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Malariometric Survey of Ibeshe Community in Ikorodu, Lagos State: Dry Season  [PDF]
Oluwagbemiga O. Aina,Chimere O. Agomo,Yetunde A. Olukosi,Hilary I. Okoh,Bamidele A. Iwalokun,Kathleen N. Egbuna,Akwaowo B. Orok,Olusola Ajibaye,Veronica N. V. Enya,Samuel K. Akindele,Margaret O. Akinyele,Philip U. Agomo
Malaria Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/487250
Abstract: Malariometric surveys generate data on malaria epidemiology and dynamics of transmission necessary for planning and monitoring of control activities. This study determined the prevalence of malaria and the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards malaria infection in Ibeshe, a coastal community. The study took place during the dry season in 10 villages of Ibeshe. All the participants were screened for malaria. A semistructured questionnaire was used to capture sociodemographic data and KAP towards malaria. A total of 1489 participants with a mean age of years took part in the study. Malaria prevalence was 14.7% (95% CI 13.0–16.6%) with geometric mean density of 285 parasites/ L. Over 97% of participants were asymptomatic. Only 40 (2.7%) of the participants were febrile, while 227 (18.1%) were anemic. Almost all the participants (95.8%) identified mosquito bite as a cause of malaria, although multiple agents were associated with the cause of malaria. The commonest symptoms associated with malaria were hot body (89.9%) and headache (84.9%). Window nets (77.0%) were preferred to LLIN (29.6%). Malaria is mesoendemic in Ibeshe during the dry season. The participants had good knowledge of symptoms of malaria; however, there were a lot of misconceptions on the cause of malaria. 1. Introduction Malaria remains one of the greatest causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Global estimate shows that there are about 219 million cases of malaria in 2010 (with an uncertainty range of 154 million to 289 million) and an estimated 660?000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 490?000 to 836?000) [1]. Malaria mortality rates have fallen by more than 25% globally since 2000 and by 33% in the World Health Organisation (WHO) African Region. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every minute from malaria [1]. Country-level burden estimates available for 2010 show that an estimated 80% of malaria deaths occur in just 14 countries and about 80% of cases occur in 17 countries [1]. Together, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria account for over 40% of the estimated total of malaria deaths globally [1]. The artemisinins are new drugs developed from the Chinese wormwood (Artemisia annua), and the derivatives, namely, artemether, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin, have now gained popularity as short-acting drugs which could be used in combination with drugs which have long life [2]. Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria in the era of improved control activities by the National Malaria Control
Comparison of Rainy Season Onset, Cessation and Duration for Ghana from RegCM4 and GMet Datasets  [PDF]
Caleb Mensah, Leonard K. Amekudzi, Nana Ama B. Klutse, Jeffrey N. A. Aryee, Kofi Asare
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2016.62025
Abstract: The socio-economic sector of West African countries is rain-fed agriculture driven. Information regarding the onset, cessation and duration of the rainy season is thus, very essential. In this paper, a comparison of the onset, cessation and duration of the rainy season has been carried out using simulated rainfall data from the fourth generation Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) and rain gauge measurements from Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet), covering a period of 1998 to 2012. Similar onset and cessation dates were seen in both the simulated and guage rainfall measurements for the various agro-ecological zones, resulting in similar duration of the rainy season. The average duration of the rainy season were less than 200 days for the savannah and coastal zones whereas the duration of the rainy season were beyond 200 days for the forest and transition zones. The bias of these comparisons was less than 30 days and the root mean square error (RMSE) values were less than 15 days for all stations, except Saltpond. The Pearson’s correlation (r) typically ranged between 0.4 and 0.8. However, negative correlations were observed for Tamale in the savannah zone, and the entire coastal zone. These findings are indications that RegCM4 has the potential to clearly simulate the movement of the rain belt, and thus, could fairly determine the onset, cessation and duration of the rainy season. The findings have significant contributions to effective water resource management and food security in Ghana, as the thriving of these sectors depend on the dynamics of the rainfall seasons.
The Impact of Malaria Control Interventions on Malaria and Anaemia in Children under Five after Ten Years of Implementation in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana  [PDF]
Margaret Kweku, Eric Kwaku Appiah, Yeetey Enuameh, Martin Adjuik, Wisdom Takramah, Elvis Tarkang, John Gyapong
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2017.73010
Abstract: Background: Malaria remains a dominant health issue among children in Ghana. We monitored the trend of long lasting insecticide net (LLIN) ownership and use and its impact on malaria and anaemia among children under five over the past decade in an area of intense, prolonged and seasonal malaria transmission. Methods: A total of 1717, 2155 and 1915 children were surveyed in June and 1717, 2155 and 1697 in November in 30 communities of the Hohoe Municipality in 2006, 2010 and 2015 respectively. The primary outcomes monitored were the trend of LLIN ownership, use and prevalence of malaria and anaemia through cross-sectional surveys. Findings: Results showed a significantly positive trend (p < 0.001) in ownership of LLIN at 20.8%, 64.8% and 83.2% for 2006, 2010 and 2016 respectively. The sharp increase in ownership between 2006 and 2010 accounted for a highly significant departure from trend (p < 0.001). Similarly, the prevalence of LLIN use was 15.1%, 42.2% and 68.3% for 2006, 2010 and 2016 respectively with a significant positive trend (p < 0.001). The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in June showed no significant drop over the three years studied. Anaemia prevalence was 7.9%, 5.3% and 11.1% for 2006, 2010 and 2015 respectively—Anaemia significantly increased (p < 0.001) between 2010 and 2015 accounting for a significant departure from the initially decreasing trend (p < 0.001). Malaria parasitaemia over the November surveys was 40.4%, 33.2% and 26.6% for 2006, 2010 and 2016 respectively, depicting a significant decline over the years of the study (p < 0.001). A significant decrease (p = 0.006) in anaemia was observed at 12.0%, 4.3% and 8.9% for 2006, 2010 and 2015 respectively. A significant departure from the decreasing trend (p < 0.001) was noted with increasing anaemia between 2010 and 2016. Interpretation: Ownership of LLIN and its use together with other indicators of malaria prevalence generally improved five years after the implementation of a malaria control programme. Ten years after programme implementation, consistent improvement was only in LLIN ownership and use. Also malaria prevalence indicators improved in the post as compared to the pre-rainy season in the study communities.
Dry Season Determinants of Malaria Disease and Net Use in Benin, West Africa  [PDF]
Nicolas Moiroux, Olayidé Boussari, Armel Djènontin, Georgia Damien, Gilles Cottrell, Marie-Claire Henry, Hélène Guis, Vincent Corbel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030558
Abstract: Background To achieve malaria eradication, control efforts have to be sustained even when the incidence of malaria cases becomes low during the dry season. In this work, malaria incidence and its determinants including bed net use were investigated in children of under 5 years of age in 28 villages in southern Benin during the dry season. Methods and Findings Mean malaria clinical incidence was measured in children aged 0–5 years by active case detection in 28 villages of the Ouidah-Kpomasse-Tori Bossito sanitary district between November 2007 and March 2008. Using Poisson mixed-effect models, malaria incidence was assessed according to the level of transmission by different vector species, and Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated mosquito Nets (LLIN) use and ownership. Then, a Binomial mixed-effect model was developed to assess whether nighttime temperature (derived from MODIS remote sensing data), biting nuisance and LLIN ownership are good predictors of LLIN use >60%. Results suggested that Anopheles funestus (Incidence Rates Ratio (IRR) = 3.38 [IC95 1.91–6]) rather than An. gambiae s.s. is responsible for malaria transmission. A rate of LLIN use >60% was associated with a lower risk of malaria (IRR = 0.6 [IC95 0.37–0.99]). Low nocturnal temperature and high biting nuisance were good predictors of LLIN use >60%. Conclusions As recommended by the Malaria Eradication (MalERA) Consultative Group on Modelling, there is a need to understand better the effects of seasonality on malaria morbidity. This study highlights the need to take into account the specificity of malaria epidemiology during the dry-hot season and get a better understanding of the factors that influence malaria incidence and net use. These findings should help National Malaria Control Programmes to implement more effective and sustainable malaria control strategies in Africa.
On the Causes of the Minor Dry Season over the Coastal Region of the Northern Gulf of Guinea  [PDF]
Angora Aman, Elisee Toualy, Fidele Yoroba
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.82009
Abstract: Along the littoral shelf of northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea (GG), a minor dry season of the rainfall regime is concomitantly observed with the occurrence of a major coastal upwelling in July-August-September (JAS). It was then supposed that this upwelling drives that minor dry season. But no previous studies have tried to understand this minor dry season and, this study is the first focusing on this question. The investigations undertaken to explain this dry season on the Ivorian littoral shelf with the ERA-Interim data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts over the 1980-2016 period have shown that the minor dry season is driven by the Northward migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during this period and, enhanced by the occurrence of the major coastal upwelling of the northern GG at the same time. These two phenomena interact as follow: i) the ITCZ is located in JAS far in the north cutting off convective processes along the coast, ii) the air on the coastal region is poor in humidity, iii) the air temperature on the bordering region of the GG is cooled by the coastal upwelling to value less than 26°C and not favorable for providing convection.
Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in The Gambia
Musa Jawara, Margaret Pinder, Chris J Drakeley, Davis C Nwakanma, Ebrima Jallow, Claus Bogh, Steve W Lindsay, David J Conway
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-156
Abstract: Weekly adult mosquito collections (pyrethrum spray, light trap, and search collections from rooms, as well as light trap collections from animal shelters, abandoned wells and grain stores), and artificial sentinel breeding site surveys were performed in four villages near the upper tidal and partially saline part of the Gambia River in the last four months of an annual dry season (March to June). Mosquito species were identified by morphological and DNA analysis, and ELISA assays were performed to test for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites and human blood meal components.Adults of An. gambiae s.l. were collected throughout the period, numbers increasing towards the end of the dry season when humidity was increasing. Adult collections were dominated by An. melas (86%), with An. gambiae s.s. (10%) and An. arabiensis (3%) also present throughout. Most females collected in room search and spray collections contained blood meals, but most from light traps were unfed. None of the females tested (n = 1709) contained sporozoites. Larvae (mostly An. gambiae s.s.) were recovered from artificial sentinel breeding sites in the two villages that had freshwater pools. These two villages had the highest proportions of An. gambiae s.s. adults, and experienced the most substantial increase in proportions of An. gambiae s.s. after the onset of rains.During the dry season population minimum, An. melas was the predominant vector species, but differences among villages in availability of fresh-water breeding sites correlate with egg laying activity and relative numbers of An. gambiae s.s. adults, and with the increase in this species immediately after the beginning of the rains. Local variation in dry season vector persistence is thus likely to influence spatial heterogeneity of transmission intensity in the early part of the rainy season.Malaria transmission in The Gambia occurs mainly within a few months of each year, due to a single rainy season from June to October which creates bre
Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon
Ama de-Graft Aikins, Petra Boynton, Lem L Atanga
Globalization and Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-6-6
Abstract: A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases.There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of interventions on health outcomes and cost-effectiveness.Both Ghana and Cameroon require a comprehensive and integrative approach to chronic disease intervention that combines structural, community and individual strategies. We outline research and practice gaps and best practice models within and outside Africa that can instruct the development of future interventions.Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease [1,2]. In many countries disability and death rates due to chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and stroke have accelerated over the last two decades. Affected populations include urban and rural, wealthy and poor, old and young. Africa's chronic disease burden has been strongly attributed to changing behavioural practices (e.g sedentary lifestyles and diets high in saturated fat, salt and sugar), which are linked to structural factors such as industrializ
Field assessments in western Kenya link malaria vectors to environmentally disturbed habitats during the dry season
John C Carlson, Brian D Byrd, Francois X Omlin
BMC Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-33
Abstract: Investigations were conducted in Kisii District during the dry season. Aquatic habitats in were surveyed for presence of malaria vectors. Brick-making pits were further investigated for co-associations of larval densities with emergent vegetation, habitat age, and predator diversity. Indoor spray catches were completed in houses near aquatic habitats. Participatory rural appraisals (PRAs) were conducted with 147 community members.The most abundant habitat type containing Anopheles larvae was brick-making pits. Vegetation and habitat age were positively associated with predator diversity, and negatively associated with mosquito density. Indoor spray catches found that houses close to brick-making sites had malaria vectors, whereas those next to swamps did not. PRAs revealed that brick-making has grown rapidly in highland swamps due to a variety of socioeconomic pressures in the region.Brick-making, an important economic activity, also generates dry season habitats for malaria vectors in western Kenya. Specifically, functional brick making pits contain less that 50% as many predator taxa and greater than 50% more mosquito larvae when compared with nearby abandoned brick making pits. Further evaluations of these disturbed, man-made habitats in the wet season may provide information important for malaria surveillance and control.The World Health Organization estimates that 300 to 500 million people are diagnosed with malaria annually, causing 1.1 to 2.7 million deaths. Approximately 1 million of these deaths are among children in sub-Saharan Africa, where 90% of all malaria cases occur [1]. During the 1950's and 1960's, a coordinated world-wide effort succeeded in eliminating malaria transmission within countries with temperate climates, and dramatically reduced malaria transmission in many other countries. Since the collapse of this campaign, malaria has since resurged, surpassing pre-campaign infection rates in many places, and entering previously unaffected locations
Sanitary Pad Interventions for Girls' Education in Ghana: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Paul Montgomery, Caitlin R. Ryus, Catherine S. Dolan, Sue Dopson, Linda M. Scott
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048274
Abstract: Background Increased education of girls in developing contexts is associated with a number of important positive health, social, and economic outcomes for a community. The event of menarche tends to coincide with girls' transitions from primary to secondary education and may constitute a barrier for continued school attendance and performance. Following the MRC Framework for Complex Interventions, a pilot controlled study was conducted in Ghana to assess the role of sanitary pads in girls' education. Methods A sample of 120 schoolgirls between the ages of 12 and 18 from four villages in Ghana participated in a non-randomized trial of sanitary pad provision with education. The trial had three levels of treatment: provision of pads with puberty education; puberty education alone; or control (no pads or education). The primary outcome was school attendance. Results After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants, (lambda 0.824, F = 3.760, p<.001). After 5 months, puberty education alone improved attendance to a similar level (M = 91.26, SD = 7.82) as sites where pads were provided with puberty education (Rural M = 89.74, SD = 9.34; Periurban M = 90.54, SD = 17.37), all of which were higher than control (M = 84.48, SD = 12.39). The total improvement through pads with education intervention after 5 months was a 9% increase in attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants. The changes in attendance at the end of the trial, after 5 months, were found to be significant by site over time. With puberty education alone resulting in a similar attendance level. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated promising results of a low-cost, rapid-return intervention for girls' education in a developing context. Given the considerable development needs of poorer countries and the potential of young women there, these results suggest that a large-scale cluster randomized trial is warranted. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201202000361337
Assessment of Patterns of Climate Variables and Malaria Cases in Two Ecological Zones of Ghana  [PDF]
Nana Ama Browne Klutse, Fred Aboagye-Antwi, Kwadwo Owusu, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.412065
Abstract: Climate change is projected to impact human health, particularly incidence of water related and vector borne diseases, such as malaria. A better understanding of the relationship between rainfall patterns and malaria cases is thus required for effective climate change adaptation strategies involving planning and implementation of appropriate disease control interventions. We analyzed climatic data and reported cases of malaria spanning a period of eight years (2001 to 2008) from two ecological zones in Ghana (Ejura and Winneba in the transition and coastal savannah zones respectively) to determine the association between malaria cases, and temperature and rainfall patterns and the potential effects of climate change on malaria epidemiological trends. Monthly peaks of malaria caseloads lagged behind monthly rainfall peaks. Correlation between malaria caseloads and rainfall intensity, and minimum temperature were generally weak at both sites. Lag correlations of up to four months yielded better agreement between the variables, especially at Ejura where a two-month lag between malaria caseloads and rainfall was significantly high but negatively correlated (r = -0.72; p value < 0.05). Mean monthly maximum temperature and monthly malaria caseloads at Ejura showed a strong negative correlation at zero month lag (r = -0.70, p value < 0.05), with a similar, but weaker relationship at Winneba, (r = -0.51). On the other hand, a positive significant correlation (r = 0.68, p value < 0.05) between malaria caseloads and maximum temperature was observed for Ejura at a four-month lag, while Winneba showed a strong correlation (r = 0.70; p value < 0.05) between the parameters at a two-month lag. The results suggest maximum temperature as a better predictor of malaria trends than minimum temperature or precipitation, particularly in the transition zone. Climate change effects on malaria caseloads seem multi-factorial. For effective malaria control, interventions could be synchronized with the most important climatic predictors of the disease for greater impact.
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