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John steinbeck's phalanx theory John steinbeck's phalanx theory
Marcia Salazar
Ilha do Desterro , 2008,
Abstract: In 1933 Steinbeck wrote an essay entitled "Argument of Phalanx" 1 in which he discusses the relationship between the individual and the group. His theory is that there is a difference between the individual on his own and as part of a group. Since the group is a unit often "with a drive, an intent, an end, a method, a reaction which in no way resembles the same things possessed by the men who make [it] up." 2 Steinbeck defined such groups as "greater beasts" controlling "[their] unit—men with an iron discipline." s The essay was influenced by the period when it was written. The world was going through great changes, with the rise in Italy, Germany, and Japan of totalitarian governments which subordinated the individual to the State; industrial unionism and the growth of large cities furthermore encouraged mass movements. In 1933 Steinbeck wrote an essay entitled "Argument of Phalanx" 1 in which he discusses the relationship between the individual and the group. His theory is that there is a difference between the individual on his own and as part of a group. Since the group is a unit often "with a drive, an intent, an end, a method, a reaction which in no way resembles the same things possessed by the men who make [it] up." 2 Steinbeck defined such groups as "greater beasts" controlling "[their] unit—men with an iron discipline." s The essay was influenced by the period when it was written. The world was going through great changes, with the rise in Italy, Germany, and Japan of totalitarian governments which subordinated the individual to the State; industrial unionism and the growth of large cities furthermore encouraged mass movements.
Pent-up World of Chrysanthemums: Analysis of John Steinbeck’s Chrysanthemums  [cached]
Zhaoxia JIANG
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2005, DOI: 10.3968/539
Abstract: Chrysanthemums is a masterpiece taken from John Steinbeck’s short-story-collection The Long Valley. The story mainly tells the married Elisa Allen’s pursuit of one integrated self but somehow fails finally. This paper intends to interpret Elisa Allen’s pursuit process from the perspective of Freud’s psychoanalysis, and try to dig out the causes of her final failure. Keywords: chrysanthemum, pent-up, psychoanalysis Résumé Chrysanthème,une nouvelle excellente, fait partie du recueil de nouvelles The Long Valley de John Steinbeck. La nouvelle raconte principalement l’anéantissement du rêve d’une femme mariée Elisa Allen qui poursuit l’intégralité de soi. Cet article essaie d’interpréter le processus complet de poursuite d’Elisa Allen dans la perspective de l’analyse psychologique de Freud, et de trouver la raison de son échec final. Mots clés: chysanthème, fermé, l’analyse psychologique 摘 要 約翰 斯坦貝克的《菊花》是其 “The Long Valley”中的一篇精彩短篇小說。小說主要講述了已婚的伊莉莎 愛倫追求 “完整自我 ”的夢想的破碎。本文試從佛洛德的精神分析批評的角度解讀伊莉莎的自我追求全過程, 並探尋其最後夢想破碎的原因。 關鍵詞:菊花;幽閉;精神分析
Marie-Christine Lemardeley. John Steinbeck. L’Eden perdu.
André Bleikasten
Transatlantica : Revue d'études Américaines , 2006,
Abstract: Il y a un cas Steinbeck . Dès 1948 Claude-Edmonde Magny, dans L’Age du roman américain, s’interrogeait sur les limites de son art et notait dès la première phrase du chapitre qu’elle lui consacrait que Steinbeck appara t déjà comme beaucoup moins important dans la littérature américaine qu’il ne pouvait sembler voici quelques années . Magny ne s’est guère trompée. Un demi-siècle plus tard, Steinbeck continue certes à être lu dans le monde entier, mais son étoile a pali plus encore q...
Early Translations of Graham Greene: Communist Censorship and Translation Policies
Gianina Daniela SABAU
Studii de Stiinta si Cultura , 2012,
Abstract: he purpose of this article is to provide an outlook on the reception of Graham Greene’s novels in our country during the communist period through the translations of Petre Solomon and Anton Lupan. The author’s novels translated in our country are discussed in the communist socio-cultural context which on the one hand facilitated the translation of impressive number of novels by Graham Greene but on the other hand it maintained a selective attitude towards his work. We consider Petre Solomon and Radu Lupan’s attempts to give a complex and comprehensive critical evaluation of Greene’s work seeks to restore Graham Greene’s image from that of an agile storyteller to that of a revolutionary writer who probes into the depths of human nature.
Narrative Techniques in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath and Dos Passos' The Big Money
Dunbar,Kenton;
Literatura y lingüística , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-58112003001400007
Abstract: the essential function of art, from the perspective of the political realist, is to provide society with a focus in its own social, moral, and political conditions. literature, from this same political perspective, is regarded not only as a vehicle for the transmission of ideas and values, a forum through which writers and readers share feelings, experiences and perceptions, but also as a kind of mirror in which the reader can examine, analyze and reflect upon the nature and causes of those conditions. the esthetic, as well as the social value of literature, then, at least from this point of view, is essentially determined by the extent to which it performs this social/political function. john steinbeck and john dos passos, both early 20th century political realists, as well as penetrating historical thinkers, were artists whose literary works fall specifically within this social/esthetic category
"Myths and Contexts in John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath"
Gabriella Tóth
Americana : E-Journal of American Studies in Hungary , 2010,
Abstract:
Translation Norms in Gabriel García Márquez's Cien a?os de soledad Translations into English, German, French, Portuguese, and Russian
Bola?os Cuéllar,Sergio;
Folios , 2010,
Abstract: in this paper i have attempted to review the general translation norms that were applied in the translations of cien a?os de soledad into english, german, french, portuguese, and russian. first i have discussed the concept of norms from a socio-cultural perspective in order to propose a definition of translation norms that could be used as a guiding concept in the analysis of the different translated texts. the discussion takes place within the framework of modern empirical translation studies that is based on the actual textual comparison of original and translations. finally, some conclusions are drawn accordingly
Narrative Techniques in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath and Dos Passos' The Big Money
Kenton Dunbar
Literatura y lingüística , 2003,
Abstract: The essential function of art, from the perspective of the political realist, is to provide society with a focus in its own social, moral, and political conditions. Literature, from this same political perspective, is regarded not only as a vehicle for the transmission of ideas and values, a forum through which writers and readers share feelings, experiences and perceptions, but also as a kind of mirror in which the reader can examine, analyze and reflect upon the nature and causes of those conditions. The esthetic, as well as the social value of literature, then, at least from this point of view, is essentially determined by the extent to which it performs this social/political function. John Steinbeck and John Dos Passos, both early 20th century political realists, as well as penetrating historical thinkers, were artists whose literary works fall specifically within this social/esthetic category La función esencial del arte, desde la perspectiva del realista político, es la de proporcionar a la sociedad un foco sobre sus propias condiciones sociales, morales y políticas. La literatura, desde esta misma perspectiva política, es considerada no sólo como un vehículo para la transmisión de ideas y valores, un foro a través del cual los escritores y lectores comparten sentimientos, experiencias y percepciones, sino también como una especie de espejo en el cual el lector puede examinar, analizar y reflexionar acerca de la naturaleza y las causas de esas condiciones. El valor estético, así como también el valor social de la literatura, entonces, al menos desde este punto de vista, está esencialmente determinado por el grado en el que desempe a esta función social/política. John Steinbeck y John Dos Passos, ambos realistas políticos de comienzos del siglo veinte, así como también pensadores históricos penetrantes, fueron artistas cuyas obras literarias se sitúan específicamente en esta categoría social/estética
The translation of πνευμα in John 3:8  [cached]
Annette Potgieter
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif , 2012, DOI: 10.5952/53-1-127
Abstract: All Afrikaans translations of John 3:8 translates πνευμα as “wind”. A progression of the meaning of the word πνευμα is evident considering the background of πνευμα in Greek and Jewish thought. This progression is helpful in discerning viable translations of John 3:8, especially in Afrikaans translations. A variation of the Afrikaans translation of “wind” to “spirit” in John 3:8 can be helpful to broaden our understanding.
Censorship is Futile  [PDF]
Zubair Nabi
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.5210/fm.v19i11.
Abstract: The Internet has become the new battle ground between authoritarian regimes and ordinary individuals who want unimpeded access to information. The immense popularity of online activism and citizen journalism enabled by social media has instigated state level players to partially or completely block access to the Internet. In return, individuals and organizations have been employing various anti-censorship tools to circumvent these restrictions. In this paper, we claim that censorship is futile as not only has it been ineffective in restricting access, it has also had the side-effect of popularising blocked content. Using data from Alexa Web Rankings, Google Trends, and YouTube Statistics, we quantify the ineffectiveness of state level censorship in Pakistan and Turkey and highlight the emergence of the Streisand Effect. We hope that our findings will, a) prove to governments and other players the futility of their actions, and b) aid citizens around the world in using legal measures to counteract censorship by showing its ineffectiveness.
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