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Garrido B,Fernando; Jara M,Karina; Wittig de Penna R,Emma; Dondero C,Marta; Mendoza G,Silvia; González Z,Stephany;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182009000400007
Abstract: the enhancer effect of glutamate monosodium (msg) flavor was evaluated and its synergistic action with 5'-ribonucleotides: ionone rib nucleotides 5'-monophosphate (imp) and guano sine monophosphate (gmp) in dehydrated soups consisting of lentils and peas. four formulations were developed for both soups: the first was the target with the original level of msg, the following had different concentrations and mixtures of these enhancers (6% msg; 6% msg and 0.26% imp; 0.6 msg and 0.12% imp-gmp). a five-.point graphic hedonic scale test was used, where 1 represented ìthe most upset face? and 5 represented ìthe happiest face?. the most accepted soup was selected by thirty elderly adults. the lentils soup with 0,6 msg and 0j2% imp-gmp and the pea's soup with 6% msg and 0.26%imp obtained the greatest level of acceptance. so, the effectiveness of the synergistic action between the msg and 5'-ribonucleotides was demonstrated, because they can improve the acceptance of the evaluated formulation.
Seaweeds for umami flavour in the New Nordic Cuisine
Ole G Mouritsen, Lars Williams, Rasmus Bjerregaard, Lars Duelund
Flavour , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2044-7248-1-4
Abstract: Herein we review the concept of umami and deliciousness in a historical context and describe recent advances in the scientific understanding of the sensory perception of umami and the involved taste receptors. The primary stimulatory agent in umami is the chemical compound glutamate, which is found in large amounts in the Japanese seaweed konbu, which is used to prepare the soup broth dashi. We have explored the potential of local Nordic seaweeds, in particular sugar kelp and dulse, for dashi production and have discovered that dulse is high in free glutamate and hence a good candidate for umami flavouring. We describe methods by which to optimise the umami flavour using sous-vide techniques for extraction of the seaweeds, and we demonstrate how dulse dashi can be used in concrete recipes for ice cream, fresh cheese and sourdough bread.Although umami was suggested as a basic taste in 1908 by the Japanese chemist Kikunae Ikeda [1], umami only caught on very slowly in the Western world [2-5]. Being a verbal construction to describe the essence of delicious taste ('umai' (旨い) is delicious, and 'mi' (味) is essence, inner being or taste), the term 'umami' was coined by Ikeda to signify a unique and savoury taste sensation that should be ranked as the fifth basic taste along with the four classical basic taste modalities: sour, sweet, salty and bitter. In the past couple of decades, along with the globalisation of the Asian kitchen, and in particular the Japanese kitchen, umami is being used more commonly in a culinary context among chefs [6,7] and food scientists [8]. The term has now entered the diverse world of cooking recipes and has been the main topic of a couple of cookbooks [9,10] and most recently a popular science book [11].Ikeda based his suggestion of umami as a specific taste on the discovery of a particular substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG), which he found in large quantities in free chemical form in one of the key ingredients that enters dashi, the soup
Genetic and Molecular Basis of Individual Differences in Human Umami Taste Perception  [PDF]
Noriatsu Shigemura, Shinya Shirosaki, Keisuke Sanematsu, Ryusuke Yoshida, Yuzo Ninomiya
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006717
Abstract: Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English) is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG), and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key role in intake of amino acids. A particular property of umami is the synergistic potentiation of glutamate by purine nucleotide monophosphates (IMP, GMP). A heterodimer of a G protein coupled receptor, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, is proposed to function as its receptor. However, little is known about genetic variation of TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 and its potential links with individual differences in umami sensitivity. Here we investigated the association between recognition thresholds for umami substances and genetic variations in human TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, and the functions of TAS1R1/TAS1R3 variants using a heterologous expression system. Our study demonstrated that the TAS1R1-372T creates a more sensitive umami receptor than -372A, while TAS1R3-757C creates a less sensitive one than -757R for MSG and MSG plus IMP, and showed a strong correlation between the recognition thresholds and in vitro dose - response relationships. These results in human studies support the propositions that a TAS1R1/TAS1R3 heterodimer acts as an umami receptor, and that genetic variation in this heterodimer directly affects umami taste sensitivity.
Development of an Umami Taste Sensitivity Test and Its Clinical Use  [PDF]
Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada, Misako Kawai, Masahiro Iikubo, Yuki Sekine-Hayakawa, Noriaki Shoji, Hisayuki Uneyama, Takashi Sasano
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095177
Abstract: There is a close relationship between perception of umami, which has become recognized as the fifth taste, and the human physical condition. We have developed a clinical test for umami taste sensitivity using a filter paper disc with a range of six monosodium glutamate (MSG) concentrations. We recruited 28 patients with taste disorders (45–78 years) and 184 controls with no taste disorders (102 young [18–25 years] and 82 older [65–89 years] participants). Filter paper discs (5 mm dia.) were soaked in aqueous MSG solutions (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 mM), then placed on three oral sites innervated by different taste nerves. The lowest concentration participants correctly identified was defined as the recognition threshold (RT) for MSG. This test showed good reproducibility for inter- and intra-observer variability. We concluded that: (1) The RT of healthy controls differed at measurement sites innervated by different taste nerves; that is, the RT of the anterior tongue was higher than that of either the posterior tongue or the soft palate in both young and older individuals. (2) No significant difference in RT was found between young adults and older individuals at any measurement site. (3) The RT of patients with taste disorders was higher before treatment than that of the healthy controls at any measurement site. (4) The RT after treatment in these patients improved to the same level as that of the healthy controls. (5) The cutoff values of RT, showing the highest diagnostic accuracy (true positives + true negatives), were 200 mM MSG for AT and 50 mM MSG for PT and SP. The diagnostic accuracy at these cutoff values was 0.92, 0.87 and 0.86 for AT, PT and SP, respectively. Consequently, this umami taste sensitivity test is useful for discriminating between normal and abnormal umami taste sensations.
Increase of “Umami” and “Kokumi” Compounds in Miso, Fermented Soybeans, by the Addition of Bacterial γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase  [cached]
Thao Van Ho,Hideyuki Suzuki
International Journal of Food Studies , 2013,
Abstract: γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) hydrolyzes γ-glutamyl compounds and transfers their γ-glutamyl moieties to amino acids and peptides. We previously showed that the “umami” taste of soy sauce could be improved by the addition of salt-tolerant Bacillus subtilis GGT to the fermentation mixture, “moromi”. Although miso fermentation is a semi-solid fermentation, unlike soy sauce fermentation, this was also the case. When 15 units of purified B. subtilis GGT were added to 418 g miso “moromi” (fermentation mixture), the glutamate concentration in “moromi” became 20 mM higher and the “umami” taste became stronger than without the addition of GGT after 2 to 6 months of fermentation. In addition, γ-Glu-Val and γ-Glu-Val-Gly, which are known as “kokumi” peptides, were identified in “tamari”, and the concentrations of these γ-glutamyl peptides in “tamari" fermented by the addition of GGT were significantly higher than those of “moromi” without the addition of GGT. These results indicate that B. subtilis GGT is able to improve the taste of miso.
María Juliana Bonamino,Virginia Inés Carre?o,Natalia Soledad Cervilla
Invenio , 2009,
Abstract: El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue elaborar sopas crema e instantáneas libres de gluten, a partir de semillas de quinoa. La Muestra fue de 9 Kg. de semillas, todas de origen argentino, lavadas, secadas y molidas directamente o con una cocción previa. Sobre las harinas así obtenidas se ensayaron dos tipos de cocciones: por calor húmedo y por calor seco, a diferentes tiempos. El análisis proximal de la harina cruda dio: 14,76% proteínas, 7,8% grasas, 63,71% carbohidratos. El contenido proteico en la harina cocida fue 13,4%. A partir de las harinas obtenidas se ensayaron varias formulaciones, con aditivos e ingredientes permitidos por el Código Alimentario Argentino. Para todas se estableció su valor energético y se evaluó la aceptabilidad de las sopas obtenidas y de sus atributos organolépticos, mediante escala hedónica de cinco puntos, con la colaboración de jueces no entrenados. Los ingredientes finales para sopa crema fueron: harina cruda, glutamato monosódico, cloruro de sodio, fécula de maíz, saborizantes y colorantes permitidos. Para la sopa instantánea: harina cocida por calor húmedo (20 min.), Ceratonia siliqua, margarina, leche descremada en polvo, glutamato monosódico, cloruro de sodio, saborizante y colorante permitidos. Valor energético de las sopas por porción.: crema 36,97 Kcal. e instantánea 33, 96 Kcal. La sopa instantánea fue más aceptada que la sopa crema y más del 50 % aceptaron los dos productos.
Estimativa do teor de fenilalanina em sopas desidratadas instantaneas: importancia do nitrogênio de origem n?o-protéica
Guimar?es, Claudia Passos;Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula Maria;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-93322005000300010
Abstract: the direct analysis of phenylalanine (phe) in food with low protein content is difficult, time consuming and expensive. in general, more convenient indirect methods based on raw protein contents have been used, considering that natural proteins contain about 4% of phe. in this paper the phe contents of 22 commercial dehydrated soups were estimated taking into account the contents of total n, protein n and non-protein nitrogen as well as the contents of monosodium glutamate (gms) which were analyzed independently. the amounts of crude protein (total n multiplied by an adequate conversion factor) ranged between 6.1 and 21.5 g/100 g, showing similarity with protein values on nutritional labels. the actual protein contents were significantly lower and phe contents from these data varied between 51 and 651 mg/100 g sample. the gms contents showed a significant contribution representing 2.5 to 42.7% of total n. in conclusion, due to the high contents of this flavor enhancer in some formulated soups, phe should be estimated only after a previous extraction of non-protein nitrogen in order to avoid an overestimation of protein, and as a consequence, of phe contents. some dehydrated soups with low phe contents had been found, creating the possibility to include them as an additional food choice for phenylketonurics.
Alimentos e Nutri??o , 2008,
Abstract: A mistura de trigo e soja apresenta um efeito complementar mútuo de aminoácidos, além de oferecer boas propriedades funcionais. Apesar disso, a utiliza o da soja tem sido limitada por seu sabor de feij o cru ("beany flavor"), o qual é melhorado pelo processo de extrus o. Com o objetivo de otimizar o processo de extrus o para obten o de uma farinha de trigo e soja (80:20) pré-cozida para sopa cremosa semi-pronta, foram estudados os efeitos de umidade da mistura, temperatura de barril (TB) e velocidade de rota o de parafuso (VRP, No3) do extrusor nas características sensoriais das sopas cremosas preparadas. A mistura foi extrusada em duas umidades, 5 TB e 4 VRP, totalizando 40 tratamentos. Os resultados indicam que as sopas cremosas mostraram melhores impress es globais com o aumento da VRP até 180 rpm em TB mais baixas; porém, em TB mais altas, esta foi reduzida para 150 rpm. A aparência e o sabor melhoraram à medida que se aumentava a TB até certo ponto. Entretanto, a textura piorou com o aumento da TB. A sopa cremosa preparada com a farinha mista com 26% de umidade e extrusada a 180 rpm e 120oC, apresentou a melhor textura, sendo a mais preferida pela equipe massal de provadores n o-treinados.
Estudio de la Cinética de Rehidratación de Zanahoria (Daucus Carota) Deshidratadas Rehydration Kinetics Study of the Dehydrated Carrot (Daucus carota)  [cached]
Yendi I Melquíades,Clara López,Marta E Rosas
Información Tecnológica , 2009,
Abstract: Se presenta un estudio cinético de la rehidratación de zanahorias para dos tipos de cortes o geometrías (placas y cilindros). Las zanahorias fueron lavadas, peladas y cortadas para someterlas a un tratamiento de 5 min. en agua destilada a 80 oC antes de ser deshidratadas en un horno de convección a diferentes temperaturas. La cinética de rehidratación se obtuvo por medio de un modelo difusional y se determinó su posible dependencia con la temperatura mediante una relación de tipo Arrhenius. Se observó que la rehidratación se ve afectada por el pretratamiento debido a los cambios estructurales, que finalmente afectan la capacidad de rehidratación de las muestras. Los coeficientes de difusión no presentan tal dependencia. A kinetic study of the rehydration of carrots for two types of cuts (geometries) (slabs and cylinders), is presented. The carrots were washed, peeled and cut an then treated for 5 min in distilled water at 80 oC before being dehydrated in a convection oven at different temperatures. The rehydration kinetics was obtained by means of a diffusion model and its temperature dependence was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. It was observed that the rehydration is affected by the pretreatment due to the structural changes that finally affect the rehydration capacity of the samples. Diffusion coefficients do not present such dependence.
Trans fatty acids (tFA): sources and intake levels, biological effects and content in commercial Spanish food ácidos grasos trans (AGt): fuentes y niveles de ingesta, efectos biológicos y contenido en los alimentos comerciales espa oles  [cached]
P.-M. Fernández-San Juan
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2009,
Abstract: Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%). These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats. Also, in some cases naturally occurring trans fatty acids in smaller amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants (cows, sheep), these trans fatty acids are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach by reactions of biohydrogenation. On the other hand, metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids increase LDL cholesterol and reduce HDL cholesterol. Our results show that major sources of trans fatty acids in commercial Spanish foods are fast-food (hamburger, French fries), snacks, bakery products (cakes, donuts, biscuits), margarines and dehydrated soups. Estudios recientes sobre los hábitos alimentarios de ni os y adolescentes llevados a cabo en nuestro país revelan que un alto porcentaje de las calorías que se ingieren en estos colectivos corresponden a las grasas (42,0-43,0%). Estos estudios muestran que existe una excesiva ingesta de ácidos grasos saturados y un preocupante incremento de la ingesta de ácidos grasos trans. Estos compuestos se forman generalmente en el proceso de hidrogenación catalítica parcial de los aceites vegetales comestibles, proceso que los convierte en grasas semisólidas, aunque en algunos casos también están presentes en peque as cantidades en carnes, leche y productos lácteos procedentes de animales rumiantes (vacas y ovejas) ya que se originan de forma natural en reacciones de biohidrogenación producidas por la florabacteriana en el estómago de estos animales. Por otro lado, estudios metabólicos han demostrado que los ácidos grasos trans elevan los niveles del LDL colesterol y disminuyen los del HDL-colesterol. Nuestros resultados muestran que la mayor fuente de ácidos grasos trans en alimentos comerciales consumidos por la población espa ola son alimentos tipo fast-food (hamburguesas, patatas fritas), aperitivos (snacks), productos de bollería industrial, margarinas y sopas deshidratadas.
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