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Cytotoxic activity by the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Venus clam Chamelea gallina in the Adriatic sea in 2007
D Malagoli,L Casarini,F Fiori,E Ottaviani
Invertebrate Survival Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Given the ecological and economic importance of bivalve molluscs, the evaluation of their welfare is one of the primary aims for both biologists and people working in shell fishing. After a three year-long period monitoring the cytotoxic activity exerted by the hemolymph from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, we have concluded that cytotoxicity represents a useful parameter to evaluate the status of the immune activity and therefore the health of mussels in a specific period of the year. During 2007, we compared the mussel cytoxicity with that of the Venus clam Chamelea gallina from contiguous areas of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Our observations indicate that the cytotoxicity of the hemolymph of the two species follows a similar course during the year, suggesting that cytotoxic activity is primarily determined by the life/reproductive cycles.
Monitoring of the immune efficiency of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Adriatic sea mussel  [PDF]
D Malagoli,L Casarini,E Ottaviani
Invertebrate Survival Journal , 2006,
Abstract: The monthly evaluation of the cytotoxicity of hemolymph from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialisrevealed some variations in the percentage of cytotoxic animals during the year. Cytotoxicity is confirmedto be a dynamic parameter that can be used as an indicator of immune efficiency and, therefore, of thestate of health of the animals.
Monitoring of the immune efficiency of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Adriatic sea mussel farms in 2006: regular changes of cytotoxicity during the year  [PDF]
D Malagoli,L Casarini,E Ottaviani
Invertebrate Survival Journal , 2007,
Abstract: By monitoring the course of hemolymph cytolytic activity in Mytilus galloprovincialis during 2006, we have observed important fluctuations in the percentage of cytotoxic animals over the year. The changes seem to be correlated with seasonal variations in the temperature, but observations in mussels kept in aquaria indicated that this parameter is not the main cause of the fluctuations. Data presented here suggest that normal levels of cytotoxicity can be predicted in a population for a specific period of the year, therefore confirming the value of this parameter in determining the immune efficiency of mussels at a given time.
Trace elements concentrations (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and evaluation of mussel quality and possible human health risk from cultivated and wild sites of the southeastern Adriatic Sea, Montenegro  [PDF]
Stankovi? Slavka,Jovi? Mihajlo,Milanov Ra?a,Joksimovi? Danijela
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/jsc110420095s
Abstract: The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (L) was collected from the fall 2005 to the winter 2009 from the six sites on the Montenegrin coastline. Two wild samples were collected from the open sea coastline, and two cultivated and two wild were from the Boka Kotorska Bay. The mussels soft tissue was analyzed for zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and total mercury (Hg). Concentrations of these metals ranged from 135.5-210 for Zn, 6.2-14.5 for Cu, 4.0-11.5 for Pb, 1.7-2.1 for Cd, 5.8-12.4 for As and 0.11-0.51 for Hg, in mg kg-1 dry weight. The metals were found to be present in the samples at different levels, but not in concentrations higher than maximum residual levels prescribed by the European Union (EU) and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) regulations for seafood. This indicates that the consumption of wild or cultivated mussels from the studied area is safe in moderate quantities.
Seasonal changes in functional parameters of the hemolymph of Mytilus galloprovincialis
C Ciacci,R Fabbri,M Betti,P Roch
Invertebrate Survival Journal , 2009,
Abstract: n bivalves, many functional parameters show seasonal changes in relation to both abiotic (such as temperature and salinity) and biotic factors (such as gonad maturation, food availability). Available data indicate that also immune parameters can show seasonal fluctuations in the marine mussel Mytilus spp.. In this work we report data on hemocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) and phagocytic activity, as well as on soluble lysozyme activity, in the hemolymph of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected over a 24 month period in the Adriatic Sea (2006-2007). The results indicate that all the parameters measured show seasonal fluctuations over the year, with lysozyme activity showing the largest changes. Lowest LMS values were observed in early winter and early autumn, whereas maximal values of phagocytic activity were observed in winter and increasing serum lysozyme activities were recorded in autumn. The observed seasonal fluctuations are discussed in relation to both abiotic (temperature) and biotic (changes in endogenous modulators) factors.
Biochemical and histological alterations of Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland  [PDF]
R Auriemma,S Battistella
Invertebrate Survival Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Electrophoretical and histological analysis were performed on Mytilus galloprovincialis digestivegland samples, in order to detect the presence of a previously identified protein ca 30 kDa MW,synthesized during Dinophysis spp. blooms, and assess a possible correlation between the occurrenceof this protein and okadaic acid (OA) exposure by ingestion. Mussels were sampled monthly from July2000 to November 2001 in the Gulf of Trieste (upper Adriatic Sea) and immediately processed. Parallelsamples were maintained in sea water plastic tanks and fed with marine invertebrate feed mixed withOA and derivatives at different concentration of toxins for each experimental group (25 mg, 50 mg, 100mg). In tank reared mussels fed with OA, degeneration of digestive cells and appearance of 24.6 kDaprotein were observed, while in wild mussels, neither histological alterations nor presence of a 24.6kDa protein, were detected. A correlation between the toxins concentration and time of appearancewas highlighted, to demonstrate this protein is synthesized in response to OA and derivativesexposure. About the identity of 24.6 kDa protein, it could be an enzyme involved in detoxificationreactions, probably Glyoxalase I.
Erroneous identification of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819) as the specie, Mytilus chilensis (Hupe 1854) in the Bay of Concepcion, Chile
Tarife?o,Eduardo; Galleguillos,Ricardo; Llanos-Rivera,Alejandra; Arriagada,Daniel; Ferrada,Sandra; Canales-Aguirre,Cristian B; Seguel,Maritza;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2012,
Abstract: this communication informs that presence of the chilean mussel, mytilus chilensis (hupe 1854) in the coast of the bay of concepcion (chile) reported in the scientific literature is an erroneous identification, being mytilus galloprovincialis (lamarck 1819) the right species.
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA AND MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS  [cached]
S. Longo,A. Malaspina,F. Conte
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2013, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2009.6.86
Abstract: The antibiotic resistance (AR) of Gram negative bacteria from Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mg) was assessed. Essential differences between R profiles of Pseudomonas spp and of other strains was not observed. Strains AR from Ht and Mg was similar.
Genes of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis  [PDF]
Noelia Estévez-Calvar, Alejandro Romero, Antonio Figueras, Beatriz Novoa
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061502
Abstract: Bivalves play vital roles in marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. In recent years, these ecosystems have become affected through anthropogenic activities. The ecological success of marine bivalves is based on the ability to modify their physiological functions in response to environmental changes. One of the most important mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to environmental and biological stresses is apoptosis, which has been scarcely studied in mollusks, although the final consequence of this process, DNA fragmentation, has been frequently used for pollution monitoring. Environmental stressors induce apoptosis in molluscan cells via an intrinsic pathway. Many of the proteins involved in vertebrate apoptosis have been recognized in model invertebrates; however, this process might not be universally conserved. Mytilus galloprovincialis is presented here as a new model to study the linkage between molecular mechanisms that mediate apoptosis and marine bivalve ecological adaptations. Therefore, it is strictly necessary to identify the key elements involved in bivalve apoptosis. In the present study, six mitochondrial apoptotic-related genes were characterized, and their gene expression profiles following UV irradiation were evaluated. This is the first step for the development of potential biomarkers to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. The results confirmed that apoptosis and, more specifically, the expression of the genes involved in this process can be used to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress.
MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MUSSELS (MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS) FARMED AND COMMERCIALIZED IN CAMPANIA REGION  [cached]
N. Costanzo,E. Sarno,E. Maione,A. Santoro
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2011.1s.209
Abstract: Mytilus galloprovincialis is one of the most commonly consumed bivalve molluscs. Several samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from different sea farms or bought in retail shops and from irregular peddlers. Total Mesophilic and Psicrophilic Aerobic Bacteria, Enterobatteriacee, E. coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp. and L. monocytogenes were researched following ISO methods and EU Regulations. In mussels taken from the farms the limits were higher than those established by EU Regulation 2073/2005 only in one sample for E.coli and one for Salmonella spp. The mussels bought in retail shops showed good results and no sample exceed the law limits. Only one sample collected from irregular peddlers showed high levels of E.coli.
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