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SíNTOMAS DE ESTRéS POSTRAUMáTICO (EPT) EN PERIODISTAS MEXICANOS QUE CUBREN LA GUERRA CONTRA EL NARCOTRáFICO
Flores Morales,Rogelio; Reyes Pérez,Verónica; Reidl Martínez,Lucy María;
Suma Psicológica , 2012,
Abstract: the present study obtained data on the frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) symptoms from a national sample of mexican journalists. the main objective of this exploratory and transversal study was to assess ptsd symptoms, and identify differences by gender (male/female), assignment (journalists who cover drug trafficking news/other journalists), and professional activity (reporter/ photographer). the ptsd checklist-civilian version (pcl-c), and a questionnaire on sociodemographic data were used. the instruments were applied in a national context of war on drugs, in which acts of extreme violence like mass murders, beheadings and skinning are present. results indicate that 35% of the journalists had ptsd symptoms. however, rates of ptsd symptoms in reporters who cover drug war news were significantly higher than in journalists who cover other assignments (p=.03).
Surgical treatment of war posttraumatic pleural empyemas  [PDF]
Cvijanovi? Vlado,Stani? Vojkan,Ristanovi? Aleksandar,Guli? Bojan
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0712813c
Abstract: Background/Aim. Posttraumatic pleural empyema is the most frequent septic complication of the thoracic penetrating war injuries. Surgical treatment used to be based on the experience gained in the treatment of parapneumonic empyema, the most frequent empyema, and used to be favored the pleural drainage until the nineties of the last century. Thoracotomy and decortication was performed in case of drainage failure, in early chronic phase, 4-6 weeks after injury. The aim of this study was to emphasize the necessity of different surgical approaches in the treatment of this disease which is based on the different pathophisyology of posttraumatic and other sorts of empyema. Also, to recommend on the basis of the surgical treatment results, early decortication as better method in the treatment of this septic complication. Methods. In the period between September 1991-June 1999. 1 303 thoracic injures were surgically treated. There were 1 117 penetrating injures with 675 dominant thoracic injures, and 442 thoracic injures as the following ones. In 59 (5.3%) injured people raised posttraumatic empyema (PET). The patients were divided into the groups with early and late decortications regarding the interval between the injury and the surgical treatment. Almost all the patients sustained this complication in various periods before the admittance to the hospital. Surgical treatment efficiency of early and late decortication was analyzed on the basis of perioperative and postoperative study parameters and analyzing postoperative complications. Results. Thoracotomy and decortication were performed in 46 (78%) injured patients with post traumatic pleural empyema while only 13 (22%) injured patients were successfully treated for this septic complication with drainage procedures. This study proved that there were in the group with early decortications lesser intra and postoperative blood loss, duration of operation was shorter as well as febrile postoperative period. In this group, also, hospitalization was shorter and with lesser complications. Conclusion. The obtained results showed that thoracotomy and decortication should be done as early as possible in patients, not later than two weeks after the injury.
Recovery from Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: A Qualitative Study of Attributions in Survivors of War  [PDF]
Dean Ajdukovic, Dea Ajdukovic, Marija Bogic, Tanja Franciskovic, Gian Maria Galeazzi, Abdulah Kucukalic, Dusica Lecic-Tosevski, Matthias Schützwohl, Stefan Priebe
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070579
Abstract: Objective The study explored factors to which people traumatized by war attribute their recovery from posttraumatic symptoms and from war experiences. Methods : In-depth interviews were conducted with two groups of participants with mental sequelae of the war in the former Yugoslavia: 26 people who had recovered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 people with ongoing symptoms of PTSD. Participants could attribute their recovery to any event, person or process in their life. The material was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Eight themes covered all factors to which participants attributed their recovery. Six themes described healing factors relevant for both groups of participants: social attachment and support, various strategies of coping with symptoms, personality hardiness, mental health treatment, received material support, and normalization of everyday life. In addition to the common factors, recovered participants reported community involvement as healing, and recovered refugees identified also feeling safe after resolving their civil status as helpful. Unique to the recovered group was that they maintained reciprocal relations in social attachment and support, employed future-oriented coping and emphasised their resilient personality style. Conclusions The reported factors of recovery are largely consistent with models of mental health protection, models of resilience and recommended interventions in the aftermath of massive trauma. Yet, they add the importance of a strong orientation towards the future, a reciprocity in receiving and giving social support and involvement in meaningful activities that ensure social recognition as a productive and valued individual. The findings can inform psychosocial interventions to facilitate recovery from posttraumatic symptoms of people affected by war and upheaval.
The Mexican Drug War and the Consequent Population Exodus: Transnational Movement at the U.S.-Mexican Border  [PDF]
Maria Cristina Morales,Oscar Morales,Angelica C. Menchaca,Adam Sebastian
Societies , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/soc3010080
Abstract: At the frontline of México’s “war on drugs” is the Mexican-U.S. border city of Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, which has become internationally known as the “murder capital of the world.” In Juárez, which neighbors El Paso, Texas, United States, estimates of the murders in Juárez are as high as 7,643 between 2006 and 2011, leaving approximately 10,000 orphans. Juárez has also experienced an exodus of approximately 124,000 people seeking safety, some migrating to the Mexican interior and others to the U.S., particularly along the U.S.-México border. Based on 63 in-depth interviews with Juárez-El Paso border residents, along with ethnographic observations, we examine the implications of the “war on drugs” on transnational movements and on the initial settlement of those escaping the violence. In particular, we construct a typology of international migrants who are represented in the Juárez exodus: the Mexican business elite, the “Refugees without Status,” and those who resided in México but who are U.S. born or have legal permanent residency in the U.S. This article highlights the role of transnational capital in the form of assets and income, social networks in the U.S., and documentation to cross the port of entry into the U.S. legally, in easing migration and initial settlement experiences in the U.S.
"Narco" Emotions: Affect and Desensitization in Social Media during the Mexican Drug War  [PDF]
Munmun De Choudhury,Andrés Monroy-Hernández,Gloria Mark
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1145/2556288.2557197
Abstract: Social media platforms have emerged as prominent information sharing ecosystems in the context of a variety of recent crises, ranging from mass emergencies, to wars and political conflicts. We study affective responses in social media and how they might indicate desensitization to violence experienced in communities embroiled in an armed conflict. Specifically, we examine three established affect measures: negative affect, activation, and dominance as observed on Twitter in relation to a number of statistics on protracted violence in four major cities afflicted by the Mexican Drug War. During a two year period (Aug 2010-Dec 2012), while violence was on the rise in these regions, our findings show a decline in negative emotional expression as well as a rise in emotional arousal and dominance in Twitter posts: aspects known to be psychological markers of desensitization. We discuss the implications of our work for behavioral health, facilitating rehabilitation efforts in communities enmeshed in an acute and persistent urban warfare, and the impact on civic engagement.
Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and mild closed head injury in war veterans: Endocrinological and psychological profiles  [PDF]
?piri? ?eljko,Samard?i? Radomir
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0501017s
Abstract: Aim. To determine the degree of psychological and endocrinological changes in war veterans with the diagnosis of Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) regarding presence/absence of comorbid mild closed head injury (mCHI) caused by explosive devices. Methods. Two groups of PTSD inpatients, with (n = 37), and without (n = 86) sustained blast trauma followed by mCHI were formed during the psychiatric treatment. Participants were interviewed by experienced clinicians who used the PTSD Interview (PTSD-I). In addition, patients completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Serum levels of ten hormones were assessed: triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and insulin, by radioimmunoassays and hydrocortisone, growth hormone and testosterone by fluoroimmunoassays. Results. Veterans with comorbid mCHI and PTSD showed significantly higher level of amnesia for traumatic event as well as of somatization on the SCL-90-R. Significant differences of hormone levels were not found. Conclusion. The results didn't support the hypothesis on specific PTSD subgroup characterized by history of mCHI and consecutive postconcussion syndrome. The absence of differences in levels of hormones indicated the dominant role of psychogenic trauma in the etiology of hormone disbalance in chronic PTSD. Amnesia for traumatic event in war veterans with comorbid PTSD and mCHI was easily explained by neurogenic peritraumatic amnesia due to the blast trauma, but it did not affect either quality of intensity or posttraumatic symptoms as well as endocrinological parameters.
Posttraumatic stress disorder in bosnian war veterans: Analysis of stress events and risk factors  [PDF]
Kulji? Blagoje,Miljanovi? Bo?idar,Svi?evi? Radoslav
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0403283k
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the characteristics of stress-related events, and the risk factors for the development of PTSD. The total patient sample consisted of 100 Bosnian war veterans. Watson’s PTSD module was used in establishing PTSD diagnosis. Patients fulfilled the following questionnaires: personal data form, Posttraumatic Symptom Scale PTSS-10 (Holen), Impact of Event Scale (Horowitz), Life Event Scale, and Eysenck Personality Inventory. PTSD was diagnosed in 30% of the examined patients. Larger number of stress-related events, particularly of those regarded as life-threatening, wounding/death of a close person, and material losses were more frequent in persons with PTSD. The risk factors for the development of PTSD in this study were: age (30-40), marital status (married), lower level of education, the front-line combat exposure, neurotic manifestations, family problems in childhood, and neuroticism.
Late effect of the Second Lebanon War: Level of exposure and rates of comorbidity of posttraumatic stress symptoms and depresisve symptoms among Israelis from Northern and Center Israel
Ben-Ezra,Menachem; Palgi,Yuval; Shira,Amit;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632010000300004
Abstract: background and objectives: the objective of the present study was to examine comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms in the aftermath of war related stress among two groups differentiated by their level of exposure to the war. methods: 336 israeli citizens were assessed using a convenience sample creating two groups from northern and central israel. the former were exposed to missile attacks while the latter were indirectly exposed to war-related stress. the participants provided demographical information and filled a battery of questionnaire that assessed their physical health, mental health, and subjective well-being. results: the northern group exhibited higher level of comorbidity, depressive symptoms and past satisfaction. moreover, higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychosomatic symptoms and lower satisfaction with life in the past were associated with higher levels of ptsd symptoms. conclusions: our findings suggest that the long-term effect of war is more salient when examining comorbidity of ptsd and depressive symptoms rather than when examining ptsd or depressive symptoms alone. in line with the dose-response model, it can be assumed that higher exposure to war related stress is related to higher levels of exposure that may lead to a long lasting vulnerability as it appears in a combination of ptsd symptoms and depressive symptoms two years later.
Late effect of the Second Lebanon War: Level of exposure and rates of comorbidity of posttraumatic stress symptoms and depresisve symptoms among Israelis from Northern and Center Israel  [cached]
Menachem Ben-Ezra,Yuval Palgi,Amit Shira
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: The objective of the present study was to examine comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms in the aftermath of war related stress among two groups differentiated by their level of exposure to the war. Methods: 336 Israeli citizens were assessed using a convenience sample creating two groups from Northern and Central Israel. The former were exposed to missile attacks while the latter were indirectly exposed to war-related stress. The participants provided demographical information and filled a battery of questionnaire that assessed their physical health, mental health, and subjective well-being. Results: The Northern group exhibited higher level of comorbidity, depressive symptoms and past satisfaction. Moreover, higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychosomatic symptoms and lower satisfaction with life in the past were associated with higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the long-term effect of war is more salient when examining comorbidity of PTSD and depressive symptoms rather than when examining PTSD or depressive symptoms alone. In line with the dose-response model, it can be assumed that higher exposure to war related stress is related to higher levels of exposure that may lead to a long lasting vulnerability as it appears in a combination of PTSD symptoms and depressive symptoms two years later.
Narrative Exposure Therapy as a treatment for child war survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: Two case reports and a pilot study in an African refugee settlement
Lamaro P Onyut, Frank Neuner, Elisabeth Schauer, Verena Ertl, Michael Odenwald, Maggie Schauer, Thomas Elbert
BMC Psychiatry , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-5-7
Abstract: Six Somali children suffering from PTSD aged 12–17 years resident in a refugee settlement in Uganda were treated with four to six individual sessions of KIDNET by expert clinicians. Symptoms of PTSD and depression were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at nine months follow-up using the CIDI Sections K and E.Important symptom reduction was evident immediately after treatment and treatment outcomes were sustained at the 9-month follow-up. All patients completed therapy, reported functioning gains and could be helped to reconstruct their traumatic experiences into a narrative with the use of illustrative material.NET may be safe and effective to treat children with war related PTSD in the setting of refugee settlements in developing countries.In the wars and armed conflicts of the past decades, children have been among the survivors who have been exposed to war or conflict-related violence. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recently stated that 43% of its population of concern are children under the age of 18 [1]. Mental health experts are also becoming more aware that war and conflict-related event types are among those that may result in children developing disorders of the stress spectrum, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [2-5].An increasingly important field of research addresses the wide-ranging negative sequelae that children and adolescents in modern post-conflict populations such as in Iraq, Kuwait, Bosnia, Rwanda, Croatia, South Africa and others may develop consequent to war and conflict violence [6-17]. Current research emphasis is now more than ever being placed on developing appropriate interventions that address the needs of survivors experiencing a range of symptoms after trauma exposure [18-29].Given the pervasiveness of war and conflict-related trauma, especially in resource poor countries, interventions tailored to suit the circumstances of the overwhelming number of such survivors are especially in dema
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