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 Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-s1-s9 Abstract: More attention is being focused on malaria today than any time since the world's last efforts to achieve eradication over 40 years ago. The global community is now discussing strategies aimed at dramatically reducing malarial disease burden and the eventual eradication of all types of malaria, everywhere. As a consequence, Plasmodium vivax, which has long been neglected and mistakenly considered inconsequential, is now entering into the strategic debates taking place on malaria epidemiology and control, drug resistance, pathogenesis and vaccines. Thus, contrary to the past, the malaria research community is becoming more aware and concerned about the widespread spectrum of illness and death caused by up to a couple of hundred million cases of vivax malaria each year. This review brings these issues to light and provides an overview of P. vivax vaccine development, then and now. Progress had been slow, given inherent research challenges and minimal support in the past, but prospects are looking better for making headway in the next few years. P. vivax, known to invade the youngest red blood cells, the reticulocytes, presents a strong challenge towards developing a reliable long-term culture system to facilitate needed research. The P. vivax genome was published recently, and vivax researchers now need to coordinate efforts to discover new vaccine candidates, establish new vaccine approaches, capitalize on non-human primate models for testing, and investigate the unique biological features of P. vivax, including the elusive P. vivax hypnozoites. Comparative studies on both P. falciparum and P. vivax in many areas of research will be essential to eradicate malaria. And to this end, the education and training of future generations of dedicated "malariologists" to advance our knowledge, understanding and the development of new interventions against each of the malaria species infecting humans also will be essential.
 Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511261 Abstract: Chronic low back pain has a huge impact on daily living and a negative economic and professional effect. It is a matter of debate and concern for all health professionals involved, particularly spine surgeons. Recent discoveries on the innervation and biochemical properties of the intervertebral disc clarify the role of this structure as a possible cause of chronic low back pain. However, multiple causes may be present in the same patient making the diagnosis a challenging process. Discogenic pain is defined as a chronic low back pain induced by a degenerative disc disease. There are no specific characteristics of discogenic pain, although it has a higher incidence in younger age, it is usually localized medially in the back, worsens with axial loading and improves with recumbence. In the last decades we have assisted the emergence of multiple treatment techniques. However, neither the conservative treatment nor the interventional management has strong evidence in treating discogenic pain. Randomized control clinical trials are sought to improve patient outcome. Meanwhile, we believe each patient should be approached on an individual base. Discogenic pain: we care.
 J. McNeill Economics of Development , 2012, Abstract: In the article the author, an experienced anthropologist who worked in Central and Eastern Europe, has used his "outsider" professional perspective to look at questions of greed and need as they relate to matters of economics. The problems that arise due human fallibility in scientific knowledge application have been considered, specifically in the fields of anthropology and economics. Basing on the experience of anthropologists, whose scientific research has often been used in the past century to abuse vulnerable people groups, the author argues that the need for ethical standards and practices is even more urgent in the field of economics than it is in anthropology. The increased urgency results from the great influence that money has on human behavior. The development of standards and practices to check and balance human tendencies to exploit others will never be complete, he claims, but must be an ongoing priority. The process must also be creative to deal with the tendency to try to avoid or circumvent it. It has been concluded that we are professionally responsible to ensure that the results of our research and teaching help produce improving care for the needs of vulnerable people in the world around us.
 BMC Medical Ethics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-7-5 Abstract: In the aftermath of SARS and with the spectre of a pandemic avian influenza, it is imperative that we (re)consider the obligations of HCPs for patients with severe infectious diseases, particularly diseases that pose risks to those providing care. It is of pressing importance that organizations representing HCPs give clear indication of what standard of care is expected of their members in the event of a pandemic. In this paper, we address the issue of special obligations of HCPs during an infectious disease outbreak. We argue that there is a pressing need to clarify the rights and responsibilities of HCPs in the current context of pandemic flu preparedness, and that these rights and responsibilities ought to be codified in professional codes of ethics. Finally, we present a brief historical accounting of the treatment of the duty to care in professional health care codes of ethics.An honest and critical examination of the role of HCPs during communicable disease outbreaks is needed in order to provide guidelines regarding professional rights and responsibilities, as well as ethical duties and obligations. With this paper, we hope to open the social dialogue and advance the public debate on this increasingly urgent issue.In 2003, the world witnessed the spread of a novel and deadly virus, namely SARS CoV. The health care workers (HCWs) and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCWs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many were exposed to serious risk of morbidity and mortality; indeed, approximately 30% of reported cases were among HCWs, some of whom died from the infection [1].As a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our current health care systems and governance structures [2
 Computer Science , 2015, Abstract: We introduce a general approach based on \emph{selective verification} and obtain approximate mechanisms without money for maximizing the social welfare in the general domain of utilitarian voting. Having a good allocation in mind, a mechanism with verification selects few critical agents and detects, using a verification oracle, whether they have reported truthfully. If yes, the mechanism produces the desired allocation. Otherwise, the mechanism ignores any misreports and proceeds with the remaining agents. We obtain randomized truthful (or almost truthful) mechanisms without money that verify only $O(\ln m / \epsilon)$ agents, where $m$ is the number of outcomes, independently of the total number of agents, and are $(1-\epsilon)$-approximate for the social welfare. We also show that any truthful mechanism with a constant approximation ratio needs to verify $\Omega(\log m)$ agents. A remarkable property of our mechanisms is \emph{robustness}, namely that their outcome depends only on the reports of the truthful agents.
 BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-264 Abstract: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Wales in June 2005, and sent a questionnaire to consultants of genitourinary medicine (GUM, n = 11), a consultant microbiologist from each laboratory (n = 14), all consultants in communicable disease control (n = 5), and to epidemiologists of the National Public Health Service (n = 4).26 (76%) of 34 survey recipients responded. Of these, 17 (65%) ranked the investigation of STI outbreaks as important or very important, and 19 (73%) perceived participation in the investigation of an STI outbreak as part of their responsibility. Only six (25%) respondents had actively searched their computer system or patient records for a possible STI outbreak in the previous twelve months, and 15 (63%) had never looked for an outbreak. Of seven GUM physicians who said they had identified at least one STI outbreak, three had never informed public health authorities.Prompt identification and coordinated investigation of outbreaks, usually through a multidisciplinary outbreak control team, is central to the control of many infectious diseases. This does not appear to be the case for STIs, which we believe represents a lost opportunity to reduce transmission. Besides improved surveillance methods, a change in culture towards STI outbreaks is needed among health professionals in Wales.The Health Protection Agency (HPA) ranked sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among the greatest infectious disease threats facing the United Kingdom (UK) [1]. A network of genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, created after the 1916 Veneral Disease Regulations, exists to diagnose, treat and control STIs in the UK. Each year more than 1.5 million new episodes of STIs are seen in GUM clinics[1], although an increasing number are diagnosed in primary care in the UK [2].STI outbreaks often signify a failure in routine control measures such as partner notification and treatment and warrant an effective public health response. To do so, outbreaks must f
 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012, Abstract: Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites – one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area – were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and "aged" urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: (a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, (b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, (c) an overview of key observations and initial findings from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and (d) a roadmap of planned data analyses and focused modeling efforts that will facilitate the integration of new knowledge into improved representations of key aerosol processes and properties in climate models.
 Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s1.219 Abstract: The largest proportion of the world’s horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and competition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order to have a proper welfare. This paper will review the main welfare issues of horses and the following aspects will be considered: nutrition, housing and management, clinical problems, behaviour problems, training and riding, transportation, measuring welfare. Horses are social animals that live in groups in close contact with conspecifics. They spend most of their waking hours moving at walk, grazing and eating grass. Some of the constraints imposed on horses during the last centuries conflict to their naturally evolved behaviour. Effective and humane handling of horses positively affects many important aspects like the safety of man, the performance level and the welfare of horses. It is an essential condition for keeping horses that handlers, riders, trainers, farriers and veterinarians have proper knowledge of the behaviour of the horse in order to fulfil their natural needs and guarantee their welfare.
 Michael Berlemann AUCO Czech Economic Review , 2012, Abstract: Most central banks around the globe have the primary task to fight inflation. In the light of the fact that at least moderate inflation turns out to have little effect on the economy this is somewhat surprising. In order to understand why many countries have installed central banks which (almost exclusively) focus on fighting inflation it is necessary to understand why people care about inflation. However, comparatively little knowledge is yet available on the individual determinants of inflation aversion. Up to now, empirical (and quite inconclusive) evidence is available for a number of large Western democracies. Moreover, the evidence is mostly drawn from pure cross section data. Thus, it is yet unclear in how far the results depend on the prevailing macroeconomic situation and can be generalized. In this paper we study the individual determinants of inflation aversion in the Czech Republic. Using data from 11 waves of the Eurobarometer survey we find age, political orientation, education and the macroeconomic situation to have significant effects on the revealed preferences towards fighting inflation while income seems not to play a significant role.
 Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.711109 Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to show an overview of situation of instrumental extraction at the maternity of Cocody University Hospital by determining availability and assessing the maternal and fetal prognosis. Patients and method: it was a retrospective study with a descriptive purpose on 6 months from January 1 to June 31, 2015. It concerned all patients admitted in the expulsive phase of labor delivery room and with an indication of fetal instrumental extraction and the state of their newborns at birth. Results: We saved 2288 vaginal deliveries; including 28 instrumental deliveries on 104 indications of instrumental extraction is an implementation rate of 26.9% (16 by vacuum extractor and 12 forceps). Among patients with indication but without instrumental extraction (n = 76), there is 42.3% vaginal delivery (n = 44) and 30.8% of cesarean section (n = 32). 44 have given birth vaginally (42.3%) and 32 by caesarean section (30.8%). It’s young patient (28 years), nulliparous (42.3%). Average time between instrumental extraction indication and the delivery of the baby was 58 min in the case of instrumental extraction and 1 hour 41 minutes in the case of spontaneous delivery in anticipation of the c-section. Motherhood had 3 instrumental extractors (2 vacuum extractors and 1 forceps) recycled after each use. The Apgar score was good in 85.7% in children born by instrumental extraction and bad in 54.5% in children born vaginally without instrumental extraction. We found 20 stillborn in intra partum occurred only in children born vaginally without instrumental extraction. Twelve (12) cases of bleeding of the issue by uterine atony (27.3%) were recorded in patients pregnant without instrumental extraction. No maternal deaths were observed. Conclusion:
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