cancer correctly in 77.45% (AuROC = 77.45). Additional ultrasonography increased the prediction to 96.22% ( ). Additional mammography also increased the prediction to 95.99% ( ). Performing both imaging modalities did not increase the prediction clinically (0.01%–0.24%). More accurate prediction (2.07%–2.21%) may be added by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Conclusions. Breast imaging is still valuable in settings where health resources are limited. Single breast imaging (only either ultrasonography or mammography) is adequate for cancer diagnosis. It is therefore unnecessary to perform both imaging modalities. Accuracy of the diagnosis may be improved by FNAC, if available. 1. Introduction Breast cancer is increasingly common in women worldwide. It is one of the leading causes of death among female malignancies [1]. The incidence varies from region to region, more in developed countries (>80 per 100,000 populations) than in developing countries (<40 per 100,000 populations). In southeast Asian women, it was 31.0 per 100,000 populations [2]. Cancer of the breast in Thailand is the highest among all female cancers and is continuously rising. The incidence increased from 34.4 to 40.6 per 100,000 populations during 2006 to 2009. The mortality also increased from 6.3 to 7.3 per 100,000 populations in the corresponding years [3]. The standard diagnosis of breast cancer recommended triple diagnostic investigations [4], comprising (1) clinical breast examination; (2) breast imaging, ultrasonography, or mammography, (3) cytopathologic with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histopathologic findings with a core needle biopsy with cutting needle biopsy. The same recommendation was also used by The National Institute of Cancer of Thailand, for women presenting with breast lumps [5]. Ultrasonography is recommended in women
Comparison of standard mammography with digital mammography and digital infrared thermal imaging for breast cancer screening  [cached]
Nermin K??ü?,Ayd?n K??ü?,Müzeyyen Duran,Serap Simavl?
Journal of the Turkish-German Gynecological Association , 2010,
Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Screen-film mammography (SFM) has been considered the gold standard for breast cancer screening and detection. Despite its recognized value in detecting and characterizing breast disease, mammography has important limitations and its false-negative rate ranges from 4% to 34%. Given these limitations, development of imaging modalities that would enhance, complement, or replace mammography has been a priority. Digital mammography (FFDM) and digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) are some of these alternative modalities.
Optical mammography: Diffuse optical imaging of breast cancer  [cached]
Kijoon Lee
World Journal of Clinical Oncology , 2011,
Abstract: Existing imaging modalities for breast cancer screening, diagnosis and therapy monitoring, namely X-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging, have been proven to have limitations. Diffuse optical imaging is a set of non-invasive imaging modalities that use near-infrared light, which can be an alternative, if not replacement, to those existing modalities. This review covers the background knowledge, recent clinical outcome, and future outlook of this newly emerging medical imaging modality.
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