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Seeking Anonymity in an Internet Panopticon  [PDF]
Joan Feigenbaum,Bryan Ford
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Obtaining and maintaining anonymity on the Internet is challenging. The state of the art in deployed tools, such as Tor, uses onion routing (OR) to relay encrypted connections on a detour passing through randomly chosen relays scattered around the Internet. Unfortunately, OR is known to be vulnerable at least in principle to several classes of attacks for which no solution is known or believed to be forthcoming soon. Current approaches to anonymity also appear unable to offer accurate, principled measurement of the level or quality of anonymity a user might obtain. Toward this end, we offer a high-level view of the Dissent project, the first systematic effort to build a practical anonymity system based purely on foundations that offer measurable and formally provable anonymity properties. Dissent builds on two key pre-existing primitives - verifiable shuffles and dining cryptographers - but for the first time shows how to scale such techniques to offer measurable anonymity guarantees to thousands of participants. Further, Dissent represents the first anonymity system designed from the ground up to incorporate some systematic countermeasure for each of the major classes of known vulnerabilities in existing approaches, including global traffic analysis, active attacks, and intersection attacks. Finally, because no anonymity protocol alone can address risks such as software exploits or accidental self-identification, we introduce WiNon, an experimental operating system architecture to harden the uses of anonymity tools such as Tor and Dissent against such attacks.
Application of Steganography for Anonymity through the Internet  [PDF]
Jacques M. Bahi,Jean-Fran?ois Couchot,Nicolas Friot,Christophe Guyeux
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme based on chaotic iterations is proposed. This research work takes place into the information hiding security framework. The applications for anonymity and privacy through the Internet are regarded too. To guarantee such an anonymity, it should be possible to set up a secret communication channel into a web page, being both secure and robust. To achieve this goal, we propose an information hiding scheme being stego-secure, which is the highest level of security in a well defined and studied category of attacks called "watermark-only attack". This category of attacks is the best context to study steganography-based anonymity through the Internet. The steganalysis of our steganographic process is also studied in order to show it security in a real test framework.
Dovetail: Stronger Anonymity in Next-Generation Internet Routing  [PDF]
Jody Sankey,Matthew Wright
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Current low-latency anonymity systems use complex overlay networks to conceal a user's IP address, introducing significant latency and network efficiency penalties compared to normal Internet usage. Rather than obfuscating network identity through higher level protocols, we propose a more direct solution: a routing protocol that allows communication without exposing network identity, providing a strong foundation for Internet privacy, while allowing identity to be defined in those higher level protocols where it adds value. Given current research initiatives advocating "clean slate" Internet designs, an opportunity exists to design an internetwork layer routing protocol that decouples identity from network location and thereby simplifies the anonymity problem. Recently, Hsiao et al. proposed such a protocol (LAP), but it does not protect the user against a local eavesdropper or an untrusted ISP, which will not be acceptable for many users. Thus, we propose Dovetail, a next-generation Internet routing protocol that provides anonymity against an active attacker located at any single point within the network, including the user's ISP. A major design challenge is to provide this protection without including an application-layer proxy in data transmission. We address this challenge in path construction by using a matchmaker node (an end host) to overlap two path segments at a dovetail node (a router). The dovetail then trims away part of the path so that data transmission bypasses the matchmaker. Additional design features include the choice of many different paths through the network and the joining of path segments without requiring a trusted third party. We develop a systematic mechanism to measure the topological anonymity of our designs, and we demonstrate the privacy and efficiency of our proposal by simulation, using a model of the complete Internet at the AS-level.
Internet addiction: A case report  [PDF]
Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica,Popovi?-Deu?i? Smiljka,Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta,Le?i?-To?evski Du?ica
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0902086p
Abstract: Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological) gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.
Personal networking function of the Internet
Petrovi? Dalibor
Sociologija , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/soc0901023p
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to understand the role of Internet in creating new forms of sociability in the modern society. In the first part the history of social studies of Internet is reviewed, and the conclusion put forward that the anti-social role of the Internet cannot be proved. In the theoretical part of the paper the author presents his idea of two basic roles of Internet as interpersonal interaction tool: transmissional and procreative. These two Internet functions are very important means for reproducing a new form of sociability known as networked individualism.
Determination of the Internet Anonymity Influence on the Level of Aggression and Usage of Obscene Lexis  [PDF]
Rodmonga Potapova,Denis Gordeev
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This article deals with the analysis of the semantic content of the anonymous Russian-speaking forum 2ch.hk, different verbal means of expressing of the emotional state of aggression are revealed for this site, and aggression is classified by its directions. The lexis of different Russian-and English- speaking anonymous forums (2ch.hk and iichan.hk, 4chan.org) and public community "MDK" of the Russian-speaking social network VK is analyzed and compared with the Open Corpus of the Russian language (Opencorpora.org and Brown corpus). The analysis shows that anonymity has no influence on the amount of invective items usage. The effectiveness of moderation was shown for anonymous forums. It was established that Russian obscene lexis was used to express the emotional state of aggression only in 60.4% of cases for 2ch.hk. These preliminary results show that the Russian obscene lexis on the Internet does not have direct dependence on the emotional state of aggression.
Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions
Advanced Computing : an International Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and web services. There is a tremendous improvement in the automation of the way we pay for goods and services by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to the consumers. Hence there is a need for the ultimate structure of the new electronic transaction system that has a substantial impact on the personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of E- transactions. This paper presents an approach for such structure.
What’s in a Concept? Some Reflections on the Complications and Complexities of Personal Information and Anonymity  [PDF]
Gary T. Marx
University of Ottawa Law and Technology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: The topic of anonymity is conceptually and practically challenging. Among reasons for this are the multiple elements across different levels of analysis, varied contexts, and the variety of goals and dimensions that cross-cut these; 2) conflicting rationales and values; and 3) contested and/or opposing social, cultural and political trends and counter-trends. In order to better understand anonymity, this conceptual analysis article raises and suggests possible answers to the following questions: what are the major types of information that can be associated with anonymity? (nine are identified, such as location and attitudes); what do we mean by personal information (using a series of concentric circles, distinctions are drawn between individual, private, intimate, unique and core identification); what are some of the major factors affecting behaviour involving anonymity, and judgments of anonymity (e.g., the structure of the communication and the type of activity involved); what are the major values that support or oppose anonymity? (e.g., openness in communication vs. accountability); what trends and counter-trends encourage or discourage anonymity (e.g., technologies that make the meaningless meaningful as against increased freedom of choice with respect to identity); what broader principles are relevant to public policy in the area (e.g., informed consent and reciprocity); and what kinds of questions should be asked in setting policy (e.g., clear statement of goals, awareness of unintended consequences). ********************L’anonymat est un sujet stimulant sur les plans conceptuels et pratiques. Il y a diverses raisons pour cela, notamment : 1) la multiplicité des éléments provenant d’analyses à divers paliers, de contextes variés ainsi que des objectifs et des perspectives qui se dégagent de tout cela; 2) de justifications et de valeurs en conflit; enfin 3) de tendances ou de contre-tendances sociales, culturelles et politiques contestées ou opposées. Afin de bien comprendre l’anonymat, par le biais d’une analyse conceptuelle, cet article propose des réponses possibles aux questions suivantes : quels sont les principaux genres de renseignements que l’on peut associer à l’anonymat? (neuf genres sont mentionnés, y compris le lieu et les attitudes); qu’entend-on par renseignements personnels? (utilisation d’une série de traits circulaires concentriques pour distinguer l’individu, la vie privée, l’intimité, les identificateurs uniques et fondamentaux); quels sont certains des principaux facteurs qui influent sur le comportement et les jugements en mat
Privacy and Anonymity  [PDF]
Adrian Yanes
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Since the beginning of the digital area, privacy and anonymity have been impacted drastically (both, positively and negatively), by the different technologies developed for communications purposes. The broad possibilities that the Internet offers since its conception, makes it a mandatory target for those entities that are aiming to know and control the different channels of communication and the information that flows through. In this paper, we address the current threats against privacy and anonymity on the Internet, together with the methods applied against them. In addition, we enumerate the publicly known entities behind those threats and their motivations. Finally, we analyze the state of the art concerning the protection of the privacy and anonymity on the Internet; introducing future lines of research.
Universal Service, the Internet and the Access Deficit
John Huntley,Nick McKerrell,Shez Asghar
SCRIPT-ed , 2004,
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the universal provision of telecommunications services. It is argued in this paper that universal service is no longer entirely driven by social inclusion imperatives, but is also increasingly driven by emerging governance imperatives. The focus of this paper is on Internet access in general. The debate has moved on since the empirical work for this project was carried out and is more clearly focussed on access to broadband.
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