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Clustering of childhood mortality in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Ghana
Obed Ernest A. Nettey,Charles Zandoh,Abubakari Sulemana,Robert Adda
Global Health Action , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v3i0.5258
Abstract: Background: Childhood mortality in Ghana has generally declined in the last four decades. However, estimates tend to conceal substantial variability among regions and districts. The lack of population-based data in Ghana, as in other less developed countries, has hindered the development of effective programmes targeted specifically at clusters where mortality levels are significantly higher. Objective: This paper seeks to test for the existence of statistically significant clusters of childhood mortality within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) between 2005 and 2007. Design: In this study, mortality rates were generated using mortality data extracted from the health and demographic surveillance database of the KHDSS and exported into STATA. The spatial and spatio-temporal scan statistic by Kulldorff was used to identify significant clusters of childhood mortality within the KHDSS. Results: A significant cluster of villages with high under-five mortality in the south-eastern part of the KHDSS in 2006 was identified. This is a remote location where poverty levels are relatively higher, health facilities are more sparse and these are compounded by poor transport services in case of emergencies. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential of the surveillance platform to demonstrate the spatial dimensions of childhood mortality clustering. It is apparent, though, that further studies need to be carried out in order to explore the underlying risk factors for potential mortality clusters that could emerge later.
Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Practices on Ebola Virus Disease in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana  [PDF]
Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Charles Zandoh, Edward Apraku Anane, Mahama Abukari, Francis Agbokey, Awurabena Q. Dadzie, Mathilda Tivura, Dennis Adu-Gyasi, Lawrence Gyabaa Febir, Kenneth A. Ae-Ngibise, Timothy Letsa, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814146
Abstract: This study describes community members’ knowledge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), their attitudes and preventive practices. A mixed methods approach was used. A random sample of 1028 community members aged 15 - 65 years was interviewed in a quantitative survey. This was complemented with a qualitative study involving 24 opinion leaders who were carefully selected. The study was conducted in Kintampo North and South districts of Ghana from August 2014 to October 2014. 83% of respondents had heard of EVD, but 62.5% did not know the duration between the time of infection and onset of clinical symptoms. The most popular symptom mentioned spontaneously was bleeding through body orifices (48.6%). Majority of respondents mentioned handshake or skin contact as a mode of transmission (57.3%) and reduced contact with bats as a means to prevent the spread of EVD (58.1%). Knowledge of transmission of body fluids such as faeces, blood or urine was low (<10%), though this varied significantly by socio-demographic group. Majority (94%) of respondents acknowledged that EVD was a serious disease, however, only 58% saw themselves at risk. Current preventive behaviours included: improved hand hygiene (83%) and avoidance of handshakes and physical contact with people (81%). Community members in the Kintampo districts have high level of awareness of EVD, but important gaps in knowledge of EVD still exist, especially concerning body fluids as a mode of transmission. There is the need to intensify educational messages as part of Ghana’s preparedness towards a potential EVD outbreak.
Adolescents’ Willingness and Intentions to Use Contraceptives in Rural Ghana  [PDF]
Sulemana Abubakari, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, George Adjei, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Robert Adda, Francis Dzabeng, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Charles Zandoh, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311029
Abstract: Efforts made to improve the availability and access to family planning services to adolescents in Ghana have not yielded the desired results. Adolescents in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area are no exception. This study explored contraceptive use intentions, preferences and their determinants among adolescents in rural Ghana. This was to contribute evidence towards achieving universal access to reproductive health. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect Sexual and Reproductive Health data in the Kintampo districts in 2011. A total of 1805 female adolescents were randomly sampled from a resident female adolescent population of 16,795. This study used intention and/or willingness of adolescents to use contraceptives as the outcome variable and the explanatory variables were demographic and socioeconomic factors. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were done. The findings indicated 54.3% of adolescents’ were willing to use contraceptives. Injectable was the most preferred contraceptive method among adolescents (48.6%); this was followed by the pill (29.6%) with the least being foam or jelly (0.2%). The most commonly cited reason for not intending to use contraception was adolescents’ opposition to family planning (31.5%) followed by a fear of side effects (25.8%). Age and education influenced adolescents’ willingness to use contraceptives in the future. Formal education of the young generation coupled with knowledge of contraceptive methods could yield positive outcomes for contraceptive use and ultimately reproductive health of the adolescent population in the near future.
Haematological and Biochemical Reference Values for Healthy Adults in the Middle Belt of Ghana  [PDF]
David K. Dosoo, Kingsley Kayan, Dennis Adu-Gyasi, Evans Kwara, Josephine Ocran, Kingsley Osei-Kwakye, Emmanuel Mahama, Stephen Amenga-Etego, Philip Bilson, Kwaku P. Asante, Kwadwo A. Koram, Seth Owusu-Agyei
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036308
Abstract: Background Reference values are very important in clinical management of patients, screening participants for enrolment into clinical trials and for monitoring the onset of adverse events during these trials. The aim of this was to establish gender-specific haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the central part of Ghana. Methods A total of 691 adults between 18 and 59 years resident in the Kintampo North Municipality and South District in the central part of Ghana were randomly selected using the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System and enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. Out of these, 625 adults made up of 316 males and 309 females were assessed by a clinician to be healthy. Median values and nonparametric 95% reference values for 16 haematology and 22 biochemistry parameters were determined for this population based on the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute guidelines. Values established in this study were compared with the Caucasian values being used currently by our laboratory as reference values and also with data from other African and western countries. Results Reference values established include: haemoglobin 113–164 g/L for males and 88–144 g/L for females; total white blood cell count 3.4–9.2×109/L; platelet count 88–352×109/L for males and 89–403×109/L for females; alanine aminotransferase 8–54 U/L for males and 6–51 U/L for females; creatinine 56–119 μmol/L for males and 53–106 μmol/L for females. Using the haematological reference values based on the package inserts would have screened out up to 53% of potential trial participants and up to 25% of the population using the biochemical parameters. Conclusion We have established a panel of locally relevant reference parameters for commonly used haematological and biochemical tests. This is important as it will help in the interpretation of laboratory results both for clinical management of patients and safety monitoring during a trial.
Family Planning Needs of Adolescents in Predominantly Rural Communities in the Central Part of Ghana  [PDF]
Yeetey Enuameh, Obed Ernest Nettey, Emmanuel Mahama, Charlotte Tawiah, Ellen Boamah, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephanie Gyaase, Samuel Afari Asiedu, Alexander Manu, Charles Zandoh, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.56030
Abstract: The manuscript presents findings of a descriptive analysis of data from a cross-sectional study of adolescents aimed at identifying their family planning needs and the best approaches to addressing them in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana. Data for the paper were from the family planning module of a sexual and reproductive health survey carried out by the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System in 2011. Adolescents in this study recorded high marital (1.6% females and 0.4% males) and pregnancy rates (11.5% females and 1.5% males). Their knowledge of contraceptive methods was high (87.7% females and 82% males), but utilization was low (17.9% females and 6% males). Most study participants viewed family planning as important to their health and wellbeing (59.6% females and 58.6% males). A minority of adolescents were of the perception that contraceptive use was solely the responsibility of women (41.1% females and 32.4% males); and that the use of contraceptives could lead to promiscuity among women (43.8% females and 42.5% males). Those adolescents who previously had unwanted pregnancies would have accepted some help in preventing it (33.1% females and 9.1% males). Recommendations made by respondents included creating a friendly atmosphere by care providers for family planning services delivery to adolescents. Other suggestions were ensuring that family planning services are available and accessible to adolescents, and educating adolescents on the diverse methods available.
Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years  [PDF]
A. A. Obala,C. J. Simiyu,D. O. Odhiambo,V. Nanyu,P. Chege,R. Downing,E. Mwaliko,A. W. Mwangi,D. Menya,D. Chelagat,H. D. N. Nyamogoba,P. O. Ayuo,W. P. O'Meara,M. Twagirumukiza,D. Vandenbroek,B. B. O. Otsyula,J. de Maeseneer
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/734562
Abstract: Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS) area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. Direct saline and formal-ether-sedimentation techniques were used to process the specimens. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A prevalence of 52.3% (417/797) was obtained with the male child slightly more infected than the female (53.5% versus 51%), but this was not significant ( , ). Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most common pathogenic IPIs with a prevalence of 26.1% (208/797) and 11.2% (89/797), respectively. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797), 3.8% (30/797), and 0.13% (1/797) for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Conclusions. Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica were the most prevalent pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while STHs were less common. Community-based health promotion techniques are recommended for controlling these parasites. 1. Introduction It is estimated that approximately a billion people in developing countries of the sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas are infected with one or more helminths [1]. About 300 million people are severely ill with intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs), out of which, approximately 50% are school-age children [2]. The IPIs are globally endemic and are responsible for the greatest worldwide cause of illnesses and disease [3, 4]. These parasites cause high morbidity in school children and women during child-bearing age. The IPIs occur wherever there are poor living conditions, which immensely contribute to economic loss and poor health [1, 3, 4]. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm species, collectively referred to as soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), are the most common intestinal parasites known to mankind [5]. Bethony et al. [5] have observed that children living in less developed countries are likely to be infected with one or more STH. Infections with these parasites affect the physical and cognitive development of school-age children [5]. Similarly, Giardia lamblia infects about 200 million people
ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTAINABLE COMMERCIAL FUELWOOD COLLECTION IN DAWADAWA AND KUNSU IN KINTAMPO NORTH DISTRICT OF GHANA  [PDF]
Raymond Aabeyir et al
The IIOAB Journal , 2011,
Abstract: This paper examines factors affecting sustainable commercial fuelwood collection in the Kintampo North District of Ghana for the purposes of sustainable woodland management and fuelwood collection. Over dependence on fuelwood collection for livelihood by the rural people in Kintampo North District leads to over exploitation of the woodlands in the area. This situation is a source of concern to managements of woodland and traditional energy sub-sector in the country. Biophysical and socio-economic factors contribute to woodland management in diverse ways: by hindering the exploitation of woodland thereby facilitating sustainable fuelwood collection; and by promoting exploitation of woodland. Focus group discussion was employed to identify factors affecting fuelwood collection in Dawadawa and Kunsu communities of Kintampo North District. Pair-wise comparison was used to rank the factors. Participatory mapping was used to map fuelwood collection sites for relating the collection sites to biophysical factors. Large tracks of land have been exploited at Dawadawa compared to Kunsu, mainly due to the type of land tenure system. Land tenure and low producer price of fuelwood were ranked first in Dawadawa and Kunsu respectively among the factors affecting commercial fuelwood collection. Current collection sites are over 24km and 10km respectively from settlements in Dawadawa and Kunsu. The land tenure system practised in Kunsu promotes effective management system for sustainable fuelwood collection in the Kintampo North District of Ghana; which can be adopted in the other districts of Ghana.
Analysis of the Processes behind Woodland Transition in Commercial Charcoal Producing Areas: A Case Study of Kintampo North District of Ghana
Raymond Aabeyir,William Oduro,Jonathan Arthur Quaye-Ballard
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study examined the processes behind woodlands transition in Dawadawa, a major charcoal producing community in the Kintampo North District (KND) of Ghana. It is argued that commercial charcoal production plays a significant role in woodland degradation because of the manner in which the trees are harvested. Such arguments are informed by simplistic analysis of land cover change because they focused on the change in quantity of the land cover excluding the processes behind the change in quantity in the analysis process. The study has demonstrated that focusing land cover analysis on solely the quantity of change is misleading since a large change in the quantity of a land cover type does not necessarily mean that the process initiating the change is systematic which has always been the assumption in conventional land cover change analysis. Image classification was applied to map land cover types in 2000 and 2007 and post-classification change detection technique was used to detect land cover change between the two timelines. The analysis of the processes of change was based on the changed matrix. The analysis of the processes of land covers change. This revealed that the transitions from riparian to woodland and bareland to shrubland have the largest ratio of 0.3; thus woodland and shrubland gained systematically from riparian and bareland respectively more than any of the other land cover types. Also, the transition of woodland to shrubland is random. The study concluded that the gap in systematic transition between woodland and shrubland is the cause of the worsening degradation of the woodland. It is recommended that woodland management should focus on shrubland to bridge the gap between the woodland and the shrubland in order to sustain the woodlands.
Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors: A Retrospective Study in the Kintampo Municipal Hospital, Ghana  [PDF]
Williams Walana, Patrick Hokey, Samuel Ahiaba
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.41007
Abstract:
Background: Hepatitis B virus is one of the transfusion transmission infectious agents of public health relevance. Its prevalence varies across the globe. Establishing the sero-prevalence of the disease is critical to informing the direction of preventive and control strategies. Objective: The aim of this study therefore was to establish the hepatitis B surface antigen sero-prevalence among blood donors in the Kintampo municipality of Ghana. Methodology: This three-year hospital based retrospective study was conducted at the laboratory unit of the Kintampo Municipal Hospital. The laboratory uses one step immunochromatographic test kits to detect the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen in the sera of blood donors. Records on blood donors were reviewed for hepatitis B sero-positivity. Results: A total of 3402 blood donors were studied, out of which 3238 (95.2%) were males and 164 (4.8%) were females. The overall sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 9.6% (327/3402). Majority of the sero-positive donors were less than 40 years, with higher prevalence of 16.4% (35/214) in donors less than 20 years. The sero-prevalence in males and females was 9.7% (313/3238) and 8.5% (14/164) respectively. Conclusion: The Kintampo municipality has a relatively high prevalence of hepatitis B among blood donors. The probability of hepatitis B viral infection was age inclined as the youth seem to be at greater risk of contracting the disease.
Demographic and health surveillance: longitudinal ethical considerations
Carrel,Margaret; Rennie,Stuart;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862008000800014
Abstract: longitudinal data gathered from health surveillance, when combined with detailed demographic information, can provide invaluable insight into disease outcomes. many such surveillance sites exist in the developing world, particularly in asia and sub-saharan africa, and focus on diseases such as hiv/aids, cholera, malaria and tuberculosis. the indistinct positions of such surveillance systems, often inhabiting an area between research, treatment and population health monitoring, means that the necessity of and responsibility for ethical oversight is unclear. this regulatory vacuum is further compounded by a lack of attention to longitudinal surveillance systems in ethics literature. in this paper, we explore some key ethical questions that arise during demographic and health surveillance in relation to ethical principles of beneficence, respect for persons and justice: health-care provision, informed consent and study sustainability.
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