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The Cognitive approach of Social Phobia  [cached]
Zartaloudi A.
Interscientific Health Care , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Social phobia is a disorder characterized by an excessive fear of the individual that he or she “will act in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing” in response to one or more social or performance situations. These disorders cause significant distress and interfere appreciably with a person's daily career, academic, and interpersonal functioning. AIM: The purpose of the present study is to explore the influence of cognitive factors associated with the development and maintenance of Social Phobia. METHOD: A critical review of this body of literature was carried out. Evidence was collected through Medline database. RESULTS: According to cognitive theories, social phobic individuals interpret social situations in a negative way. They overestimate danger, threat and fear, and underestimate their abilities to cope with danger and these threats. As a result, individuals revert to maladaptive coping strategies, including avoidance and safety behaviours. For people with social phobia, social cues are posited to activate negative schema, or beliefs. CONCLUSION: Recognizing the importance of negative self-images, several cognitive-behavioral treatment programs for social phobia include cognitive (cognitive restructuring) and behavioral techniques for correcting distorted self-images, modifying dysfunctional thinking patterns and improving individuals’ social skills in order to cope effectively with the social situation.
SOCIAL PHOBIA PREVALENCE IN YOUNGS  [cached]
AHMAD REZA ZAMANI,H TABAN,A SAJADI,A HEIDARZADEH
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Introduction: The most common psychiatric disorder of new communities are the anxiety disorders. In this survey Isfahans' high school students' social phobia were assessed as an important part of anxiety disorders. Methods & Materials: In this cross sectional study, 500 high school students (250 male, 250 female) whom selected by multi-stage cluster and simple random sampling, were enrolled into study. Data collection performed by multiple choice question are and analysis were done by SPSS software with 0.05 significance level. Results: 11 percents of selected students with mean age about 16 Yrs, have had Social Phobia (male=56.4%, female=43.6 % ). Parents' education of affected group were higher than non-affected, and birth rank had significant relation with Social Phobia (P = 0.043). Conclusions: Unfortunately in spite of high prevalence of social phobia, It's remain unknown and affected students would have numerous educational and communicational problems because of this disorder, therefore for complications' prevention and on time treatment, its need to inform people and physicians about this disorder and its' diagnose.
Processing of emotional faces in social phobia  [cached]
S?ren Risl?v Staugaard,Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg
Mental Illness , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/mi.2011.e5
Abstract: Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.
Social phobia in developmental period: From theory to therapy  [PDF]
Kolar Du?an,Bojanin Svetomir
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0502086k
Abstract: The contemporary integrative theoretical and therapeutic concepts of social phobia in developmental period have been presented in the study. Besides current neurobiological theories, a very important hypothesis about behavioral inhibition has been represented as a predisposition of social phobia. The cognitive-behavioral theories of social phobia are dominant among psychological theories. The integrative concept of social phobia is the most realistic approach to this disorder and the bridge between biological and psychological theories. The interaction between biological and psychological etiological factors is represented through different therapeutical approaches to social phobia. Therapy of social phobia is integrative and involves different therapeutical modalities in different phases of therapy. In integrative psychotherapy, we use cognitive-behavioral therapy, dynamic oriented supportive psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy and phenomenological-existential psychotherapy. The cognitive-behavioral therapy yields the best results. The medicaments in use are the following: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mono-amine oxidase inhibitors, high-potency benzodiazepines, new antiepileptic drugs and rarely (3-blockers. The combination of integrative psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy is the most optimal therapeutic approach to social phobia. This integrative and to patient adapted treatment will produce the best results in management of children's and adolescent's social phobia.
Social phobia and its impact in Indian university students
Parag S. Shah,Lakhan Kataria
The Internet Journal of Mental Health , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Social phobia even though being a common psychiatric disorder is still under recognized and under treated. We study prevalence, severity, disability and quality of life with respect to social phobia among university students in India. Methods: A stratified sample of 380 undergraduate university students was assessed to identify the extent of social phobia, its correlates as well as resulting disability and quality of life. Results: Social phobia was found in 19.5% of participants, in varied degrees of severity and correlated with various faculties in university, resulting in significant disability in work, social life, and family life, as well as impairment in quality of life. ‘Acting, performing or giving a talk in front of an audience’ was the most commonly feared/avoided situation. Students reported various clinical manifestations affecting academic, social and interpersonal areas. Conclusions: High prevalence and marked impact on life demands stringent efforts to recognize and treat social phobia.
Relationship between adult social phobia and childhood anxiety
Manfro, Gisele Gus;Isolan, Luciano;Blaya, Carolina;Maltz, Sandra;Heldt, Elizeth;Pollack, Mark H;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462003000200009
Abstract: objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of traumas and the presence of childhood anxiety disorders in adult patients with social phobia and investigate their influence on the presentation of the disorder. methods: twenty-four adult patients with social phobia were asked about the presence of trauma before the age of 16. the k-sads-e and the dica-p interviews were used to assess these patients regarding childhood anxiety disorders. results: twelve (50%) patients reported a history of trauma before the age of 16. the presence of trauma did not influence the presentation of the disorder. seventy-five percent of patients had a history of anxiety disorders in childhood. patients with a history of at least 2 childhood anxiety disorders had an increased lifetime prevalence of major depression (10 vs. 3; p=.04) and family history of psychiatric disorders (13 vs. 6; p=.02). conclusion: anxiety disorder in childhood is associated with family history of psychiatric disorders. the presence of more than one diagnosis of anxiety disorder in childhood can be considered a risk factor for the development of depression in adult patients with social phobia.
Relationship between adult social phobia and childhood anxiety  [cached]
Manfro Gisele Gus,Isolan Luciano,Blaya Carolina,Maltz Sandra
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of traumas and the presence of childhood anxiety disorders in adult patients with social phobia and investigate their influence on the presentation of the disorder. METHODS: Twenty-four adult patients with social phobia were asked about the presence of trauma before the age of 16. The K-SADS-E and the DICA-P interviews were used to assess these patients regarding childhood anxiety disorders. RESULTS: Twelve (50%) patients reported a history of trauma before the age of 16. The presence of trauma did not influence the presentation of the disorder. Seventy-five percent of patients had a history of anxiety disorders in childhood. Patients with a history of at least 2 childhood anxiety disorders had an increased lifetime prevalence of major depression (10 vs. 3; p=.04) and family history of psychiatric disorders (13 vs. 6; p=.02). CONCLUSION: Anxiety disorder in childhood is associated with family history of psychiatric disorders. The presence of more than one diagnosis of anxiety disorder in childhood can be considered a risk factor for the development of depression in adult patients with social phobia.
Gender Differences Associated with Social Phobia: A Developmental Perspective
Vivian Wing-Sheung Chan
University of Toronto Journal of Undergraduate Life Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Social phobia, a psychological disorder marked by intense fears in social situations, affects 6.7% of Canadians. Recent literature has found a strong and unique association between social phobia and behavioural inhibition (BI) (a temperamental factor). BI is believed to be a necessary precursor for the development of social phobia. Interestingly, BI appears to be more prevalent in females, which is also the case for the sex ratios in social phobia. Men and women also have different risk factors and outcomes with BI and social phobia. While men with BI are more likely to have a psychological and social burden than women, women tend to have more environmental risk factors for social phobia than men. Researchers have hypothesized that gender differences are likely due gender stereotype scripts, which affects caregivers’ and clinicians’ judgments of providing help in boys and girls who are vulnerable to social phobia. Beyond identifying behavioural characteristics, environmental risk factors and outcomes for boys and girls who have BI and social phobia, this review takes a developmental perspective to examine the developmental trajectory from BI to social phobia. As such, a study which measures BI, personality factors, and social phobia will be explored to understand how BI directly impacts personality, and thus social phobia. This developmental perspective suggests that BI and social phobia are connected at a dimensional level, with socio-environmental factors mediating boys’ and girls’ outcomes.
Lack of Neuropsychological Deficits in Generalized Social Phobia  [PDF]
Scott R. Sutterby, Jeffrey S. Bedwell
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042675
Abstract: There are relatively few existing studies examining neuropsychological functioning in social phobia (SP), which collectively yield mixed results. Interpretation of results is further complicated by a number of methodological inconsistencies across studies, including the examination of neuropsychological domains in relative isolation from one another. The present study utilized a broader collection of neuropsychological tests to assess nine domains of functioning in 25 individuals diagnosed with generalized SP and 25 nonpsychiatric controls (NC). A mixed ANOVA revealed neither a significant group by domain interaction, nor a significant main effect of group. Furthermore, no significant group differences emerged between the SP and NC groups within each specific neuropsychological domain. These findings suggest that underlying neuropsychological deficits are not likely to account for the information processing biases observed in the empirical literature, and appear to be consistent with current theoretical models which argue for the specificity of these biases to social information.
The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy in Social Phobia of Students  [PDF]
Majid Pourfaraj Omran
Knowledge & Health Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Acceptance and commitment therapy is a third generation behavior therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment group therapy in social phobia of students. Methods: This investigation is an experimental study. Twenty students with social phobia were selected based on clinical interview and social phobia and anxiety inventory from Shomal University of Amol and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Acceptance and commitment group therapy was administered to the experimental group in ten 90- minute sessions and control group did not receive any therapy. Pretest, posttest and one-month fallow up scores of the two groups were analyzed by multiple analyses of variance and independent t-test.Results: The result of analyses showed that in final of treatment social anxiety score of experimental group significantly decreased (P<0.05)and in one-month fallow up did not significantly differ (P>0.05).Conclusion: Acceptance and commitment group therapy is effective in the treatment of social phobia of students.
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