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PREVALENCE OF ENDO (TREMATODES) AND ECTO-PARASITES IN COWS AND BUFFALOES OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN
M. N. KAKAR AND J. K. KAKARSULEMANKHEL1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows and buffaloes were investigated in Quetta city, Pakistan. A total of 396 livers and gall bladders of cows and 340 of buffaloes were selected randomly. Overall prevalence of liver parasites in cows and buffaloes was 45.70 and 37.05%, respectively. The species found in livers of cows were: Fasciola hepatica (16.16%), Fasciola gigantica (12.37%), Paramphistomum explanatum (7.82%) and mixed infections (9.34%). The corresponding values for buffaloes were 11.47, 13.52, 5.58 and 6.47%. For ecto-parasites, out of 404 cows and 386 buffaloes examined, 28.96 and 25.64% respectively gave positive results for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was found to be 10.14, 7.17, 5.19 and 6.43%, respectively in cows and 6.99, 9.84, 4.92 and 3.88% respectively in buffaloes. It was concluded that the prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows was higher than in buffaloes due to differences in feeding habits and hygienic habitats of the two species.
PREVALENCE OF LICE ON BUFFALOES AT PRIVATE CATTLE FARM
Z. TASAWAR, I. BANO, C. S. HAYAT1 AND M. H. LASHARI
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2008,
Abstract: During the present survey, 100 buffaloes were examined for lice infestation at a private cattle farm, situated in Multan, Pakistan. Ninety two percent buffaloes were infested with Haematopinus spp., 6% with Damalinia spp. and 2% with Linognathus spp. The relationship between sex of animal and different lice was also determined. It was 94.1% in females for Haematopinus spp., 5.8% for Damalinia spp. and 2.35% for Linognathus spp., while in males it was 80, 6.66 and 0 percent, respectively. The relationship between age and different species of lice was also studied and in case of Haematopinus spp., it was significantly (P<0.05) higher (100%) in age group of 41 to 100 months compared to 14.2% in age group of 21 to 40 months. For Damalinia spp. it was 14% in the age group of 21 to 40 months, while it was 0% in age group of 1-20 months. At total of 8.33% buffaloes were infested with Linognathus spp. in age group of 61-80 months.
Milk yield and season of calving in buffaloes and cattle in Pakistan  [cached]
A.U. Hyder,M.S. Khan,M. Aslam,M. S. Rehman
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.1347
Abstract: Seasonality of calving and its association with milk yield was analyzed in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey) crossbreds. Records of 9,174 lactations of Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds, 22,499 lactations from five Sahiwal herds and 656 lactations from a crossbred cattle herd were used for comparison. All the herds were located in Punjab province of Pakistan where environment is tropical. Month of calving was important source of variation in lactation milk yield of Nili- Ravi buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle but not in crossbred cattle (due to wide variation). Interactions of month of calving with parity as well as with herd were significant (P<0.01) both for buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle. First parity lactation milk yield averaged 1813±23.2, 1305±11.0 and 2459±81.8 litres while averages of later parity animals were 1926±19.0, 1527±7.6 and 2842±54.2 litres for Nili-Ravi buffaloes, Sahiwal and crossbred cattle, respectively. Milk yield pattern in crossbreds was more similar to buffaloes than to Sahiwals. Yet, crossbreds calving in June produced statistically similar but numerically higher lactation milk yield (2950±170 litres) than other months but this was not true for buffaloes and Sahiwals. Buffaloes and Sahiwal cows calving in January-February produced better lactation yields than those calving in other months. Different pattern of milk yield in the three dairy species can be used advantageously for sustainable milk supply throughout the year.
Seasonality of calving in Nili-Ravi buffaloes, purebred Sahiwal and crossbred cattle in Pakistan  [cached]
F. Hassan,M. S. Khan,M. S. Rehman,M. Sarwar
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.1298
Abstract: Pattern of calving was documented in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey) crossbreds. Lactation records of 9,174, 22,499 and 656 of Nili-Ravi buffaloes, Sahiwal and crossbred cattle in Punjab province of Pakistan were used for comparison. Punjab province of Pakistan has harsh summers and mild winters. Pattern of calving in first and later parity was different in Sahiwal cows but similar in buffaloes and crossbreds. Calving frequency was highest in January (13.2%) for Sahiwal and in August for buffaloes (17.8%) and crossbred cattle (15.2%). Lowest calvings were recorded in October for Sahiwal (5.2%) and in April for buffaloes (2.5%) and crossbred cattle (3.5%). Winter (January-February) is, thus, the calving season for Sahiwals and Autumn (August-September) is the calving season of buffaloes and crossbred cattle. Calving pattern in crossbreds was more similar to buffaloes than to Sahiwals. Seasonality of calving index (1– ratio of number of calvings in month with fewest calvings and number of calvings in month with most calvings) was 86, 60 and 77 in buffaloes, Sahiwal cattle and crossbred cattle, respectively. Comparison of first and later parity animals indicated that first parity Sahiwals were more seasonal in calving than in their later parity (82 vs 53) while later parity crossbreds were more seasonal calvers than first parity crossbreds (86 vs 59). In buffaloes on the other hand, first and later parity animals had more pronounced but similar seasonality of calving (88 vs 85). Seasonality of calving is more pronounced in buffaloes than Sahiwal and crossbred cattle in Pakistan.
Maternal dystocia in cows and buffaloes: A Review  [PDF]
Govind Narayan Purohit, Yogesh Barolia, Chandra Shekhar, Pramod Kumar
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2011.12006
Abstract: The maternal causes of dystocia in cattle and buffaloes are analyzed. Uterine torsion appears to be the most frequent maternal cause of dys-tocia in buffaloes whereas improper cervical dilation appears to be more frequent maternal cause of dystocia in cattle. Failure of uterine expulsive forces (Uterine Inertia) and neo-plasm’s of vagina, vulva and uterus are com-monly seen in cows and buffaloes. The various maternal causes of dystocia in cattle and buf-faloes and their management are described.
Analysis of Milk Marketing Chain – Pakistan  [cached]
U. Zia
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.1384
Abstract: With an estimated annual milk production of approximately 29 million tonnes in 2004-2005, Pakistan is one of the world’s top milk producers. The competitiveness of Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan was studied, including constraints and opportunities. The study also includes unprecendented legal research on the government’s role vis a vis the private sector contribution. Buffaloes and cows are the main source of milk production, with an estimated 67% of the milk being produced by buffaloes and 30% by cows.
Association between Knowledge and Drug Adherence in Patients with Hypertension in Quetta, Pakistan
F Saleem, MA Hassali, AA Shafie, AG Awad, S Bashir
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the association between patient’s knowledge of hypertension management and medication adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 385 hypertensive patients who visited outpatient departments in two public hospitals in Quetta City, Pakistan. Besides demographic and disease-related questions, two validated questionnaires (Hypertension Fact Questionnaire and Drug Attitude Inventory) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were to determine the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients while Spearman rank correlation was employed to measure the association between knowledge and drug adherence. Results: Out of 385 patients, 236 (61.3 %) of the patients had average knowledge about hypertension while 249 (64.7 %) were categorized as poor adherent. No patient was considered as good adherent in the study. Correlation coefficient between total score of knowledge and total adherence was – 0.170 (p < 0.001), indicating an inverse association between knowledge scores and adherence level. Conclusion: Although the level of knowledge was average, patients were unsure of the benefits of continuous medication use which resulted in non-adherence to regimens. Educating patients about the benefits of medications and clarifying doubts regarding medication use should result in better control of hypertension.
RACING STRESS AND CONCEPTION RATE IN REPEAT BREEDING BUFFALOES AND COWS  [PDF]
M. Ahmad, N. Ahmad, I. Ahmad, N. Akhtar and S. Ali
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2004,
Abstract: In this study 215 buffaloes and 180 cows with the history of repeat breeding and prolonged oestrus period (>24 hours) were used. All of the animals had repeated at least twice. A total of 95 animals (50 buffaloes and 45 cows) were inseminated once, 12-18 hours after the start of oestrus and were kept as control, while 165 buffaloes and 135 cows were divided into two treatment groups. In group I, 70 buffaloes and 55 cows were inseminated twice, first at 12-18 hours after the start of oestrus and then 12-24 hours later. In group II, 95 buffaloes and 80 cows were inseminated once at 12-18 hours after the start of oestrus. These animals were then subjected to forced racing for at least 30 minutes. In control group, 18 buffaloes (36%) and 15 cows (33.33%) were found to be pregnant 60 days after insemination. In treatment group I, 36 buffaloes (51.43%) and 30 cows (54.55%), whereas in group II, 70 buffaloes (73.68%) and 58 cows (72.50%), were observed to be pregnant. These results indicate that forced racing may be a good practical and economical tool to improve conception rate in repeat breeder animals where the problem is due to delayed ovulation.
QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS
A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2005,
Abstract: The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32%) in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%). Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45%) frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%), E. coli (18%) and Bacillus spp. (14%) in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.
Incidence of Malaria Infection in Rural areas of District Quetta, Pakistan
Mohammad Iqbal Yasinzai,Jamu-Khan Kakarsulemankhel
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The present study reports the prevalence of malarial parasites in the human population of rural areas of Quetta District. Plasmodium falciparum was observed to be with a higher incidence (17.77%) in the age group of 21 years and above. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex was found to be more prevalent (95%), genus Anopheles was observed to by 3.48% and genus Aedes was found to be less prevalent (1.35%).
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