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Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?  [PDF]
Craig Porter,Elisabet B?rsheim,Labros S. Sidossis
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/204094
Abstract: The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers’ attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies. 1. Introduction As the combustion engine of respiring cells, the mitochondrion is an essential component of life. Furthermore, as these organelles are principally responsible for the oxidative disposal of glucose and fatty acids, the role of mitochondrial function in the etiology of diseases where substrate metabolism is perturbed has been the focus of a considerable research effort for a number of decades. A notable example of this is the role of mitochondrial capacity in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The reason for such interest in the role of altered skeletal muscle bioenergetics in the development of insulin resistance are several fold; skeletal muscles significant contribution to body mass, the relative abundance of mitochondria within skeletal muscle and their plasticity (particularly in response to muscular contraction), skeletal muscles central role in whole body glucose and fatty acid disposal, and the fact that skeletal muscle can be sampled from humans relatively easily are all contributing factors. With regard to skeletal muscle, whether insulin resistance is indeed the chicken, with mitochondrial dysfunction being the preceding egg, or whether the opposite is the case remains unclear. However, what does seem clear is that measures of skeletal
Antibacterial properties of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive: Does the polymerization reaction play a role?  [cached]
Romero Ivana,Malta Joao,Silva Cely,Mimica Lycia
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To ascertain if the polymerization reaction also contributes additionally to the antibacterial effects of two commonly used cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives. Materials and Methods: Fresh liquid ethyl-cyanoacrylate (EC) and N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (BC) adhesives were applied onto 6-mm sterile filter paper discs. In the first group, the adhesive-soaked discs were immediately placed onto confluent monolayer cultures of bacteria, allowing the polymerization reaction to proceed while in culture. In the second group, the adhesive-soaked disc was allowed to first polymerize prior to being placed onto the bacterial cultures. Four types of bacteria were studied: Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Immediately after the discs were applied, the cultures were incubated at 35° C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibitory halos were measured in the cultures at the end of the incubation period. Results: For EC, exposure of the bacteria to the cyanoacrylate polymerization reaction increased the bacterial inhibitory halos in Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. For BC, it increased the bacterial inhibitory halos in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae . No inhibitory halos were observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bactericidal effect was higher in actively polymerizing EC, compared to previously polymerized EC in Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli ; however, no such differences were observed for BC. Conclusions: The polymerization reaction may also be an important factor in the antibacterial properties of EC and BC.
Intravitreal injection of tissue plasminogen activator as treatment for an occluded pars plana glaucoma tube
Irena Tsui, Suzanna Airiani, Angie Wen, Tarek El-Sawy, Howard F Fine, Peter JG Maris Jr
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S3831
Abstract: travitreal injection of tissue plasminogen activator as treatment for an occluded pars plana glaucoma tube Case report (4681) Total Article Views Authors: Irena Tsui, Suzanna Airiani, Angie Wen, Tarek El-Sawy, Howard F Fine, Peter JG Maris Jr Published Date September 2008 Volume 2009:3 Pages 91 - 93 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S3831 Irena Tsui, Suzanna Airiani, Angie Wen, Tarek El-Sawy, Howard F Fine, Peter JG Maris Jr Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Implanting glaucoma tubes through the pars plana in the setting of a corneal transplant is becoming more common, and there are unique problems associated with such a procedure. A 42-year-old man with multiple previous eye surgeries presented with a nonfunctioning pars plana glaucoma tube. There was no view to the tube tip, but it was presumed to be clogged with fibrin. Intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was injected through the pars plana which resulted in intraocular pressure control without further surgery. This new application of intravitreal tPA has not been reported previously. Future research should investigate the optimal effective and safe dose of intravitreal tPA injection to relieve such occlusions.
Does Veritas play a role in breast reconstruction? a case report
Borgognone A, Anniboletti T, De Vita F
Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BCTT.S27954
Abstract: es Veritas play a role in breast reconstruction? a case report Case report (2475) Total Article Views Authors: Borgognone A, Anniboletti T, De Vita F Published Date December 2011 Volume 2011:3 Pages 175 - 177 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BCTT.S27954 Alessandro Borgognone, Tommaso Anniboletti, Francesco De Vita Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, CTO Hospital, Rome, Italy Abstract: To reduce operative times and surgical complications in implant-based breast reconstruction, many authors advocate the use of exogenous material (modified xenograft) to support tissue regeneration. In this article, a case is presented in which a bovine collagen patch (Veritas Collagen Matrix; Synovis Surgical Innovations, St Paul, MN) was used in the immediate breast reconstruction with an implant. The good results obtained in this case confirm Veritas as a viable alternative to AlloDerm Regenerative Tissue Matrix (LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, NJ) and further support its ability to sustain and stimulate recovery of the surrounding tissues.
Does the surgeon still have a role to play in the diagnosis and management of lymphomas?
Gareth Morris-Stiff, Peipei Cheang, Steve Key, Anju Verghese, Timothy J Havard
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-6-13
Abstract: To review all cases of lymphoma diagnosed at a single institution in order determine the current role of the surgeon in the diagnosis and management of lymphoma.Computerized pathology records were reviewed for a five-year period 1996 to 2000 to determine all cases of lymph node biopsy (incisional or excisional) in which tissue was obtained as part of a planned procedure. Cases of incidental lymphadenopathy were thus excluded.A total of 297 biopsies were performed of which 62 (21%) yielded lymphomas. There were 22 females and 40 males with a median age of 58 years (range: 19–84 years). The lymphomas were classified as 80% non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 18% Hodgkin's lymphoma and 2% post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Diagnosis was established by general surgeons (n = 48), ENT surgeons (n = 9), radiologists (n = 4) and ophthalmic surgeons (n = 1). The distribution of excised lymph nodes was: cervical (n = 23), inguinal (n = 15), axillary (n = 11), intra-abdominal (n = 6), submandibular (n = 2), supraclavicular (n = 2), periorbital (n = 1), parotid (n = 1) and mediastinal (n = 1). Fine needle aspiration cytology had been performed prior to biopsy in only 32 (52%) cases and had suggested: lymphoma (n = 10), reactive changes (n = 13), normal (n = 5), inadequate (n = 4). The majority (78%) of cervical lymph nodes were subjected to FNAC prior to biopsy whilst this was performed in only 36% of non-cervical lymphadenopathy.The study has shown that lymphoma is a relatively common cause of surgical lymphadenopathy. Given the limitations of FNAC, all suspicious lymph nodes should be biopsied following FNAC even if the FNAC is reported normal or demonstrating reactive changes only. With the more widespread application of molecular techniques, and the development of improved minimally-invasive procedures, percutaneous and endoscopic techniques may come to dominate, however, at present; the surgeon still has an important role to play in the diagnosis if not treatment of lymphom
Does oxidant stress play a role in diabetic retinopathy?  [cached]
Rema Mohan,Mohan V,Bhaskar Anusha,Shanmugasundaram K
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1995,
Abstract: The role of oxidant stress in the causation of chronic tissue damage is being increasingly recognized. Oxidant stress is usually countered by abundant supply of antioxidants. If concomitant antioxidant deficiency occurs, oxidant stress may produce tissue damage. We took up a study on antioxidant status in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients with and without retinopathy and compared them with a control non-diabetic group. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly reduced in all diabetic patients, i.e., those with and without retinopathy. However, the lowest levels were found in the diabetic patients with retinopathy. Vitamin E and vitamin C levels were also markedly lower in the diabetic patients. There was a paradoxical rise in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the diabetic patients with retinopathy. This may be a compensatory mechanism by the body to prevent tissue damage by increasing the levels of the two alternative antioxidant enzymes.
Ganglion Cell Adaptability: Does the Coupling of Horizontal Cells Play a Role?  [PDF]
Karin Dedek, Chethan Pandarinath, Nazia M. Alam, Kerstin Wellershaus, Timm Schubert, Klaus Willecke, Glen T. Prusky, Reto Weiler, Sheila Nirenberg
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001714
Abstract: Background The visual system can adjust itself to different visual environments. One of the most well known examples of this is the shift in spatial tuning that occurs in retinal ganglion cells with the change from night to day vision. This shift is thought to be produced by a change in the ganglion cell receptive field surround, mediated by a decrease in the coupling of horizontal cells. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we used a transgenic mouse line, a connexin57-deficient line, in which horizontal cell coupling was abolished. Measurements, both at the ganglion cell level and the level of behavioral performance, showed no differences between wild-type retinas and retinas with decoupled horizontal cells from connexin57-deficient mice. Conclusion/Significance This analysis showed that the coupling and uncoupling of horizontal cells does not play a dominant role in spatial tuning and its adjustability to night and day light conditions. Instead, our data suggest that another mechanism, likely arising in the inner retina, must be responsible.
Tissue microarrays: one size does not fit all
Jeanette E Eckel-Passow, Christine M Lohse, Yuri Sheinin, Paul L Crispen, Christopher J Krco, Eugene D Kwon
Diagnostic Pathology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-5-48
Abstract: A simulated TMA with between 1 and 10 cores was designed to study tumor expression of 6 biomarkers with varied expression patterns (B7-H1, B7-H3, survivin, Ki-67, CAIX, and IMP3) using 100 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We evaluated agreement between whole tissue section and TMA immunohistochemical biomarker quantification to assess how many TMA cores are necessary to adequately represent RCC whole tissue section expression. Additionally, we evaluated associations of whole tissue section and TMA expression with RCC-specific death.The number of simulated TMA cores necessary to adequately represent whole tissue section quantification is biomarker specific. Although 2-3 cores appeared adequate for B7-H3, Ki-67, CAIX, and IMP3, even as many as 10 cores resulted in poor agreement for B7-H1 and survivin compared to RCC whole tissue sections. While whole tissue section B7-H1 was significantly associated with RCC-specific death, no significant associations were detected using as many as 10 TMA cores, suggesting that TMAs can result in false-negative findings if the TMA is not optimally designed.Prior to TMA analysis, the number of TMA cores necessary to accurately represent biomarker expression on whole tissue sections should be established as there is not a one-size-fits-all TMA. We illustrate the use of a simulated TMA as a cost-effective tool for this purpose.Over the last decade, tissue microarrays (TMAs) have become a commonly-used research tool to evaluate associations between biomarkers and clinicopathologic tumor features, patient outcomes and treatment responses. In fact, TMAs are routinely prepared by lead national cancer cooperative groups (e.g., RTOG, SWOG, ECOG, etc.) with the expectation of revealing or testing various biomarkers for prognostication of disease outcome or response to therapy. The appeal of TMAs has been their ability to interrogate hundreds of tissue specimens using a uniform experimental process, while simultaneously pres
Systemic Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: May Adipose Tissue Play a Role? Review of the Literature and Future Perspectives
Ruzena Tkacova
Mediators of Inflammation , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/585989
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low-grade systemic inflammation is considered a hallmark of COPD that potentially links COPD to increased rate of systemic manifestations of the disease. Obesity with/without the metabolic syndrome and cachexia represent two poles of metabolic abnormalities that may relate to systemic inflammation. On one hand systemic inflammatory syndrome likely reflects inflammation in the lungs, i.e. results from lung-to plasma spillover of inflammatory mediators. On the other hand, obesity-related hypoxia results in local inflammatory response within adipose tissue per se, and may contribute to elevations in circulatory mediators by spillover from the adipose tissue to the systemic compartment. The extent to which systemic hypoxia contributes to the adipose tissue inflammation remains unknown. We assume that in patients with COPD and concurrent obesity at least three factors play a role in the systemic inflammatory syndrome: the severity of pulmonary impairment, the degree of obesity-related adipose tissue hypoxia, and the severity of systemic hypoxia due to reduced pulmonary functions. The present review summarizes the epidemiological and clinical evidence linking COPD to obesity, the role of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ, and the role of hypoxia in adipose tissue inflammation.
Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation  [PDF]
C. Wagner,P. Steffen,S. Svetina
Quantitative Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.crhy.2013.04.004
Abstract: Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life saving in the case of wound healing but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.
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