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THE LAYER “HYDROGEOLOGY” NECESSARY FOR ELABORATING LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPS USING GIS  [PDF]
GABRIELA BIALI
Geographia Napocensis , 2012,
Abstract: THE LAYER “HYDROGEOLOGY” NECESSARY FOR ELABORATING LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPS USING GIS. Drawing up a detailed risk map for the landslide of a slope is based on a complex research activity to establish the area indicators resulted from the instability process (relief, petrography and terrain litology, stratification, hydrogeology, anterior and precursory physic-geologic phenomena, present and perspective use of the terrain, hydrologic regime, etc.). In this context, in the preset paper we try to achieve one of the most important informational layer concerning hydrogeology spatial distribution that by means of overlay techniques will allow us the automatic achievement of these risk maps.
Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication  [PDF]
M. Hagemeier-Klose,K. Wagner
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2009,
Abstract: Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood risk management, especially as a precautionary measure. This is also underlined by the EU Flood Directive. The flood related authorities therefore have to develop adjusted information tools which meet the demands of different user groups. This article presents the formative evaluation of flood hazard maps and web mapping services according to the specific requirements and needs of the general public using the dynamic-transactional approach as a theoretical framework. The evaluation was done by a mixture of different methods; an analysis of existing tools, a creative workshop with experts and laymen and an online survey. The currently existing flood hazard maps or web mapping services or web GIS still lack a good balance between simplicity and complexity with adequate readability and usability for the public. Well designed and associative maps (e.g. using blue colours for water depths) which can be compared with past local flood events and which can create empathy in viewers, can help to raise awareness, to heighten the activity and knowledge level or can lead to further information seeking. Concerning web mapping services, a linkage between general flood information like flood extents of different scenarios and corresponding water depths and real time information like gauge levels is an important demand by users. Gauge levels of these scenarios are easier to understand than the scientifically correct return periods or annualities. The recently developed Bavarian web mapping service tries to integrate these requirements.
Assessment of Flash-Flood Hazard in Arid Watersheds of Jordan  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Atef Ayed
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.96045
Abstract: Flash flood hazard initiated by heavy rainstorms is common in arid Jordan, and often has induced immense damage to life and infrastructures. The current study presents a flash flood assessment for Wadi Rajil (northern Jordan) and Wadi Wuheida (southern Jordan) watersheds using ASTER DEM, GIS, and geomorphic field observation. A total of 23 morphometric parameters of paramount relation to flash flood risk estimation were extracted and calculated using ASTER DEM, GIS, and mathematical formulae developed for this purpose. Two methods were employed to assess flash floods and to generate flooding risk susceptibility maps. The first method is El-Shamy’s approach, and the second is the morphometric hazard degree assessment method. Consequently, sub-basins with high and extreme flooding susceptibility were demarcated and displayed spatially using GIS. The maps so produced are meant to help planners and decision makers to devise appropriate plans to mitigate harmful flooding impacts, and to deal with flooding hazards.
Rockfall hazard and risk assessments along roads at a regional scale: example in Swiss Alps  [PDF]
C. Michoud,M.-H. Derron,P. Horton,M. Jaboyedoff
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-615-2012
Abstract: Unlike fragmental rockfall runout assessments, there are only few robust methods to quantify rock-mass-failure susceptibilities at regional scale. A detailed slope angle analysis of recent Digital Elevation Models (DEM) can be used to detect potential rockfall source areas, thanks to the Slope Angle Distribution procedure. However, this method does not provide any information on block-release frequencies inside identified areas. The present paper adds to the Slope Angle Distribution of cliffs unit its normalized cumulative distribution function. This improvement is assimilated to a quantitative weighting of slope angles, introducing rock-mass-failure susceptibilities inside rockfall source areas previously detected. Then rockfall runout assessment is performed using the GIS- and process-based software Flow-R, providing relative frequencies for runout. Thus, taking into consideration both susceptibility results, this approach can be used to establish, after calibration, hazard and risk maps at regional scale. As an example, a risk analysis of vehicle traffic exposed to rockfalls is performed along the main roads of the Swiss alpine valley of Bagnes.
Seismic hazard maps of Italy
D. Slejko,L. Peruzza,A. Rebez
Annals of Geophysics , 1998, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4327
Abstract: The Italian "Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti" has conducted a project in recent years for assessing seismic hazard in the national territory to be used as a basis for the revision of the current seismic zonation. In this project the data on the major earthquakes were reassessed and a new earthquake data file prepared. Definition of a seismotectonic model for the whole territory, based on a structural-kinematic analysis of Italy and the surrounding regions, led to the definition of 80 seismogenic zones, for which the geological and seismic characteristics were determined. Horizontal PGA and macroseismic intensity were used as seismicity parameters in the application of the Cornell probabilistic approach. The main aspects of the seismic hazard assessment are here described and the results obtained are presented and discussed. The maps prepared show the various aspects of seismic hazard which need to be considered for a global view of the problem. In particular, those with a 475-year return period, in agreement with the specifications of the new seismic Eurocode EC8, can be considered basic products for a revision of the present national seismic zonation.
Quantitative Hazard and Risk Analysis  [cached]
Geza Tarnai,Balazs Saghi,Izabela Krbilova
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper a quantitative method for hazard and risk analysis is discussed. The method was developed and introduced for the allocation of safety requirements to the functions of a railway signaling remote control system.
Hazard index maps for woody material recruitment and transport in alpine catchments  [PDF]
B. Mazzorana,A. Zischg,A. Largiader,J. Hübl
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2009,
Abstract: A robust and reliable risk assessment procedure for hydrologic hazards deserves particular attention to the role of transported woody material during flash floods or debris flows. At present, woody material transport phenomena are not systematically considered within the procedures for the elaboration of hazard maps. The consequence is a risk of losing prediction accuracy and of underestimating hazard impacts. Transported woody material frequently interferes with the sediment regulation capacity of open check dams and moreover, when obstruction phenomena at critical cross-sections of the stream occur, inundations can be triggered. The paper presents a procedure for the determination of the relative propensity of mountain streams to the entrainment and delivery of recruited woody material on the basis of empirical indicators. The procedure provided the basis for the elaboration of a hazard index map for all torrent catchments of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen. The plausibility of the results has been thoroughly checked by a backward oriented analysis on natural hazard events, documented since 1998 at the Department of Hydraulic Engineering of the aforementioned Alpine Province. The procedure provides hints for the consideration of the effects, induced by woody material transport, during the elaboration of hazard zone maps.
Rockfall hazard and risk assessment in the Yosemite Valley, California, USA  [PDF]
F. Guzzetti,P. Reichenbach,G. F. Wieczorek
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2003,
Abstract: Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent types of slope movements in Yosemite National Park, California. In historical time (1857–2002) 392 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the results of an attempt to assess rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley. Spatial and temporal aspects of rock falls hazard are considered. A detailed inventory of slope movements covering the 145-year period from 1857 to 2002 is used to determine the frequency-volume statistics of rock falls and to estimate the annual frequency of rock falls, providing the temporal component of rock fall hazard. The extent of the areas potentially subject to rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley were obtained using STONE, a physically-based rock fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock fall trajectories starting from a digital elevation model (DEM), the location of rock fall release points, and maps of the dynamic rolling friction coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tangential energy restitution. For each DEM cell the software calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock fall velocity and the maximum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DEM with a ground resolution of 10 × 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from the U.S. Geological Survey 1:24 000-scale maps. Rock fall release points were identified as DEM cells having a slope steeper than 60°, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the normal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to calibrate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of the model. The model results are compared with a previous map of rockfall talus and with a geomorphic assessment of rock fall hazard based on potential energy referred to as a shadow angle approach, recently completed for the Yosemite Valley. The model results are then used to identify the roads and trails more subject to rock fall hazard. Of the 166.5 km of roads and trails in the Yosemite Valley 31.2% were found to be potentially subject to rock fall hazard, of which 14% are subject to very high hazard.
Probability seismic hazard maps of Southern Thailand
Chinda Sutiwanich,Thanu Hanpattanapanich,Santi Pailoplee,Punya Charusiri
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Seismic hazard maps of southern Thailand were obtained from the integration of crustal fault, areal and subductionsource models using probability seismic hazard analysis and the application of a logic tree approach. The hazard maps showthe mean peak ground and spectral accelerations at 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0 second periods with a 10%, 5%, 2% and 0.5% probabilityof exceedance in 50-year hazard levels. The highest hazard areas were revealed to be in the Muang, Phanom, and Viphavadidistricts of Surat Thani province, the Thap Put district of Phang Nga province, and the Plai Phraya district of Krabi province.The lowest hazard areas are in the southernmost part of Thailand e.g. Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces. The maximumvalues of the mean peak ground acceleration for the 475–9,975 yr return period are 0.28-0.52 g and the maximum spectralaccelerations at 0.2 seconds for the same return period are 0.52-0.80 g. Similar hazard is also obtained for different returnperiods. Presented seismic hazard maps are useful as a guideline for the future design of buildings, bridges or dams, for rocksites to resist earthquake forces.
Probabilistic seismic hazard in terms of intensities for Bulgaria and Romania – updated hazard maps  [PDF]
G. Leydecker,H. Busche,K.-P. Bonjer,T. Schmitt
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: Since 2007 Bulgaria and Romania are members of the European Union. All member states have to introduce the European earthquake building code EUROCODE 8 (EC 8) in the coming years. Therefore, new seismic hazard maps have to be calculated according to the recommendations in EC 8. Here the authors present a novel approach to compute such hazard maps. We prefer to use the macroseismic intensity as hazard parameter because of two reasons: - The irregular azimuthal attenuation pattern of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes can be advantageously taken into account by using detailed macroseismic maps. - The intensity is directly related to the degree of damage and is the original information in the historical earthquake catalogues. The main base of our probabilistic analysis is the earthquake catalogue for SE-Europe (Shebalin et al., 1998) in combination with national and regional catalogues. Fore- and aftershocks were removed. Seismic source zones inside an area of about 200 km around Romania and Bulgaria were defined based on seismicity, neotectonics and geological development. For each seismic source the intensity-frequency relation was calculated and a maximum possible earthquake as well as a seismogenic depth was estimated. An appropriate attenuation law was assumed. To cope with the irregular isoseismals of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes, a factor Ω was included in the macroseismic attenuation law. Using detailed macroseismic maps of three strong intermediate depth earthquakes, Ω was calculated for each observation. Strong local variations of Ω are avoided by averaging within grid cells of 0.5 degree in longitude and 0.25 degree in latitude. The contributions of all seismic sources, the crustal normal depth source zones and the Vrancea intermediate depth zone, were summed up and the annual probability of exceedance was calculated. The contribution of the Vrancea intermediate depth zone to each grid point was computed with the corresponding representative Ω of this point; a seismogenic depth of 120 km has been assumed. Each final seismic hazard map is a combination of two maps, the one for normal depth source zones and the one for the Vrancea intermediate depth zone. This is illustrated for a recurrence period of 475 years. Additional hazard maps were calculated for different recurrence periods.
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