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Arsenic poisoning in a family.  [cached]
Jha S,Dhanuka A,Singh M
Neurology India , 2002,
Abstract: A family of six members is reported, who accidently consumed arsenic, during preparation of indigenous medicine in their home, and developed arsenic poisoning.
Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring  [PDF]
Piyush Kant Pandey,Sushma Yadav,Madhurima Pandey
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph2007010003
Abstract: The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations.
Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder
Miwako Dakeishi, Katsuyuki Murata, Philippe Grandjean
Environmental Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-5-31
Abstract: Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The major source of human exposure is contamination of drinking water from natural geological sources, but anthropogenic emissions from mining, smelting, or agricultural sources (pesticides or fertilizers) also contribute to local exposures [1]. Although current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic [2,3], other adverse effects, such as neurotoxicity, may also be relevant. For instance, peripheral neuropathy has been amply demonstrated in adults [4-6] and is thought to occur only at fairly high exposure levels that would already be deemed unacceptable from the viewpoint of preventing arsenic-induced cancer. In past incidents, 15 fatalities occurred among 500 patients exposed to arsenic-contaminated wine in France in 1888; 70 of 6,000 patients from arsenic-contaminated beer in England in 1900–1901; and 15 of 28 patients due to arsenic-contaminated cider in the US in 1924 [7]. These events involved adults only.Developmental processes in the nervous system are vulnerable to disruption by such chemicals at doses that may not be toxic to mature systems [8-10], and consideration of developmental neurotoxicity would therefore seem to be appropriate. An extensive data base on developmental arsenic toxicity exists from an unfortunate poisoning incident in Japan in the mid-1950s. The so-called Morinaga dried milk poisoning has received only cursory coverage in the English-language scientific literature, but detailed accounts are available in Japanese. According to official records, more than one hundred infants died from arsenic poisoning [11], thus making the fatality rate of this food poisoning incident the most serious one ever to occur in Japan. In the absence of a detailed account in English, we therefore present an overview of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning based on reports published by Japanese researchers.In the early summer 1955, physicians in the western
Determinants of Arsenicosis Patients’ Perception and Social Implications of Arsenic Poisoning through Groundwater in Bangladesh  [PDF]
M. Mizanur Rahman Sarker
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7103644
Abstract: Adverse human health effects ranging from skin lesions to internal cancers as well as widespread social and psychological problems caused by arsenic contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh may be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. From an arsenicosis patients survey, this paper empirically analyzes the determinants of arsenicosis patients’ perception about chronic arsenic poisoning and social and psychological implications of arsenicosis. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from the Matlab and Hajiganj Upzillas of Chandpur district which are known to be highly contaminated with arsenic in their underground water. Respondents informed that arsenic poisoning causes a wide range of social and psychological problems. Female respondents were less vulnerable in the case of social problems (p < 0.01) and more vulnerable for the psychological problems (p < 0.001) of arsenicosis than male respondents. The results based on logit analysis showed that education (p < 0.01) and household income (p < 0.05) were significantly correlated to respondents’ perception about arsenicosis. The arsenicosis related special program (s) needs a clear understanding of people’s perception about arsenic exposure for abating the health burden as well as social and psychological problems.
Can Homeopathic Arsenic Remedy Combat Arsenic Poisoning in Humans Exposed to Groundwater Arsenic Contamination?: A Preliminary Report on First Human Trial  [PDF]
Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh,Surajit Pathak,Bibhas Guha,Susanta Roy Karmakar,Jayanta Kumar Das,Pathikrit Banerjee,Surjyo Jyoti Biswas,Partha Mukherjee,Nandini Bhattacharjee,Sandipan Chaki Choudhury,Antara Banerjee,Suman Bhadra,Palash Mallick,Jayati Chakrabarti,Biswapati Mandal
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neh124
Abstract: Groundwater arsenic (As) has affected millions of people globally distributed over 20 countries. In parts of West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh alone, over 100 million people are at risk, but supply of As-free water is grossly inadequate. Attempts to remove As by using orthodox medicines have mostly been unsuccessful. A potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album-30, was administered to a group of As affected people and thereafter the As contents in their urine and blood were periodically determined. The activities of various toxicity marker enzymes and compounds in the blood, namely aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione, were also periodically monitored up to 3 months. The results are highly encouraging and suggest that the drug can alleviate As poisoning in humans.
Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Chronic Arsenic Poisoning among Bangladeshi Patients  [PDF]
A. H. M. Nurun Nabi,M. Mahfuzur Rahman,Laila N. Islam
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph2005030002
Abstract: An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were examined and interviewed, and 120 unexposed volunteers were enrolled in this study. Drinking water, urine and peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed. The average levels of arsenic in the drinking water and spot urine samples of the arsenicosis patients were 218.18g/L and 234.68g/L, respectively, and duration of exposure was 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs that ranged from 1-25 yrs. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among chronic arsenic-exposed subjects was about 2.8 times higher than the unexposed subjects. The activities of alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated in the patients, 197 U/L compared to 149 U/L in the controls, but alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were mostly normal. The patients had significantly lower levels of serum creatinine, 0.97 mg/dL compared to 1.15 mg/dL in the controls; but had significantly elevated levels of total protein, 84 g/L and 77 g/L respectively. The mean level of inorganic phosphate in the serum of arsenicosis patients was 6.4 mg/dL compared to 4.6 mg/dL in the unexposed subjects and the level was significantly higher, indicating substitution of the pentavalent arsenate for the phosphate ion causing underutilization of the latter. Evaluation of the lipid profiles showed while the levels of triacylglycerol were not much different, the patients had significantly lower levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the unexposed subjects. These findings suggest significant changes in biochemical parameters in human arsenic toxicity.
Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning  [cached]
Yamanaka K.,Yamano Y.,Yoshimura Y.,Shimoda Y.
E3S Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20130139003
Abstract: Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As) concentration in serum was 244.8 μg/l at admission and 97.1 μg/l at discharge. In the speciation analysis, four kinds of As compounds derived from arsine metabolism were detected in serum and urine. The concentration of arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in serum at admission were 45.8, 5.2, 17.9 and 9.3 μg/l, respectively. The concentrations of AsIII, AsV, and MMA decreased with biological half time (BHT) of 30.1, 43.0, and 96.3 h, respectively. Only DMA was increased at discharge. The urinary AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA concentrations were 223.0, 12.1, 317.5 and 1053.5 μg/l at discharge, and decreased with BHT of 15.1, 20.8, 14.7, and 16.0 d, respectively. The results indicate that arsine was quickly metabolized to AsIII and subsequently up to DMA, with the result that the toxic effects of inorganic arsenic were added to those of arsine toxicity.
Análisis, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las intoxicaciones arsenicales Analysis, diagnosis and treatment of arsenic poisoning  [cached]
M.L. Suárez Solá,F.J. González-Delgado,D. González Weller,C. Rubio Armendáriz
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense , 2004,
Abstract: El arsénico (As) fue aislado por primera vez como elemento químico por Jabir-Ibn-Haiyanb en el a o 776 y su nombre procede etimológicamente del griego arsenicon (masculino). Es de color gris y apariencia metálica y brillante, posee escasas propiedades metálicas, se encuentra ampliamente distribuido en el universo y su toxicidad depende de las distintas formas químicas y estados de oxidación que posee: -3, 0, +3 y +5. La evolución histórica de la Toxicología está íntimamente unida al uso de este metaloide. Actualmente, las sustancias arsenicales se utilizan en la industria, en la agricultura y ganadería y en medicina. Por ello, las fuentes de exposición del hombre a este metal son diversas destacando la laboral, la alimentaria y la medicamentosa. En este trabajo se hace una revisión de la etiología, medidas preventivas, análisis, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las intoxicaciones por As. Arsenic (As) was isolated for the first time as a chemical element by Jabir-Ibn-Haiyanb in the year 776, and its name comes etymologically from the Greek arsenicon (masculine). It is gray in color and of a shining metallic appearance, has little metallic properties, is distributed widely in the universe and its toxicity depends on the different chemical forms and states of oxidation that it has: -3, 0, +3 and +5. The historical evolution of the toxicology is intimately united to the use of this nonmetal. At present, arsenical substances are used in industry, agriculture, cattle ranching, and medicine. For that reason, the sources of exposure of man to this metal are diverse; out standing are labor, food and medicaments. In this work a revision is made of the etiology, preventive measures, analysis, diagnosis and treatment of the poisoning by As.
Health Hazards among Coastal Villagers of Pakistan Due to Arsenic Contaminated Drinking Water  [PDF]
Syed Sanwer Ali, Nasim Karim, Alia Bano Munshi, Ishratullah Siddqui, Farooq A. Khan
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.512132
Abstract:

Water supply has become insufficient for the rapidly rising population in Pakistan. As in other parts of Pakistan, coastal villagers also become helpless to use ground water for drinking and daily consumption, due to their need and their not knowing about the quality of water. A number of patients arrived to Karachi hospitals, suffering from a strange disease and this study has been done to find the exact cause of this disease by assuming that arsenic contaminated drinking water may be one of the possibilities. Maximum permissible limit (MRL) of arsenic in drinking water of Pakistan has been calculated by analysis of 50 samples of supply water as 0.05 mg/l. It was observed that most of the residents of Ibrahim Hyderi, Rehri, Chashma, Mubarak, Fagheer Muhammad and Gul Hasan Goths (villages) of the coastal belt of the Karachi city were suffering from melanosis, leuco-melanosis, keratosis, hyperkeratosis, dorsum, non-pitting oedema, gangrene and skin cancer that might be due to arsenic contamination in drinking water. Studied subjects were seriously affected due to paralyzing lower limbs, arms and other body parts in the coastal belt of Karachi, which

Torsades de Pointes precoces y elevación sérica de la troponina I debidas a intoxicación aguda por arsénico Early, onset of Torsades de Pointes and elevated levels of serum troponin I due to acute arsenic poisoning  [cached]
J. Ortega Carnicer,F. Ruiz Lorenzo,D. Ma?as García,F. Ceres Alabau
Medicina Intensiva , 2006,
Abstract: La mayoría de los casos de intoxicación aguda por arsénico se producen por la ingestión accidental o voluntaria de insecticidas o pesticidas, y sus manifestaciones clínicas reflejan afectación de todos los sistemas corporales. El arsénico puede prolongar el intervalo QT y causar torsades de Pointes, un tipo de arritmia con riesgo vital característica de la prolongación del intervalo QT. En una revisión de la literatura sólo hemos encontrado cinco casos de torsades de Pointes debidas a la intoxicación aguda por arsénico. Recientemente, se han publicado cuatro casos adicionales en pacientes con leucemia promielocítica aguda refractaria o recurrente tratados con trióxido de arsénico. En los nueve casos, las torsades de Pointes aparecieron tardíamente tras la intoxicación. Se describe un caso de intoxicación aguda por arsénico que tuvo torsades de Pointes precoces, hipopotasemia y altos niveles séricos de troponina I. Most cases of acute arsenic poisoning occur through accidental or voluntary ingestion of pesticides or insecticides, and all body systems are affected. Arsenic can prolong the QT interval and lead to torsades of Pointes, a crucial type of arrhythmia characteristic of such QT interval prolongation. In our revision of the literature, there have been found only 5 cases of torsades of Pointes due to acute arsenic poisoning. Recently, there have been published four additional cases in patients with refractory or recurrent acute promyelocytic leukemia being treated with arsenic trioxide. In all nine cases, torsades of pointes appeared slowly after poisoning. Herein is described a case of acute arsenic poisoning which led to an early onset of torsades of Pointes, hypopotasemia and high levels of serum troponin I.
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