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Economic impact of an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in Khartoum State, Sudan
A M El-Hussein,A Daboura
Veterinary World , 2012,
Abstract: The economic impact of an outbreak of foot and mouth disease that took place during 2002 was assessed in dairy farms of Khartoum state, Sudan. A total of 11 farms (8 cooperative and 3 privately owned) of mostly crossbred Friesian X indigenous cattle were investigated. The total number of the animals in these farms were 1160 of which 715 were adult and 445 were calves. The statistical analysis was carried out using t student test. The costs of the outbreak were assessed in terms of losses in milk production, costs of drugs used to alleviate the symptoms, and death of affected animals. The overall cost to the dairy farmers in the state was estimated USD 1 771 924 with the loss in milk production constituting the main component in this cost. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000): 219-222]
Characterization of an Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Nanchang, China in 2010  [PDF]
Michelle Y. Liu,Weiyong Liu,Jun Luo,Yingle Liu,Yang Zhu,Hillary Berman,Jianguo Wu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025287
Abstract: Recent outbreaks of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection and EV71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China have affected millions and potentially lead to life-threatening complications in newborns. Furthermore, these outbreaks represent a significant global public health issue in the world. Understanding the epidemiology of HFMD and EV71 infection and their transmission patterns in China is essential for controlling outbreaks. However, no studies on the outbreaks of HFMD and EV71 infection in China during 2010 have been reported. In this report, we carried out an epidemiological analysis to study an outbreak of HFMD and EV71 infection in 2010 in the city of Nanchang in the Jiangxi province of People's Republic of China. From April 7 to May 11, 2010, a total of 109 HFMD cases were reported, and in this report the HFMD cases were studied by both epidemiological and laboratory analyses. The epidemiological study indicates that children aged younger than 8 years old represented more than 90% of the reported cases, with the age group of 1–3 years containing the highest number of cases. Laboratory studies detected a high prevalence of EV71 amongst the cases in our study, suggesting EV71 as a common enterovirus found in HFMD cases in Nanchang. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of the VP1 region of four EV71 isolates indicated that the Nanchang strains belong to the C4 subgenotype commonly found in China during outbreaks in 2008 but contain distinct variations from these strains. Our study for the first time characterizes the epidemiology of HFMD and EV71 infection in China in 2010 and furthermore, provides the first direct evidence of the genotype of EV71 circulating in Nanchang, China. Our study should facilitate the development of public health measures for the control and prevention of HFMD and EV71 infection in at-risk individuals in China.
Description of the pathology of a gazelle that died during a major outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Israel : clinical communication  [cached]
A. Berkowitz,T. Waner,R. King,H. Yadin
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v81i1.99
Abstract: Naturally occurring foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in wildlife is a relatively mild condition but occasionally it can be devastating as has been documented in impala in South Africa and in mountain gazelles in Israel. This report describes pathological changes in an adult male gazelle with FMD from an outbreak in the Nature Reserve of Ramot-Issachar region and the lower Galilee in Israel. The outbreak was characterised by the malignant form of the disease, which is uncommon among domestic animals. Lesions observed included, ulceration in the oral cavity, oesophagus and ruminal pillars, coronitis, multifocal cardiac necrosis and pancreatic necrosis and inflammation. Pneumonia, caused by Muellerius capillaries was an incidental finding.
Survey of enterovirus infections from hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in china, 2009
Fan Yang, Ting Zhang, Yongfeng Hu, Xiaofang Wang, Jiang Du, Yufen Li, Shaoxia Sun, Xiuhua Sun, Zhifang Li, Qi Jin
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-508
Abstract: A total of 301 clinical throat swabs were randomly obtained from patients suffering from HFMD from the southern, northern and central regions of China during outbreaks in 2009. 266 of 301 (88.4%) HFMD cases were found positive for HEV and seven genotypes, HEV-71, CV-A16, -B5, -A4, -A6, -A10, and -A12, were detected.The HFMD pathogen compositions in the different regions of China were significantly different. HFMD epidemics might persist for a long time in China due to the multiple pathogen compositions, the enteroviral characteristic of recombination and co-infection, the ever-increasing travel and migration and the deficiency of effective vaccine. Our study deserves the attention on HFMD control and vaccine development.Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness characterized by fever and vesicular eruptions on the hands, feet and mouth. HFMD is caused by a few serotypes of enteroviruses, most frequently coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16) and human enterovirus 71 (HEV-71), and the severe forms were often associated with HEV71. Other enteroviruses (CV-A2, -A4, -A5, -A6, -A8, -A9,-A10, -A16,-B3 and -B5), may also be associated with HFMD outbreaks, sporadic cases or asymptomatic infections [1-3].In recent years, the prevalence of HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region, especially in Southeast Asia, has greatly increased. In China, a rapid expansion of HFMD outbreaks has occurred since 2004 [4-7]. In 2009, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) confirmed 1,155,525 cases in Mainland China including 353 deaths. (http:/ / www.moh.gov.cn/ publicfiles/ business/ htmlfiles/ mohbgt/ s10639/ 201002/ 46043.htm webcite; Chinese website).Although HFMD has become an important issue for China, people are still only concerned with HEV-71 and CV-A16. Much of what is known about the other enterovirus infections in China relies on fractional evidence and old epidemic data, with little knowledge concerning their distribution. To alert potential threa
An outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with onychomadesis in Taiwan, 2010
Sung-Hsi Wei, Yuan-Pin Huang, Ming-Chih Liu, Tsung-Pei Tsou, Hui-Chen Lin, Tsuey-Li Lin, Chen-Yen Tsai, Yen-Nan Chao, Luan-Yin Chang, Chun-Ming Hsu
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-346
Abstract: Patients who had HFMD with positive enterovirus isolation results were enrolled. We performed a telephone interview with enrolled patients or their caregivers to collect information concerning symptoms, treatments, the presence of desquamation, and the presence of nail abnormalities. The serotypes of the enterovirus isolates were determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays. The VP1 gene was sequenced and the phylogenetic tree for the current CA6 strains in 2010, 52 previous CA6 strains isolated in Taiwan from 1998 through 2009, along with 8 reference sequences from other countries was constructed using the neighbor-joining command in MEGA software.Of the 130 patients with laboratory-confirmed CA6 infection, some patients with CA6 infection also had eruptions around the perioral area (28, 22%), the trunk and/or the neck (39, 30%) and generalized skin eruptions (6, 5%) in addition to the typical presentation of skin eruptions on the hands, feet, and mouths. Sixty-six (51%) CA6 patients experienced desquamation of palms and soles after the infection episode and 48 (37%) CA6 patients developed onychomadesis, which only occurred in 7 (5%) of 145 cases with non-CA6 enterovirus infection (p < 0.001). The sequences of viral protein 1 of CA6 in 2010 differ from those found in Taiwan before 2010, but are similar to those found in patients in Finland in 2008.HFMD patients with CA6 infection experienced symptoms targeting a broader spectrum of skin sites and more profound tissue destruction, i.e., desquamation and nail abnormalities.Since 2000, there have been sporadic reports of associations between hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and occurrences of onychomadesis [1-9]. Onychomadesis results from nail matrix arrest and both fingernails and toenails may be involved. The nail abnormalities associated with HFMD manifest with Beau's line, defined as transverse ridging of the nail plate, or onychomadesis, defined as nail separation from the nail matrix, which may extend
An emerging recombinant human enterovirus 71 responsible for the 2008 outbreak of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Fuyang city of China
Yan Zhang, Zhen Zhu, Weizhong Yang, Jun Ren, Xiaojuan Tan, Yu Wang, Naiying Mao, Songtao Xu, Shuangli Zhu, Aili Cui, Yong Zhang, Dongmei Yan, Qun Li, Xiaoping Dong, Jing Zhang, Yueping Zhao, Junfeng Wan, Zijian Feng, Junling Sun, Shiwen Wang, Dexin Li, Wenbo Xu
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-94
Abstract: The first HEV71 infection was reported in 1969 in the US [1]. Although HFMD is usually a mild disease, several HEV71 outbreaks associated with severe neurological complications have been reported in Western Pacific countries or regions, including Malaysia in 1997; Taiwan in 1998, 2000 and 2001; Australia in 1999; Singapore in 2000; Japan in 1997 and 2000; and Shandong of China in 2007 [2-8].Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is one of the member in HEV-A species of Enterovius genus in the family Picornaviridae. The genome of HEV71 consists of a single-stranded positive-sense RNA of approximately 7400 nucleotides. The viral genome contains a 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) which are essential for viral RNA replication. The genome is translated as a single large polyprotein that is composed of four capsid proteins, VP1 to VP4, and seven nonstructural proteins, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D. VP1 to VP4 capsid proteins were encoded by P1 region. The P2 and P3 regions encode nonstructural proteins and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, 3D, is a major component of the viral replication complex [9].Sporadic epidemic or outbreaks of HEV71 infection had occurred in mainland of China since 1995[8,10,11], but the highly aggregated cases of rapidly fatal pediatric infections occurred in the Fuyang HFMD outbreak in 2008 is unprecedented. The identification of the causal pathogen is crucial for preventing disease spread, reducing fatality rate, and better understanding the pathogenic mechanism underlying disease severity. This study reported the investigation and the etiological identification of the Fuyang HFMD outbreak in 2008. And the genetic recombination event was also found between the Fuyang HEV71 isolates and CV-A16.This study focused on the outbreak between 1 March and 9 May, 2008. A total of 6,049 HFMD cases were reported from local healthcare facility in Fuyang city (Figure 1), of which 3,023 (50%) were hospitalized, 353 (6%) were severe and 22 (0.4%) were fatal. The
Co-Circulation and Genomic Recombination of Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71 during a Large Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Central China  [PDF]
Weiyong Liu, Shimin Wu, Ying Xiong, Tongya Li, Zhou Wen, Mingzhe Yan, Kai Qin, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096051
Abstract: A total of 1844 patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), most of them were children of age 1–3-year-old, in Central China were hospitalized from 2011 to 2012. Among them, 422 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), 334 were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71), 38 were co-infected with EV71 and CVA16, and 35 were infected with other enteroviruses. Molecular epidemiology analysis revealed that EV71 and CVA16 were detected year-round, but EV71 circulated mainly in July and CVA16 circulated predominantly in November, and incidence of HFMD was reduced in January and February and increased in March. Clinical data showed that hyperglycemia and neurologic complications were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients, while upper respiratory tract infection and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in CVA16-associated patients. 124 EV71 and 80 CVA16 strains were isolated, among them 56 and 68 EV71 strains were C4a and C4b, while 25 and 55 CVA16 strains were B1a and B1b, respectively. Similarity plots and bootscan analyses based on entire genomic sequences revealed that the three C4a sub-genotype EV71 strains were recombinant with C4b sub-genotype EV71 in 2B–2C region, and the three CVA16 strains were recombinant with EV71 in 2A–2B region. Thus, CVA16 and EV71 were the major causative agents in a large HFMD outbreak in Central China. HFMD incidence was high for children among household contact and was detected year-round, but outbreak was seasonal dependent. CVA16 B1b and EV71 C4b reemerged and caused a large epidemic in China after a quiet period of many years. Moreover, EV71 and CVA16 were co-circulated during the outbreak, which may have contributed to the genomic recombination between the pathogens. It should gain more attention as there may be an upward trend in co-circulation of the two pathogens globally and the new role recombination plays in the emergence of new enterovirus variants.
A Comparison between Two Simulation Models for Spread of Foot-and-Mouth Disease  [PDF]
Tariq Halasa, Anette Boklund, Anders Stockmarr, Claes En?e, Lasse E. Christiansen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092521
Abstract: Two widely used simulation models of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were used in order to compare the models’ predictions in term of disease spread, consequence, and the ranking of the applied control strategies, and to discuss the effect of the way disease spread is modeled on the predicted outcomes of each model. The DTU-DADS (version 0.100), and ISP (version 2.001.11) were used to simulate a hypothetical spread of FMD in Denmark. Actual herd type, movements, and location data in the period 1st October 2006 and 30th September 2007 was used. The models simulated the spread of FMD using 3 different control scenarios: 1) A basic scenario representing EU and Danish control strategies, 2) pre-emptive depopulation of susceptible herds within a 500 meters radius around the detected herds, and 3) suppressive vaccination of susceptible herds within a 1,000 meters radius around the detected herds. Depopulation and vaccination started 14 days following the detection of the first infected herd. Five thousand index herds were selected randomly, of which there were 1,000 cattle herds located in high density cattle areas and 1,000 in low density cattle areas, 1,000 swine herds located in high density swine areas and 1,000 in low density swine areas, and 1,000 sheep herds. Generally, DTU-DADS predicted larger, longer duration and costlier epidemics than ISP, except when epidemics started in cattle herds located in high density cattle areas. ISP supported suppressive vaccination rather than pre-emptive depopulation, while DTU-DADS was indifferent to the alternative control strategies. Nonetheless, the absolute differences between control strategies were small making the choice of control strategy during an outbreak to be most likely based on practical reasons.
Foot and Mouth Disease: Informing the Community?  [PDF]
Briony J Oates
Informing Science The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline , 2003,
Abstract: The 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the UK had a significant impact on the economic and social well-being of rural communities. This paper examines the FMD pages of four local govern-ment websites in Northern England: Cumbria, Durham, Northumberland and North Yorkshire County Councils. Each county was badly affected by FMD. The contents of the FMD webpages are analysed and compared: which audiences were addressed, what information was provided or omitted, and how well the audiences' needs were met. The study shows the breadth of audience types and information that could have been included, but no site covered all the necessary angles. Furthermore, the websites did little to address the psychological problems arising from FMD or to enhance participation and democ-racy in their local communities. By examining how the councils informed those affected, lessons can be learnt which are relevant to any future disruption to a community.
Inhibitors of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Targeting a Novel Pocket of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase  [PDF]
Ryan C. Durk,Kamalendra Singh,Ceili A. Cornelison,Devendra K. Rai,Kayla B. Matzek,Maxwell D. Leslie,Elizabeth Schafer,Bruno Marchand,Adeyemi Adedeji,Eleftherios Michailidis,Christopher A. Dorst,Jennifer Moran,Christie Pautler,Luis L. Rodriguez,Mark A. McIntosh,Elizabeth Rieder,Stefan G. Sarafianos
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015049
Abstract: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus that infects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to severe losses in livestock production. In the case of an FMD outbreak, emergency vaccination requires at least 7 days to trigger an effective immune response. There are currently no approved inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of FMDV infections.
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