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The tobacco dependence dimension in Colombia
Posada-Villa,Jose; Cheng,Hui G.; Martins,Silvia S.; Storr,Carla L.; Aguilar-Gaxiola,Sergio A.; Anthony,James C.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892011000100008
Abstract: this epidemiological study of a sample of smokers from the general population of colombia examined the population distribution and dimensionality of eight hypothesized inter-correlated clinical features (cfs) associated with tobacco dependence syndrome (tds). data were drawn from interviews of 4 426 smokers conducted in a national survey in colombia as part of the world mental health survey initiative. daily smokers completed a spanish-language tds module, and the 237 smokers who had begun smoking during the five years prior to the assessment were selected. confirmatory factor analysis (cfa) for a unidimensional tds provided discrimination and difficulty parameter estimates. two cfs that were reported very infrequently among the study sample were dropped from the cfa. among the six remaining cfs, discrimination (d1) estimates ranged from 1.1 to 6.0 and difficulty (d2) estimates ranged from 1.1 to 2.2, providing evidentiary support for a unidimensional tobacco dependence construct. the spanish-language tds module used in this study could serve as a valuable tool in future studies for evaluating public health outreach and early intervention programs directed toward community residents who have begun smoking tobacco.
Formats  [PDF]
Gehmann, Ulrich
Journal of New Frontiers in Spatial Concepts , 2012,
Abstract: In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.
Pharmacological treatments for tobacco dependence
K. O. Fagerstr?m,C. A. Jiménez-Ruiz
European Respiratory Review , 2008,
Abstract: There are currently three licensed therapies for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement (NR), bupropion and varenicline. NR can be indicated for: 1) aid in abrupt cessation; 2) gradual reduction in order to quit smoking; 3) temporary abstinence; and 4) smoking reduction maintenance. A meta-analysis has found that the relative risk of abstinence for any form of NR relative to control was 1.6. It has been found that starting NR treatment 1–3 weeks before smoking cessation and combining NR products, usually patch and gum, increases efficacy. Recently some new nicotine administration forms, i.e. lozenge, mouth spray and a pouch, have been developed. They seem to have the potential to relieve cravings faster than the current high-dose gum, and also be more preferred. Varenicline is a selective partial agonist at the 4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). It decreases cravings and alleviates the symptoms of withdrawal. It can also reduce the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Trials have shown varenicline to have increased efficacy relative to bupropion. Varenicline has also been compared with NR (21 mg transdermal patch) in one randomised study. Abstinence at the end of treatment at 12 weeks was significantly increased for varenicline (56%) compared with for nicotine patch (43%). Some post-marketing reports have expressed concern about psychiatric adverse effects, such as aggression, depression and suicides. The European Medicines Agency and the Food and Drug Administration of the USA are monitoring reported side-effects, but so far no confirmed casual relationship between these adverse effects and varenicline has been established. Bupropion inhibits neuronal re-uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and is an antagonist on the nAChR. Its efficacy, compared with placebo, has been proved in several meta-analyses. A recent study suggests that longer pre-cessation use of bupropion, e.g. for 4 weeks, can improve efficacy results. Under development for the treatment of tobacco dependence are cannabinoid antagonists, immunotherapy against nicotine, monoaminooxidase inhibitors, dopamine receptor D3 receptor antagonists and partial agonists, glutamatergic and GABA-ergic compounds and novel selective nicotine cholinergic receptor agonists and antagonists.
Tobacco Dependence: Nursing Care Plans
Aurora Miguel García,Federico de Miguel Salinas
NURE Investigación , 2009,
Abstract: Tobacco dependence is a major risk factor for health that requires a correct approach by all health workers. Nursing plays a key role both in identifying smokers, as in the systematic advice to quit smoking, or assist in smoking quit. This work presents three standardized care plans that enable the nursing work in accordance with a methodology and using a standardized language that allows both continuity of care such as research and development of knowledge nurse: Care plan to smoker in precontemplation stage; Care plan to smoker in contemplation stage; Care plan to smoker in preparation/action stage.
Effectiveness of topiramate for tobacco dependence in patients with depression; a randomised, controlled trial
Javier Campayo, Natalia Sobradiel, Marta Alda, Adoración Mas, Eva Andrés, Rosa Magallón, Arantxa Crucelaegui, Beatriz Sanz
BMC Family Practice , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-9-28
Abstract: Design: A randomised, controlled trial involving two groups, one of which is the control group consisting of patients on the standard pharmacological treatment for tobacco cessation (NST) and the other is the intervention group consisting of patients on topiramate as pharmacological treatment.Setting: 29 primary care health centres in the city of Zaragoza, Spain.Sample: 180 patients, aged 18–65 years, diagnosed with major depression, smoke more than 20 cigarettes/day, who have voluntarily asked for tobacco cessation therapy.Intervention: A multi-component programme for tobacco cessation is offered to all of the patients in the study. This programme is made up of pharmacological therapy + group cognitive-behavioural therapy. Pharmacological therapy consists of NST for the control group and topiramate (200 mg/day) for the intervention group. Psychological therapy is made up of 16 sessions of manualised group therapy.Measurements: Cessation will be assessed by patient self-declared abstinence, expired air carbon monoxide levels, and cotinine levels in saliva. Questionnaires on tobacco dependence, anxiety, depression, impulsiveness and self-efficacy will be administered. The interviewers will not know which group the patient belongs to (blind). The assessments will be carried out at baseline, D (cessation day) -1, D+1, weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 13, and months 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12.Main variables: Tobacco cessation rates and tobacco dependence.Analysis: The analysis will be per intent to treat. We will use the general linear models of the SPSS version 15 statistical package, to analyse the effect of the treatment on the result variable (tobacco cessation rate).It is necessary to develop new and more effective pharmacological treatments for tobacco cessation. This randomised clinical trial will determine whether topiramate is effective for tobacco cessation in patients with depression.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN93532081Tobacco abuse is the main avoidable cause o
Local governments' dependence on tobacco tax revenue: a deterrent to tobacco control in the Republic of Korea
Do,Young Kyung; Park,Kidong;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862009000900013
Abstract: objective: to investigate, in the republic of korea, whether local governments' participation in an anti-smoking programme supported by the national health promotion fund in 2002-2003 was related to the percentage of local tax revenue comprised by the tobacco consumption tax (tct). methods: using financial and administrative data on 163 municipalities, the authors estimated logit models of local governments' participation in the anti-smoking programme as a function of the proportion of local tax revenue that came from the tct and a set of control variables, namely local socioeconomic characteristics and the size of the staff in the local public health centre (phc). findings: local governments that derived a greater percentage of their local tax revenue from the tct, particularly those that ranked in the upper fourth in terms of this percentage, were less likely to participate in the anti-smoking programme. insufficient staff in the phc was also found to be associated with lower participation in the anti-smoking programme. conclusion: local governments' dependence on revenue from the tct may be a deterrent to tobacco control in the republic of korea.
Gauge parameter dependence and gauge invariance in the Abelian Higgs model  [PDF]
Rainer Haeussling,Elisabeth Kraus
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1007/s002880050521
Abstract: We analyze gauge parameter dependence by using an algebraic method which relates the gauge parameter dependence of Green functions to an enlarged Slavnov-Taylor identity. In the course of the renormalization it turns out that gauge parameter dependence of physical parameters is already restricted at the level of Green functions. In a first step we consider the on-shell conditions which we find to be in complete agreement with these restrictions to all orders of perturbation theory. The fixing of the coupling, however, is much more involved outside the complete on-shell scheme. In the Abelian Higgs model we prove that this fixing can be properly chosen by requiring the Ward identity of gauge invariance to hold in its tree form to all orders of perturbation theory.
Second order Boltzmann equation : gauge dependence and gauge invariance  [PDF]
Atsushi Naruko,Cyril Pitrou,Kazuya Koyama,Misao Sasaki
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/30/16/165008
Abstract: In the context of cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the second order Boltzmann equation describing the evolution of the distribution function of radiation without a specific gauge choice. The essential steps in deriving the Boltzmann equation are revisited and extended given this more general framework: i) the polarisation of light is incorporated in this formalism by using a tensor-valued distribution function; ii) the importance of a choice of the tetrad field to define the local inertial frame in the description of the distribution function is emphasized; iii) we perform a separation between temperature and spectral distortion, both for the intensity and for polarisation for the first time; iv) the gauge dependence of all perturbed quantities that enter the Boltzmann equation is derived, and this enables us to check the correctness of the perturbed Boltzmann equation by explicitly showing its gauge-invariance for both intensity and polarization. We finally discuss several implications of the gauge dependence for the observed temperature.
Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence in adults in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru
Paul Weygandt, Elisa Vidal-Cardenas, Robert H Gilman, Erika Avila-Tang, Lilia Cabrera, William Checkley
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-12-9
Abstract: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of adults ≥40 years of age living in Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru. We asked participants to respond to a survey that included questions on sociodemographics, tobacco use and dependence.We enrolled 316 participants. Average monthly household income was ≤ 400 USD and nearly all homes had running water, sewage, and electricity. Most individuals had not completed high school. Smoking prevalence was 16% overall, yet daily smoking prevalence was 1.9%. Former daily smokers comprised 3.8% of current nonsmokers and 9.1% current occasional smokers. Average scores for the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for daily smokers and occasional smokers were 1.5 and 0, respectively.Daily use of tobacco is uncommon among adults in peri-urban communities of Lima, Peru, unlike their counterparts in Lima and other Latin American capital cities. Tobacco dependence is also low. Hence, efforts aimed at primary prevention are of utmost importance in these communities. This study provides an accurate baseline using an internationally recognized assessment tool (Global Adult Tobacco Survey), allowing for accurate assessment of tobacco control interventions over time.Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the world, resulting in millions of deaths annually, more than HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria [1]. Tobacco smoking is an important public health concern worldwide leading to pulmonary disease, various cancers including those of the respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary systems, and certain forms of leukemia and premature death [2]. Tobacco smoking causes over half of all avoidable deaths worldwide [3]. It accounted for an estimated four to five million deaths per year by 2000 [4], and contributed to an estimated 4.1% of years of life lost [5]. Low- and middle-income countries comprise 82% of the world smoking population, consume 74% of the total number of inhaled tobacco products consumed ea
Medicaid Coverage for Tobacco Dependence Treatments in Massachusetts and Associated Decreases in Smoking Prevalence  [PDF]
Thomas Land,Donna Warner,Mark Paskowsky,Ayesha Cammaerts,LeAnn Wetherell,Rachel Kaufmann,Lei Zhang,Ann Malarcher,Terry Pechacek,Lois Keithly
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009770
Abstract: Approximately 50% of smokers die prematurely from tobacco-related diseases. In July 2006, the Massachusetts health care reform law mandated tobacco cessation coverage for the Massachusetts Medicaid population. The new benefit included behavioral counseling and all medications approved for tobacco cessation treatment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008, a total of 70,140 unique Massachusetts Medicaid subscribers used the newly available benefit, which is approximately 37% of all Massachusetts Medicaid smokers. Given the high utilization rate, the objective of this study is to determine if smoking prevalence decreased significantly after the initiation of tobacco cessation coverage.
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