Abstract:
In this paper basic differential invariants of generic hyperbolic Monge--Amp\`ere equations with respect to contact transformations are constructed and the equivalence problem for these equations is solved.

Abstract:
We consider the local equivalence problem for the class of linear second order hyperbolic equations in two independent variables under an action of the pseudo-group of contact transformations. E. Cartan's method is used for finding the Maurer - Cartan forms for symmetry groups of equations from the class and computing structure equations and complete sets of differential invariants for these groups. The solution of the equivalence problem is formulated in terms of these differential invariants.

Abstract:
Wave-breaking is studied analytically first and the results are compared with accurate numerical simulations of 3D wave-breaking. We focus on the time dependence of various quantities becoming singular at the onset of breaking. The power laws derived from general arguments and the singular behavior of solutions of nonlinear hyperbolic differential equations are in excellent agreement with the numerical results. This shows the power of the analysis by methods using generic concepts of nonlinear science.

Abstract:
We prove that for generic geometry, the curl-eigenfield solutions to the steady Euler equations on the three torus are all hydrodynamically unstable (linear, L^2 norm). The proof involves a marriage of contact topological methods with the instability criterion of Friedlander-Vishik. An application of contact homology is the crucial step.

Abstract:
The convergence of the Boltzmann equaiton to the compressible Euler equations when the Knudsen number tends to zero has been a long standing open problem in the kinetic theory. In the setting of Riemann solution that contains the generic superposition of shock, rarefaction wave and contact discontinuity to the Euler equations, we succeed in justifying this limit by introducing hyperbolic waves with different solution backgrounds to capture the extra masses carried by the hyperbolic approximation of the rarefaction wave and the diffusion approximation of contact discontinuity.

Abstract:
We investigate certain natural connections between subriemannian geometry and hyperbolic dynamical systems. In particular, we study dynamically defined horizontal distributions which split into two integrable ones and ask: how is the energy of a subriemannian geodesic shared between its projections onto the integrable summands? We show that if the horizontal distribution is the sum of the strong stable and strong unstable distributions of a special type of a contact Anosov flow in three dimensions, then for any short enough subriemannian geodesic connecting points on the same orbit of the Anosov flow, the energy of the geodesic is shared \emph{equally} between its projections onto the stable and unstable bundles. The proof relies on a connection between the geodesic equations and the harmonic oscillator equation, and its explicit solution by the Jacobi elliptic functions. Using a different idea, we prove an analogous result in higher dimensions for the geodesic flow of a closed Riemannian manifold of constant negative curvature.

Abstract:
We study the geometry of multidimensional scalar $2^{nd}$ order PDEs (i.e. PDEs with $n$ independent variables) with one unknown function, viewed as hypersurfaces $\mathcal{E}$ in the Lagrangian Grassmann bundle $M^{(1)}$ over a $(2n+1)$-dimensional contact manifold $(M,\mathcal{C})$. We develop the theory of characteristics of the equation $\mathcal{E}$ in terms of contact geometry and of the geometry of Lagrangian Grassmannian and study their relationship with intermediate integrals of $\mathcal{E}$. After specifying the results to general Monge-Amp\`ere equations (MAEs), we focus our attention to MAEs of type introduced by Goursat, i.e. MAEs of the form $$ \det|\frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial x^i\partial x^j}-b_{ij}(x,f,\nabla f)\|=0. $$ We show that any MAE of the aforementioned class is associated with an $n$-dimensional subdistribution $\mathcal{D}$ of the contact distribution $\mathcal{C}$, and viceversa. We characterize this Goursat-type equations together with its intermediate integrals in terms of their characteristics and give a criterion of local contact equivalence. Finally, we develop a method of solutions of a Cauchy problem, provided the existence of a suitable number of intermediate integrals.

Abstract:
Some new results on geometry of classical parabolic Monge-Amp\`ere equations (PMA) are presented. PMAs are either \emph{integrable}, or \emph{nonintegrable} according to integrability of its characteristic distribution. All integrable PMAs are locally equivalent to the equation $u_{xx}=0$. We study nonintegrable PMAs by associating with each of them a 1-dimensional distribution on the corresponding first order jet manifold, called the \emph{directing distribution}. According to some property of this distribution, nonintegrable PMAs are subdivided into three classes, one \emph{generic} and two \emph{special} ones. Generic PMAs are completely characterized by their directing distributions, and we study canonical models of the latters, \emph{projective curve bundles} (PCB). A PCB is a 1-dimensional subbundle of the projectivized cotangent bundle of a 4-dimensional manifold. Differential invariants of projective curves composing such a bundle are used to construct a series of contact differential invariants for corresponding PMAs. These give a solution of the equivalence problem for generic PMAs with respect to contact transformations. The introduced invariants measure in an exact manner nonlinearity of PMAs.

Abstract:
In hep-th/9805025, a result for the symmetric 3-loop massive tetrahedron in 3 dimensions was found, using the lattice algorithm PSLQ. Here we give a more general formula, involving 3 distinct masses. A proof is devised, though it cannot be accounted as a derivation; rather it certifies that an Ansatz found by PSLQ satisfies a more easily derived pair of partial differential equations. The result is similar to Schl\"afli's formula for the volume of a bi-rectangular hyperbolic tetrahedron, revealing a novel connection between 3-loop diagrams and 1-loop boxes. We show that each reduces to a common basis: volumes of ideal tetrahedra, corresponding to 1-loop massless triangle diagrams. Ideal tetrahedra are also obtained when evaluating the volume complementary to a hyperbolic knot. In the case that the knot is positive, and hence implicated in field theory, ease of ideal reduction correlates with likely appearance in counterterms. Volumes of knots relevant to the number content of multi-loop diagrams are evaluated; as the loop number goes to infinity, we obtain the hyperbolic volume of a simple 1-loop box.

Abstract:
We study geometry, topology and deformation spaces of noncompact complex hyperbolic manifolds (geometrically finite, with variable negative curvature), whose properties make them surprisingly different from real hyperbolic manifolds with constant negative curvature. This study uses an interaction between K\"ahler geometry of the complex hyperbolic space and the contact structure at its infinity (the one-point compactification of the Heisenberg group), in particular an established structural theorem for discrete group actions on nilpotent Lie groups.