Abstract:
The multi-indexed Jacobi polynomials are the main part of the eigenfunctions of exactly solvable quantum mechanical systems obtained by certain deformations of the P\"oschl-Teller potential (Odake-Sasaki). By fine-tuning the parameter(s) of the P\"oschl-Teller potential, we obtain several families of explicit and global solutions of certain second order Fuchsian differential equations with an apparent singularity of characteristic exponent -2 and -1. They form orthogonal polynomials over $x\in(-1,1)$ with weight functions of the form $(1-x)^\alpha(1+x)^\beta/\{(ax+b)^4q(x)^2\}$, in which $q(x)$ is a polynomial in $x$.

Abstract:
We study critical black hole separations for the formation of a common apparent horizon in systems of $N$ - black holes in a time symmetric configuration. We study in detail the aligned equal mass cases for $N=2,3,4,5$, and relate them to the unequal mass binary black hole case. We then study the apparent horizon of the time symmetric initial geometry of a ring singularity of different radii. The apparent horizon is used as indicative of the location of the event horizon in an effort to predict a critical ring radius that would generate an event horizon of toroidal topology. We found that a good estimate for this ring critical radius is $20/(3\pi) M$. We briefly discuss the connection of this two cases through a discrete black hole 'necklace' configuration.

Abstract:
We show that the electron-phonon coupling strength obtained from the slopes of the electronic energy vs. wavevector dispersion relations, as often done in analyzing angle-resolved photoemission data, can differ substantially from the actual electron-phonon coupling strength due to the curvature of the bare electronic bands. This effect becomes particularly important when the Fermi level is close to a van Hove singularity. By performing {\it ab initio} calculations on doped graphene we demonstrate that, while the apparent strength obtained from the slopes of experimental photoemission data is highly anisotropic, the angular dependence of the actual electron-phonon coupling strength in this material is negligible.

Abstract:
Let $k(d)$ be the maximal possible integer $k$ such that there exists a plane curve of degree $d$ with an $A_k$--singularity. We construct a plane curve of degree $28s+9$ ($s\in\Z_{\ge 0}$) which has an $A_k$--singularity with $k=420s^2+269s+42$. Therefore one has $\underline{\lim}_{d\to\infty}k(d)/d^2\ge 15/28$ (pay attention that $15/28>1/2$).

Abstract:
In this paper, we give the sharp estimates for the degree of symmetry and the semi-simple degree of symmetry of certain four dimensional fiber bundles by virtue of the rigidity theorem of harmonic maps due to Schoen and Yau. As a corollary of this estimate, we compute the degree of symmetry and the semi-simple degree of symmetry of ${\Bbb C}P^2\times V$, where $V$ is closed smooth manifold admitting a real analytic Riemannian metric of non-positive curvature. In addition, by the Albanese map, we obtain the sharp estimate of the degree of symmetry of a compact smooth manifold with some restrictions on its one dimensional cohomology.

Abstract:
We study families of ropes of any codimension that are supported on lines. In particular, this includes all non-reduced curves of degree two. We construct suitable smooth parameter spaces and conclude that all ropes of fixed degree and genus lie in the same component of the corresponding Hilbert scheme. We show that this component is generically smooth if the genus is small enough unless the characteristic of the ground field is two and the curves under consideration have degree two. In this case the component is non-reduced.

Abstract:
We analyze here the structure of non-radial nonspacelike geodesics terminating in the past at a naked singularity formed as the end state of inhomogeneous dust collapse. The spectrum of outgoing nonspacelike null geodesics is examined analytically. The local and global visibility of the singularity is also examined by integrating numerically the null geodesics equations. The possible implications of existence of such families towards the appearance of the star in late stages of gravitational collapse are considered. It is seen that the outgoing non-radial geodesics give an appearance to the naked central singularity as that of an expanding ball whose radius reaches a maximum before the star goes within its apparent horizon. The radiated energy (along the null geodesics) is shown to decay very sharply in the neighbourhood of the singularity. Thus the total energy escaping via non-radial null geodesics from the naked central singularity vanishes in the scenario considered here.

Abstract:
We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of gravitational thermodynamics on the apparent and event horizons in a non-flat FRW universe containing the interacting dark energy with dark matter. We show that for the dynamical apparent horizon, the generalized second law is always satisfied throughout the history of the universe for any spatial curvature and it is independent of the equation of state parameter of the interacting dark energy model. Whereas for the cosmological event horizon, the validity of the generalized second law depends on the equation of state parameter of the model.

Abstract:
We investigate the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in the framework of $f(R)$-gravity. We consider a FRW universe filled only with ordinary matter enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon with the Hawking temperature. For a viable modified gravity model as $f(R)=R-\alpha/R+\beta R^{2}$, we examine the validity of the GSL during the early inflation and late acceleration eras. Our results show that for the selected $f(R)$-gravity model minimally coupled with matter, the GSL in the early inflation epoch is satisfied only for the special range of the equation of state parameter of the matter. But in the late acceleration regime, the GSL is always respected.

Abstract:
We consider the resolvent of a second order differential operator with a regular singularity, admitting a family of self-adjoint extensions. We find that the asymptotic expansion for the resolvent in the general case presents unusual powers of $\lambda$ which depend on the singularity. The consequences for the pole structure of the $\zeta$-function, and the small-$t$ asymptotic expansion of the heat-kernel, are also discussed.