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Cambios en el consumo aparente de nutrientes en el Gran Santiago 1988-1997 en hogares según ingreso y su probable relación con patrón de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles Changes in household food and nutrient consumption in Metropolitan Santiago 1988-97 by income
MIRTA CROVETTO,RICARDO UAUY
Revista médica de Chile , 2010,
Abstract: Background: The rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and cancer observed in Chile over the past decades may be related to changes in dietary patterns of the population. Aim: To report changes in household apparent food-nutrients consumption (HAFNC) for Metropolitan Santiago-Chile 1988-97. Material and Methods: The analysis is based on data from household expenditure surveys conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (INE) on a representative sample of the population to define changes in food prices. Information on food and drink purchases were grouped by specific items and expen-ditures standardized across the two surveys. HAFNC was determined based on unit consumed at home and out of home by the total group and by income quintile using national food composition tables. Results: Apparent energy consumption increased over the study period by 25%, this was mainly explained by increased consumption of meat and dairy (rich in saturated fats of animal origin) and of processed foods (fat spreads, sweets and pastries) and foods rich in added sugars (sugary drinks and juices). Dietary fiber derived from whole grains, legumes and cereals decreased. The HAFNC of items protective against nutrition related chronic diseases, such as vegetables, fruits and other fiber rich foods remained stable or frankly decreased (legumes and non-starchy vegetables) Fish and other marine foods rich in omega- 3 fats remained low. Conclusions: The changes in apparent food consumption patterns can be characterized by an increase in energy dense, fat and sugar rich foods with a low consumption of fi sh, whole grains, legumes, vegetables and fruits.
CAMBIOS EN LA ESTRUCTURA ALIMENTARIA Y CONSUMO APARENTE DE NUTRIENTES DE LOS HOGARES DEL GRAN SANTIAGO 1988-1997
Crovetto M.,M. Mirta;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182002000100004
Abstract: the comparative analysis of the food expenditure in a representative sample in gran santiago included in the iv and v household survey of budget expenses (1987-1988 and 1996-1997, respectively) shows an increase in food expenses in that period and changes in the food patterns for households in gran santiago, which are reflected in modifications in the structure of food expenses. these modifications include an increased consumption of food based on animal sources and processed products rich in saturated fat and sugars with a high increase of family expenses in out-of-home meals and beverages, home-delivered meals, softdrinks and juices, meat, pastry, ice cream and chocolates. a decrease in bread, cereals, starch, vegetables, fruits, legumes and seafood consumption is observed. an increase in food expenses is also reflected in a high apparent consumption of nutrients, highlighting fat variation, and demostrating that this food pattern has not improved the quality of food consumed in the population.
Cambios en el consumo aparente de nutrientes en el Gran Santiago 1988-1997 en hogares según ingreso y su probable relación con patrón de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles
CROVETTO,MIRTA; UAUY,RICARDO;
Revista médica de Chile , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872010000900003
Abstract: background: the rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and cancer observed in chile over the past decades may be related to changes in dietary patterns of the population. aim: to report changes in household apparent food-nutrients consumption (hafnc) for metropolitan santiago-chile 1988-97. material and methods: the analysis is based on data from household expenditure surveys conducted by the instituto nacional de estadísticas (ine) on a representative sample of the population to define changes in food prices. information on food and drink purchases were grouped by specific items and expen-ditures standardized across the two surveys. hafnc was determined based on unit consumed at home and out of home by the total group and by income quintile using national food composition tables. results: apparent energy consumption increased over the study period by 25%, this was mainly explained by increased consumption of meat and dairy (rich in saturated fats of animal origin) and of processed foods (fat spreads, sweets and pastries) and foods rich in added sugars (sugary drinks and juices). dietary fiber derived from whole grains, legumes and cereals decreased. the hafnc of items protective against nutrition related chronic diseases, such as vegetables, fruits and other fiber rich foods remained stable or frankly decreased (legumes and non-starchy vegetables) fish and other marine foods rich in omega- 3 fats remained low. conclusions: the changes in apparent food consumption patterns can be characterized by an increase in energy dense, fat and sugar rich foods with a low consumption of fi sh, whole grains, legumes, vegetables and fruits.
Hoofstuk 9 - Rasionalisasie en Optimalisering 1988–1997
J.P. Oberholzer
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v66i3.934
Abstract: Ontwikkelings op onderwysgebied en finansi le druk bring streng eise en lei tot ‘n intensiewe herstruktureing oor die hele spektrum. Personeelvermindering, hervorming van onderrigmetodes en die eis van uitnemendheid intensifiseer die akademiese bedryf. Sitasie: Oberholzer, J.P., 2010, ‘Rasionalisasie en Optimalisering 1988–1997’, in ‘Honderd Jaar Kerk en Teologiese Opleiding: ‘n Kroniek van die Hervormde Kerk’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, suppl. 9, 66(3), Art. #934, 35 pages. DOI: 104102/hts.v66i3.934
El campesino en Santiago del Estero (Argentina): la pobreza de un sector que se resiste a desaparecer (1988-2002)  [cached]
Raúl Paz,Cristian Jara
Ager : Revista de Estudios Sobre Despoblación y Desarrollo Rural , 2012,
Abstract: El artículo tiene como propósito indagar la relación entre pobreza rural y las formas de ocupación espacial en la estructura agraria de Santiago del Estero, provincia ubicada en la región del Norte Grande Argentino. La provincia se caracteriza por la alta presencia de campesinado en explotaciones agropecuarias (EAPs) sin límites definidos, donde la actividad pecuaria cumple un papel fundamental para la subsistencia y desarrollo. El debate está puesto en la caracterización de la estructura agraria en el período 1988-2002. La razón de este recorte temporal pretende dar cuenta de la forma en que se inserta el neoliberalismo en la región. A la precarización de la tenencia de la tierra (fenómeno de larga data), se suma una tendencia acentuada a la concentración y polarización en la propiedad. Asimismo, se analizan las características del anclaje del neoliberalismo en el sector rural santiague o y su relación con la pobreza utilizando los censos nacionales agropecuarios (1988 y 2002) y el índice de Privación Material de los Hogares (IPMH). Pese a la agudización de la pobreza, hubo procesos que contribuyeron para que los campesinos resistan y no desaparezcan.
HOUSEHOLD SAVING IN CHILE (1988 AND 1997): TESTING THE LIFE CYCLE HYPOTHESIS  [cached]
ANDREA BUTELMANN,FRANCISCO GALLEGO
Cuadernos de Economía , 2001,
Abstract: Saving behavior at the household level in Chile has not been analyzed in recent decades. Based on 1988 and 1996-1997 Chilean microeconomic evidence (Household Budget Survey), this article studies household saving behavior. The analysis is extended to include broader definitions of saving such as investment in human capital and durable goods purchases. Income and permanent characteristics such as education are shown to be important determinants of the rate of household saving. Furthermore, we find an income/expenditure parallelism and positive saving rates for the elderly. At a first stage of analysis, these facts contradict the predictions of the life cycle theory, but some corrections (using demographic corrections and a different treatment of pensions) change these preliminary conclusions. Differences in credit constraints faced by different groups are studied for their likely effects on consumption smoothing. Finally, in order to study in more detail the predictions of the Life Cycle Hypothesis, saving rates of the elderly are analyzed focusing on their contradictory role found in macro and micro studies El comportamiento del ahorro de los hogares no ha sido analizado en Chile en las últimas décadas usando evidencia de origen micro. Este trabajo utiliza las Encuestas de Presupuestos Familiares de 1988 y 1996-1997 para presentar un análisis del comportamiento de ahorro de los hogares chilenos. El análisis se extiende para definiciones más amplias de ahorro tales como la inversión en capital humano y la compra de bienes durables. Se observa que el ingreso y características más permanentes tales como la educación son importantes determinantes de la tasa de ahorro de los hogares. Adicionalmente, se observa un paralelismo entre el ingreso y el consumo de los hogares y tasas positivas de ahorro en los últimos a os del ciclo de vida. Si bien estos resultados son contradictorios con las predicciones de la teoría del ciclo de vida, estas conclusiones cambian cuando se utilizan correcciones relacionadas con aspectos demográficos y con un tratamiento diferente de las pensiones. Para estudiar el efecto de las restricciones de liquidez se presenta alguna evidencia de que distintos grupos de la población tienen diferentes grados de acceso al mercado financiero. Finalmente, para estudiar en más detalle las predicciones de la teoría del ciclo de vida, se estudia el ahorro de los jubilados con especial énfasis en los contradictorios resultados obtenidos en los estudios que usan datos de origen microeconómico respecto de los estudios que usan datos agregados
Cambios en la disponibilidad de alimentos en el Gran Santiago por quintiles de ingreso: 1988-1997
Crovetto,Mirta; Uauy,Ricardo;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2008,
Abstract: changes in household food availability from 1988-1997 obtained in a representative sample of metropolitan santiago were assessed; and related to observed changes in the epidemiological profile. we evaluated expenditures in food and beverages from the iv and v household expenditure surveys conducted every 10 years by the national institute of statistics to calculate the consumer price index. food items were similarly grouped and expenditures from both surveys adjusted to concordance by assigning prices according to of food; the units consumed outside and at home were determined. food expenditures increased, leading to greater food availability in all households and income categories; the increment was largest in the poorest quintiles. apparent consumption of processed cereals, pastries and baked goods, poultry and pork, processed dairies, beverages and juices, dressings and mayonnaise, pre cooked meals and meals consumed ?out of home? increased. fish, vegetables and fruits increased slightly with a concomitant decrease in legumes. the present dietary pattern is also characterized by a greater availability of animal food products and processed foods; increased energy density, fat and saturated fat energy, sugars and high glycemic index foods; lower in phytochemicals, antioxidants, dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. these changes are probably having a significant impact on the epidemiological and nutritional profile of the country; as manifested by an epidemic increase in obesity and chronic disease burden related to diet and physical inactivity.
SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA EN LOS HOGARES DE ACANDI: La disponibilidad de los alimentos como indicador de suficiencia alimentaria. Food Security in Households from Acandi: Food Availability as a Mirror of Food Sufficiency  [cached]
Martha Cecilia álvarez,Javier Rosique,María Teresa Restrepo
Revista Chilena de Nutricíon , 2004,
Abstract: Objetivo: Analizar la variedad y suficiencia de alimentos disponibles en una semana en los hogares del área rural y urbana de Acandí, Chocó (Colombia). Tipo de estudio: Descriptivo de prevalencia. Metodología: Se estimó una muestra representativa, con una confianza del 95% y un error del 5%, constituida por 326 hogares, para indagar sobre los alimentos disponibles en el hogar en la última semana. Se analizó la diferencia de medias de alimentos diferentes disponibles según el área geográfica, la proporción de hogares con alimentos disponibles de cada grupo y el número de alimentos diferentes a su interior, la diferencia de medias de la disponibilidad en gramos per cápita/día de cada grupo y la adecuación promedio per cápita/día de está disponibilidad, según el área. Resultados: Para una semana la disponibilidad promedio de alimentos diferentes fue de 23±7 y 29±7 (p<0,001) en los hogares rurales y urbanos respectivamente. Una proporción alta de hogares urbanos y rurales dispusieron de todos los grupos, con baja variedad a su interior. La disponibilidad en gramos per cápita/día no presentó diferencias estadísticamente significantes entre el área rural y urbana, salvo en los grupos de leches (p<0,001), verduras (p=0,012), tubérculos y plátanos (p<0,001) y grasas (p<0,001), siendo la adecuación de esta disponibilidad baja, excepto para el grupo de azúcares y grasas. Conclusión: El hecho que los hogares de Acandí dispongan de todos los grupos de alimentos, no es condición suficiente para garantizar la seguridad alimentaria de sus integrantes, dada la poca variedad de alimentos que conforman cada grupo y la baja disponibilidad en gramos per cápita/día. Objective: The aim of this paper was to analize the variety and sufficiency of food from food availability per week data in a sample of rural and urban households from Acandí (Chocó, Colombia). Model of research: A descriptive research to obtain indicators of prevalence. Methods: A representative sample of 326 households (95% confidence interval and 5% error) was drawn from the local census of the townhall to analize the difference of mean available food items by settlements within the area. Moreover it was observed the frecquency of households with available food items by group of foods, the number of different items by group and, finally, the mean per capita/day adequacy of the obtained availability. Results: Variety of food items determined by mean food availability per week was 23±7 and 29±7 (p<0,001) in rural and urban households, respectivelly. A high proportion of rural and urban households had availabili
Distribución espacial de la miseria en hogares de Santiago del Estero y procesos territoriales en Argentina, 1991-2001
Fernando LONGHI
Papeles de población , 2011,
Abstract: El campesinado santiague o conforma uno de los núcleos argentinos donde la miseria alcanzó las mayores proporciones a fines del siglo XX. En este trabajo se analizaron los principales procesos territoriales ocurridos durante la década de 1990, asociados al comportamiento de la miseria. Dentro de tales procesos se indagó sobre los cambios en las grandes masas de cultivo, la ganadería, la cantidad y superficie de las explotaciones agropecuarias y la dinámica de la población. Como fuentes de información se utilizaron los Censos Nacionales de Población, Hogares y Viviendas de 1991 y 2001, los Censos Nacionales Agropecuarios de 1988 y 2002 y las estadísticas vitales del periodo intercensal. Los principales resultados se relacionaron con la desarticulación entre el crecimiento de la superficie cultivada con soja y la economía campesina, en un contexto de fuerte deforestación.
HOUSEHOLD SAVING IN CHILE (1988 AND 1997): TESTING THE LIFE CYCLE HYPOTHESIS
BUTELMANN,ANDREA; GALLEGO,FRANCISCO;
Cuadernos de economía , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-68212001011300001
Abstract: saving behavior at the household level in chile has not been analyzed in recent decades. based on 1988 and 1996-1997 chilean microeconomic evidence (household budget survey), this article studies household saving behavior. the analysis is extended to include broader definitions of saving such as investment in human capital and durable goods purchases. income and permanent characteristics such as education are shown to be important determinants of the rate of household saving. furthermore, we find an income/expenditure parallelism and positive saving rates for the elderly. at a first stage of analysis, these facts contradict the predictions of the life cycle theory, but some corrections (using demographic corrections and a different treatment of pensions) change these preliminary conclusions. differences in credit constraints faced by different groups are studied for their likely effects on consumption smoothing. finally, in order to study in more detail the predictions of the life cycle hypothesis, saving rates of the elderly are analyzed focusing on their contradictory role found in macro and micro studies
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