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Studies of Viking Age swords: metallography and archaeology  [cached]
Elisabeth Astrup, Eva,Martens, Irmelin
Gladius , 2011, DOI: 10.3989/gladius.2011.0009
Abstract: The paper is a comment on Alan Williams investigation ‘A Metallurgical Study of some Viking Swords’ published in Gladius XXIX. Williams’ paper comprise metallurgical investigations of 44 Viking Age Swords, all with ULFBERHT inscriptions. Such investigations, made by a well qualified metallurgist, are essential to archaeology. Unfortunately, this one has some serious limitations. In order to give a good description of the quality of a sword-blade, samples showing at least the section through both the edge and the central part of the blade are necessary. This is mostly not the case in Williams’ investigations, and he gives insufficient information about his samples. Other weak points are his group division and his interpretation of the production area for blades containing high-carbon steel. Este trabajo es un comentario sobre la investigación de Alan Williams ‘A Metallurgical Study of some Viking Swords` publicado en Gladius XXIX. El artículo de Williams incluye un estudio arqueometalúrgico de 44 espadas de época vikinga, todas ellas con la inscripción ULFBERHT. Estas investigaciones, realizadas por un arqueometalúrgico altamente cualificado, son esenciales en arqueología. Sin embargo, esta en concreto presenta algunas serias limitaciones. Para poder proporcionar una buena descripción de la calidad de la hoja de una espada, son necesarias muestras de al menos la sección desde el filo y hasta la parte central de la hoja. Este no es el caso de la mayoría de las muestras de Williams, quien proporciona insuficiente información sobre su toma de muestras. Otros puntos débiles son su clasificación en grupos y su interpretación del área de producción para las hojas que contienen un acero con elevado contenido de carbono.
A note on the analysis of Viking swords  [cached]
Williams, Alan
Gladius , 2011, DOI: 10.3989/gladius.2011.0010
Abstract: A large number of swords from the Viking era bear the inscription VLFBERHT or a variation on that. The metallurgy of different examples of these swords varies considerably but the metal employed correlates with the spelling of that name. In seeking to determine the origin of these swords, metallurgical studies may guide us, especially as many of the best examples differ considerably from both earlier and later Medieval swords. Un número importante de espadas de época vikinga llevan la inscripción VLFBERHT o una variante de la misma. La metalurgia de diferentes ejemplos de dichas espadas varía considerablemente, pero el metal empleado guarda correlación con la forma en que se escribió dicho nombre. Cuando tratamos de determinar el origen de estas espadas, los estudios metalúrgicos pueden servirnos de guía, especialmente dado que muchos de los mejores ejemplos difieren considerablemente de espadas medievales tanto anteriores como posteriores en el tiempo.
Carp’s-tongue swords - morphological, metallurgical and cultural aspects
Brandherm, Dirk,Moskal-del Hoyo, Magdalena
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 2010,
Abstract: This contribution discusses the results from a study of the spatial distribution of different morphological sub-groups of carp’s-tongue swords at a European scale, relating morphological types to the metallurgial make-up of the respective pieces. From this study some surprising conclusions concerning the chronological as well as the spatial dimension of the evolution of carp’s-tongue swords emerge. We also look at the degree of variability in the deposition of these artefacts and in the composition of the assemblages in question, with considerable repercussions for our understanding of the depositional contexts of metal objects in the Atlantic Bronze Age world in general. Se presentan los resultados de un análisis de la dispersión geográfica de los distintos subgrupos morfológicos de las espadas en lengua de carpa a nivel europeo, poniéndolas en relación con una marcada variabilidad en la composición metalúrgica de estas piezas, que lleva a conclusiones inesperadas sobre la dimensión temporal y espacial de su evolución. El análisis de la variabilidad en los ritos de deposición de estos artefactos y en la composición de los conjuntos en que se encuentran, tiene importantes repercusiones sobre nuestra imagen de los contextos deposicionales de los objetos metálicos en el mundo del Bronce Final atlántico en general.
The Metallurgy of some indian swords
Williams, Alan,Edge, David
Gladius , 2007, DOI: 10.3989/gladius.2007.102
Abstract: The metallurgy of Indian swords shows many differences from that of European swords. The distinction between "Damascus Steel" (or wootz) and crucible steel is explained. Ten broken blades from the Armoury of the Nizams of Hyderabad were made available for microscopic examination. Six of these seem to been made from crucible steels, and are of notably high quality. By contrast, a group of six randomly collected from Private Collections in England were also examined. Only one of these was made of crucible steel, and three of the others were of very mediocre quality. This perhaps represents the quality of blades available to the average Indian soldier. La metalurgia de las espadas indias presenta notables diferencias en comparación con la de las europeas. Se explica la distinción entre el ‘acero de Damasco’ (o wootz) y el acero de crisol. Se ha realizado un análisis microscópico de un conjunto de diez hojas rotas de espada depositadas en la Armería de los Nizams de Hyderabad. Seis de ellas parecen haber sido realizadas a partir de acero de crisol, y son de elevada calidad. En contraste, se examinó también un grupo de seis espadas de colecciones privadas en Inglaterra. Sólo una de ellas estaba fabricada con acero de crisol, y tres de las otras eran de calidad muy mediocre. Esto representa quizá la calidad de las hojas de espada al alcance del soldado medio indio.
Some early medieval swords in the Wallace Collection and elsewhere
Edge, David,Williams, Alan
Gladius , 2003, DOI: 10.3989/gladius.2003.50
Abstract: The analysis of eight early medieval swords shows that some were made from a single piece of steel, while others had a steel cutting edge welded on. Heat-treatment to harden the steel was undertaken in six out of seven cases; the other proved to be a modern replica. El análisis de ocho espadas altomedievales muestra que algunas de ellas fueron hechas a partir de una sola pieza de acero, mientras que a otras se les ha soldado un cortante filo de este material. El endurecimiento del acero mediante forja fue realizado en seis de siete casos, mientras que el restante se demostró que era una réplica moderna.
Methods of Manufacture of Swords in Medieval Europe: Illustrated by the Metallography of some Examples
Williams, Alan R.
Gladius , 1977, DOI: 10.3989/gladius.1977.146
Abstract: During the Dark Ages in Europe, the manufacture of the swords known as pattern-welded , flourished. This type first appeared in the third century and disappeared by the tenth century A. D. Their characteristic appearance has drawn attention to them and numerous papers have been published describing their manufacture. No disponible. Consultar resumen en inglés.
Assessment of Some Nigerian Coals for Metallurgical Application  [PDF]
I. O. Akpabio, M. M. Chagga, A. Jauro
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2008.74023
Abstract: In the quest for a search of a suitable coal deposit of metallurgical importance, the qualities of three Nigerian coal samples, Lafia-Obi, Doho and Lamja, were assessed for possible utilization in metallurgical coke production. Several parameters that determine coking quality, such as moisture content, ash, volatile matter, free swelling index, sulphur content, Gray-King coke test, dilatation and plasticity (fluidity), were investigated. Lafia-Obi has the lowest moisture and volatile matter and the highest fixed carbon content. Its ash and sulphur contents are greater than that required by a coking but washing prior to use is expected to improve it. The volatile matter places Lafia-Obi in the medium-volatile bituminous rank, while Lamja and Doho are of medium-volatile bituminous rank. The rheological properties show that Lafia-Obi is the only caking coal. This put together single out Lafia-Obi as a potential candidate for coke making. Doho and Lamja coals may be useful for steam raising, liquefaction or chemicals manufacture.
Metallurgical Use of Heat Altered Coal: A Case Study  [PDF]
Debjani Nag, A.K. Singh, P.K. Banerjee
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.87047
Abstract: The effects of igneous intrusion on coal are observed in various parts of the world. It is found that igneous intrusions have altered the quality and characteristics, especially the coke ability of the coals. It has been estimated that a large quantity of heat affected (jhama) coal is reserved in the Jharia collieries of India. Nowadays, apart from difficulties of mining, its utilization is the biggest issue. This paper presents a brief overview of heat altered coal and also highlights some studies, undertaken in Tata Steel to make best possible metallurgical use of jhama especially in steel industry.
Algorithmic Solutions to Some Transportation Optimization Problems with Applications in the Metallurgical Industry  [PDF]
Mugurel Ionut Andreica,Sorin Briciu,Madalina Ecaterina Andreica
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper we address several constrained transportation optimization problems (e.g. vehicle routing, shortest Hamiltonian path), for which we present novel algorithmic solutions and extensions, considering several optimization objectives, like minimizing costs and resource usage. All the considered problems are motivated by practical situations arising, for instance, in the mining and metallurgical industry or in data communication. We restrict our attention to transportation networks with path, tree or geometric structures, for which the developed polynomial-time algorithms are optimal or nearly optimal.
Quality of Some Nigerian Coals as Blending Stock in Metallurgical Coke Production  [PDF]
M. B. Nasirudeen, A. Jauro
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.101007
Abstract: Two Nigerian coals, Lafia-Obi and Chikila were blended in the mass ratio of 70:30 with imported American and Polish coking coals. Proximate analysis, free swelling index, Ruhr dilatometer and Gieseler plastometer were used in assessing the coking qualities of both the single coals and the blends. The results show that the blends are lower in moisture and ash contents; higher in volatile matter and fixed carbon than the single Nigerian coals. The rheological parameters revealed superiority in thermo-plastic properties of the blends over the unblended local coals. Lafia-Obi/Foreign coals blends possess lower ash and better rheological properties compared to Chikila/Foreign coal composites which have high ash and poor rheological properties. These together suggest that amongst the two Nigerian coals, Lafia-Obi is superior for blending with the foreign ones in metallurgical coke production.
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