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 Bojan Marotti Prolegomena , 2005, Abstract: From 1940 to 1945, Kruno Krsti published a series of articles on language in various newspapers and magazines. He approaches the language phenomenonfrom different points of view. In some of the articles he discusses the Croatian literary language and its relation to the Croatian dialects, while in others he considers the relation between the Croatian and Serbian language. At certain times he presents his views on the development of language, whereas at other he explores the relation between language and thought. Krsti , regardless of the topic he deals with, is considered to be a predecessor in this field in Croatia: from sociolinguistics and theory of standard to philosophy of language in its narrower sense. On the other hand, Krsti also pays special attention to language and the analysis of meaning when he considers other philosophical problems. Thus he becomes closely associated with a particular approach to philosophy, sometimes also called linguistic philosophy.
 Anne-Ségolène Verneret Trajectoires , 2011, Abstract: L’étude des comportements et opinions de la population en Alsace entre 1940 et 1945 fait appel à la nécessité de nommer une conflictualité parfois floue, ambivalente et qui évolue au cours de la période. Il convient de s’interroger sur l’adaptation des outils de définition des comportements développés en France et en Allemagne pour la situation alsacienne pendant l’annexion de fait de son territoire. Alsace 1940-1945, oppositions au nazisme, comportements collectifs Die Erforschung des Verhaltens und der Meinung der Bev lkerung im Elsass zwischen 1940-1945 bringt die Notwendigkeit mit sich, eine zuweilen undurchsichtige, zweideutige Konflikttr chtigkeit zu benennen, die sich im Zeitraum der Annektierung zudem entwickelte. Die methodischen Werkzeuge zur Definition kollektiven Verhaltens, die in Frankreich und Deutschland für diesen els ssischen Fall entwickelt wurden, müssen hierbei angepasst werden.
 Jean-Luc Leleu Trajectoires , 2009, Abstract: La recherche a eu pour objet de déterminer l’action et le r le précis tenus par l’ensemble des formations militaires de la SS pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. à cette fin, l’étude s’est concentrée sur un théatre d’opérations particulier, en l’occurrence l’Europe de l’Ouest (France, Belgique et Pays-Bas) de 1940 à 1945. Différents paramètres ont été pris en compte, en particulier la sociologie du recrutement, la composition, l’emploi fait de ces unités et leurs comportements.La problématiqu...
 Laurent Beauguitte Confins , 2010, DOI: 10.4000/confins.6576 Abstract: Apesar da guerra e da escassez decorrente dela, apesar da ocupa o e dos censores do governo de Vichy e alemaes, os geógrafos franceses cuidaram, entre 1940 e 1945 de continuar seus trabalhos científicos. Este artigo tem como objetivo destacar as condi es de produ o dos seis jornais da geografia francesa durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial e as atitudes dos geógrafos frente às notícias deste momento difícil. O impacto da escassez é facilmente quantificável, e também é possível encontrar sinais claros de resistência à ocupa o e ao regime de Vichy. Falando da censura como dos prisioneiros de guerra ou das dificuldades diárias relacionadas à Segunda Guerra Mundial, os geógrafos aqui estudados escreviam sobre uma geografia do presente. Malgré la guerre et les pénuries qu’elle entra ne, malgré l’occupation et les censures tant vichystes qu’allemandes, les géographes fran ais veillent de 1940 à 1945 à poursuivre leur activité scientifique. Cet article vise à mettre en lumière tant les conditions de production des six revues de géographie fran aises durant la Seconde guerre mondiale que l’attitude des géographes vis à vis de l’actualité difficile de cette époque. Si l’impact des pénuries est aisément quantifiable, il est également possible de trouver des signes nets de résistance à l’Occupation et au régime de Vichy. Evoquant tant la censure que les prisonniers de guerre ou les difficultés quotidiennes liées à la Seconde guerre mondiale, les géographes étudiés ici écrivent une géographie au présent. Despite the war and the shortages it causes, despite the Occupation and both Vichy and German censorships, French geographers achieved, from 1940 to 1945, to continue their scientific work. This article aims to highlight both the production of French geographical journals during the World War II and the behaviour of geographers in this difficult time.If the impact of shortages can be easily quantified, it is also possible to find clear signs of resistance to the Occupation and the Vichy regime. Speaking of censorship as prisoners of war or the daily difficulties related to the Second World War, geographers evocated here clearly produce a contemporary geography.
 S. Playfer Physics , 2003, Abstract: A review of recent experimental results on radiative Penguin decays, and their interpretation within the Standard Model
 J. Kroseberg Physics , 2007, Abstract: We discuss recent experimental studies of radiative penguin decays of B mesons by the Belle and BaBar collaborations.
 H Mehrban Iranian Journal of Physics Research , 2009, Abstract: In this research, we are going to study the QCD penguin structure and calculate the second order approximation. The amplitude of decays related to QCD penguin in the quark model up to the first and second orders were calculated. We calculated the amplitude of QCD penguin on lowest order of αs for the first order of the decay processes b→qkg→qkqiqj and for the second order of the decay processes b→qkqiqj→ qkqiqjg→ qkqiqj(qoqp). We calculated the decay rates of the first and second order of QCD penguin for various b quark decays. We consider that, the second order of QCD penguin of b quark decays to be much smaller than the first order. We calculated the branching ratios of b quark- b antiquark decays and assuming that we can ignore the second order of QCD penguin.
 JEAN-MARIE MIOSSEC Romanian Review of Regional Studies , 2010, Abstract: Reform of Collectivities and Regionalisation in France: A Horizon of Variable Geometry. Initially considered as a highly profitable solution that best fits the spatial organization of France, the resulted administrative cutting gave rise to the multiplication of some supra-communal and intra-departmental structures, contrary to the purpose they had been created for: socio-economic efficiency, territorial cohesion, as well as to institutionalisation. What territorial organization in France is lacking at present is exactly the absence of the interrelations between different territorial levels, the legislative levers being those that can manage these intra- and extra-regional relations. The consequences of decentralization, interpreted by the existence of a multitude of territorial entities between department/county and communes, non-hierarchized, without assuming any responsibility, can and must be corrected by legislative regulations, the reform of territorial collectivities - a regional reform at the same time, left in the hands of Balladur committee, being one of them. The main directions of territorial organization require a focus on merging, namely on suppressing the territorial-administrative units (e.g. canton), the decrease in the number of regional councillors, the promotion of intercommunal associations, the suppression of regional assemblies, the equivalence of the number of regions with the number of regional metropolises, the strengthening of interterritorial relations, directions found only partially in the Balladur report.
 Physics , 1996, Abstract: We have considered the penguin interaction contribution to $K \rightarrow 2 \pi$ decays. In particular, we have investigated the effect of the momentum dependence of the penguin coefficient. Our analysis is performed within the Chiral Quark Model where quarks are coupled to the pseudoscalar mesons, which means that hadronic matrix elements can be calculated in terms of quark loop diagrams. We have inserted the momentum dependent penguin coefficient into the relevant quark loop diagrams for $K \rightarrow \pi$. We discuss two possible prescriptions for performing the calculations, and conclude that the momentum dependence of the penguin coefficient increases the amplitude by 10-20 $\%$. In any case, the (CP-conserving) penguin contribution is very sensitive to the values chosen for the involved parameters.
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nucl.48.1.253 Abstract: Penguin, or loop, decays of B mesons induce effective flavor-changing neutral currents, which are forbidden at tree level in the Standard Model. These decays give special insight into the CKM matrix and are sensitive to non-standard model effects. In this review, we give a historical and theoretical introduction to penguins and a description of the various types of penguin processes: electromagnetic, electroweak, and gluonic. We review the experimental searches for penguin decays, including the measurements of the electromagnetic penguins b -> s gamma and B -> K* gamma and gluonic penguins B -> K pi, B+ -> omega K+ and B -> eta' K, and their implications for the Standard Model and New Physics. We conclude by exploring the future prospects for penguin physics.
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