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Learning from the First Step: UniMail, Geneva, Switzerland  [cached]
Daisy McAdam
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 2002,
Abstract: UniMail, which is the University of Geneva building dedicated to the humanities, is situated in the heart of the city. Students are an integral part of the life of the district with the university situated next to a beautiful landscaped park surrounded by 600 flats. A central lane lets local inhabitants stroll through the main building on to a square, then right into the park.
1999–2009 Trends in Prevalence, Unawareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Geneva, Switzerland  [PDF]
Idris Guessous, Murielle Bochud, Jean-Marc Theler, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039877
Abstract: Background There are no time trends in prevalence, unawareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Switzerland. The objective of this study was to analyze these trends and to determine the associated factors. Methods/Findings Population-based study conducted in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, between 1999 and 2009. Blood pressure was measured thrice using a standard protocol. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or self-reported hypertension or anti-hypertensive medication. Unawareness, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension was determined by questionnaires/blood pressure measurements. Yearly age-standardized prevalences and adjusted associations for the 1999–2003 and 2004–2009 survey periods were reported. The 10-year survey included 9,215 participants aged 35 to 74 years. Hypertension remained stable (34.4%). Hypertension unawareness decreased from 35.9% to 17.7% (P<0.001). The decrease in hypertension unawareness was not paralleled by a concomitant absolute increase in hypertension treatment, which remained low (38.2%). A larger proportion of all hypertensive participants were aware but not treated in 2004–2009 (43.7%) compared to 1999–2003 (33.1%). Uncontrolled hypertension improved from 62.2% to 40.6% between 1999 and 2009 (P = 0.02). In 1999–2003 period, factors associated with hypertension unawareness were current smoking (OR = 1.27, 95%CI, 1.02–1.59), male gender (OR = 1.56, 1.27–1.92), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.31, 1.20–1.44), and older age (OR 65–74yrs vs 35–49yrs = 1.56, 1.21–2.02). In 1999–2003 and 2004–2009, obesity and diabetes were negatively associated with hypertension unawareness, high education was associated with untreated hypertension (OR = 1.45, 1.12–1.88 and 1.42, 1.02–1.99, respectively), and male gender with uncontrolled hypertension (OR = 1.49, 1.03–2.17 and 1.65, 1.08–2.50, respectively). Sedentarity was associated with higher risk of hypertension and uncontrolled hypertension in 1999–2003. Conclusions Hypertension prevalence remained stable since 1999 in the canton of Geneva. Although hypertension unawareness substantially decreased, more than half of hypertensive subjects still remained untreated or uncontrolled in 2004–2009. This study identified determinants that should guide interventions aimed at improving hypertension treatment and control.
Extreme climate, not extreme weather: the summer of 1816 in Geneva, Switzerland
R. Auchmann, S. Br nnimann, L. Breda, M. Bühler, R. Spadin,A. Stickler
Climate of the Past (CP) & Discussions (CPD) , 2012,
Abstract: We analyze weather and climate during the "Year without Summer" 1816 using sub-daily data from Geneva, Switzerland, representing one of the climatically most severely affected regions. The record includes twice daily measurements and observations of air temperature, pressure, cloud cover, wind speed, and wind direction as well as daily measurements of precipitation. Comparing 1816 to a contemporary reference period (1799–1821) reveals that the coldness of the summer of 1816 was most prominent in the afternoon, with a shift of the entire distribution function of temperature anomalies by 3–4 °C. Early morning temperature anomalies show a smaller change for the mean, a significant decrease in the variability, and no changes in negative extremes. Analyzing cloudy and cloud-free conditions separately suggests that an increase in the number of cloudy days was to a significant extent responsible for these features. A daily weather type classification based on pressure, pressure tendency, and wind direction shows extremely anomalous frequencies in summer 1816, with only one day (compared to 20 in an average summer) classified as high-pressure situation but a tripling of low-pressure situations. The afternoon temperature anomalies expected from only a change in weather types was much stronger negative in summer 1816 than in any other year. For precipitation, our analysis shows that the 80% increase in summer precipitation compared to the reference period can be explained by 80% increase in the frequency of precipitation, while no change could be found neither in the average intensity of precipitation nor in the frequency distribution of extreme precipitation. In all, the analysis shows that the regional circulation and local cloud cover played a dominant role. It also shows that the summer of 1816 was an example of extreme climate, not extreme weather.
Extreme climate, not extreme weather: the summer of 1816 in Geneva, Switzerland  [PDF]
R. Auchmann,S. Br?nnimann,L. Breda,M. Bühler
Climate of the Past Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/cpd-7-3745-2011
Abstract: We analyze weather and climate during the "Year without Summer" 1816 using sub-daily data from Geneva, Switzerland, representing one of the climatically most severely affected regions. The record includes twice daily measurements and observations of air temperature, pressure, cloud cover, wind speed, and wind direction as well as daily measurements of precipitation. Comparing 1816 to a contemporary reference period (1799–1821) reveals that the coldness of the summer of 1816 was most prominent in the afternoon, with a shift of the entire distribution function of temperature anomalies by 3–4 °C. Early morning temperature anomalies show a smaller change for the mean, a significant decrease in the variability, and no changes in negative extremes. Analyzing cloudy and cloud-free conditions separately suggests that an increase in the number of cloudy days was to a significant extent responsible for these features. A daily weather type classification based on pressure, pressure tendency, and wind direction shows extremely anomalous frequencies in summer 1816, with only one day (compared to 20 in an average summer) classified as high-pressure situation but a tripling of low-pressure situations. The afternoon temperature anomalies expected from only a change in weather types was much stronger negative in summer 1816 than in any other year. For precipitation, our analysis shows that the 80% increase in summer precipitation compared to the reference period can be explained by 80% increase in the frequency of precipitation, while no change could be found neither in the average intensity of precipitation nor in the frequency distribution of extreme precipitation. In all, the analysis shows that the regional circulation and local cloud cover played a dominant role. It also shows that the summer of 1816 was an example of extreme climate, not extreme weather.
Extreme climate, not extreme weather: the summer of 1816 in Geneva, Switzerland  [PDF]
R. Auchmann,S. Br?nnimann,L. Breda,M. Bühler
Climate of the Past (CP) & Discussions (CPD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/cp-8-325-2012
Abstract: We analyze weather and climate during the "Year without Summer" 1816 using sub-daily data from Geneva, Switzerland, representing one of the climatically most severely affected regions. The record includes twice daily measurements and observations of air temperature, pressure, cloud cover, wind speed, and wind direction as well as daily measurements of precipitation. Comparing 1816 to a contemporary reference period (1799–1821) reveals that the coldness of the summer of 1816 was most prominent in the afternoon, with a shift of the entire distribution function of temperature anomalies by 3–4 °C. Early morning temperature anomalies show a smaller change for the mean, a significant decrease in the variability, and no changes in negative extremes. Analyzing cloudy and cloud-free conditions separately suggests that an increase in the number of cloudy days was to a significant extent responsible for these features. A daily weather type classification based on pressure, pressure tendency, and wind direction shows extremely anomalous frequencies in summer 1816, with only one day (compared to 20 in an average summer) classified as high-pressure situation but a tripling of low-pressure situations. The afternoon temperature anomalies expected from only a change in weather types was much stronger negative in summer 1816 than in any other year. For precipitation, our analysis shows that the 80% increase in summer precipitation compared to the reference period can be explained by 80% increase in the frequency of precipitation, while no change could be found neither in the average intensity of precipitation nor in the frequency distribution of extreme precipitation. In all, the analysis shows that the regional circulation and local cloud cover played a dominant role. It also shows that the summer of 1816 was an example of extreme climate, not extreme weather.
Acute Respiratory and Cardiovascular Admissions after a Public Smoking Ban in Geneva, Switzerland  [PDF]
Jean-Paul Humair, Nicolas Garin, Eric Gerstel, Sebastian Carballo, David Carballo, Pierre-Frédéric Keller, Idris Guessous
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090417
Abstract: Background Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Methods This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. Results Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR = 0.54 [95%CI: 0.42–0.68]). We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR = 0.90 [95%CI: 0.80–1.00]). Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. Conclusions A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Self-assessment of intercultural communication skills: a survey of physicians and medical students in Geneva, Switzerland
Patricia Hudelson, Noelle Perron, Thomas Perneger
BMC Medical Education , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-11-63
Abstract: As part of a larger study exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Geneva physicians and medical students regarding the care of immigrant patients, we asked respondents to self-rate their ability to perform a range of common yet challenging intercultural communication tasks.Overall, respondents rated themselves less competent at intercultural tasks than at basic medical skills and less competent at specific intercultural communication skills than at general intercultural skills. Qualified doctors (as opposed to students), those with greater interest in caring for immigrants, and those who rarely encountered difficulties with immigrants rated themselves significantly more competent for all clinical tasks. Having a higher percentage of immigrant patients and previous cultural competence training predicted greater self-rated intercultural communication skills.Our self-assessment results suggest that students and physicians should be provided with the opportunity to practice intercultural skills with immigrant patients as part of their cultural competence training. To strengthen the validity of self-assessment measures, they should ideally be combined with more objective methods to assess actual skills.Physicians who work with multiethnic and multilingual patient populations need to know how culture and language can influence clinical communication and care, and learn the skills necessary to identify and respond effectively to patients' diverse needs [1,2]. Such skills include the ability to elicit the patient's understanding of the illness; determine the patient's sociocultural context and identify any issues that might affect care; communicate effectively across patient-provider social and cultural differences; and collaborate effectively with an interpreter [3-5].In Geneva, Switzerland, cultural and linguistic differences between patients and health care providers are common. Approximately 40% of the Geneva population are of non-Swiss nationality (195 in t
Introducing a HPV Vaccination Program: the Experience in the State of Geneva, Switzerland (2007-2009)  [PDF]
Emilien Jeannot, Philippe Sudre, Philippe Chastonay
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2011.12003
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the HPV vaccination coverage of 11 to 19 year-old girls during a state coordinated HPV vaccination program in Geneva, Switzerland, from September 2007 to December 2009. Methods: The HPV vaccination program was coordinated by the State Medical Office. It relied on practitioners in private practice, on the School Health Service and on a temporary vaccination structure at the Geneva University Hospital. Each service provider transmitted quarterly to the State Medical Office the nominal list of the persons who had received their first, second or third shot. The data were processed through the Téléform © software and analyzed to assess the HPV cover-age of the target population. Results: The global coverage rates on December 31st 2009, 2 years after the program had been launched, were 48.1% for one dose, 43.7% for two doses and 41.6% for three doses of the HPV vaccine. These rates were quite different from one cohort to another: for girls born in 1995 (14 year-old), cover rates were 70% for the first, 68.1% for second and 65.1% for the third dose. Conclusion: This study shows that it is possible to obtain a high coverage rates after two years of a state coordinated HPV vaccination program.
Prevalence, Clinical Staging and Risk for Blood-Borne Transmission of Chagas Disease among Latin American Migrants in Geneva, Switzerland  [PDF]
Yves Jackson ,Laurent Gétaz,Hans Wolff,Marylise Holst,Anne Mauris,Aglaé Tardin,Juan Sztajzel,Valérie Besse,Louis Loutan,Jean-Michel Gaspoz,Jean Jannin,Pedro Albajar Vinas,Alejandro Luquetti,Fran?ois Chappuis
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000592
Abstract: Background Migration of Latin Americans to the USA, Canada and Europe has modified Chagas disease distribution, but data on imported cases and on risks of local transmission remain scarce. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease, staged the disease and evaluated attitudes towards blood transfusion and organ transplant among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland. Methodology/Principal Findings This cross-sectional study included all consecutive Latin American migrants seeking medical care at a primary care facility or attending two Latino churches. After completing a questionnaire, they were screened for Chagas disease with two serological tests (Biomérieux ELISA cruzi; Biokit Bioelisa Chagas). Infected subjects underwent a complete medical work-up. Predictive factors for infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.1012 persons (females: 83%; mean age: 37.2 [SD 11.3] years, Bolivians: 48% [n = 485]) were recruited. 96% had no residency permit. Chagas disease was diagnosed with two positive serological tests in 130 patients (12.8%; 95%CI 10.8%–14.9%), including 127 Bolivians (26.2%; 95%CI 22.3%–30.1%). All patients were in the chronic phase, including 11.3% with cardiac and 0.8% with digestive complications. Predictive factors for infection were Bolivian origin (OR 33.2; 95%CI 7.5–147.5), reported maternal infection with T. cruzi (OR 6.9; 95%CI 1.9–24.3), and age older than 35 years (OR 6.7; 95%CI 2.4–18.8). While 22 (16.9%) infected subjects had already donated blood, 24 (18.5%) and 34 (26.2%) considered donating blood and organs outside Latin America, respectively. Conclusions Chagas disease is highly prevalent among Bolivian migrants in Switzerland. Chronic cardiac and digestive complications were substantial. Screening of individuals at risk should be implemented in nonendemic countries and must include undocumented migrants.
Persistence and growth of faecal culturable bacterial indicators in water column and sediments of Vidy Bay, Lake Geneva, Switzerland

POTE John HALLER Laurence KOTTELAT Regis SASTRE Vincent ARPAGAUS Philippe WILDI Walter,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2009,
Abstract: The aims of this study was to investigate the persistence and the growth of culturable bacterial indicators (CBI) including total coliforms (TC) and faecal coliforms represented by E. coli, enterococcus (ENT), and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) in the surface sediments and the water column of the Bay of Vidy (Lake Geneva, City of Lausanne, Switzerland). The study was carried out for 60 d using microcosms containing Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) effluent water and non-sterile water without CBI, as well as contaminated and non-contaminated sediments. The effects of water temperature and of organic matter associated with sediments on the survival of CBI in the sediments and the water column were observed. The number of CBI colonies in the contaminated sediments of Vidy Bay and in the STP effluent water was almost identical in the order of 105--107, 104--106, 103--105, and 104--107 CFU/100 g sediment or /100 mL water for TC, E. coli, ENT, and AMB respectively. A degradation of CBI was observed in the sediments where organic mater content was low and in the water column at a temperature of 10℃ after 5 d of experimentation. In addition, a growth of CBI was observed in the sediment which is rich in organic matter at a temperature of 20℃. The results of this study indicate: (1) the higher concentrations of the CBI observed in different points in the water column of Vidy Bay may not be explained only by the recent contribution of the three potential sources of the Bay contamination including STP and the Chamberonne and Flon Rivers, but also by the persistence, removal from sediment and multiplication of CBI in the sediment and water column; (2) the sediment of Vidy Bay constitute a reservoir of CBI and can even support their growth. (3) the CBI not only survive in sediments, but also can be remobilized and increased in the water column, therefore it become a permanent microbiological pollution in Vidy Bay.
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