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Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania  [cached]
E.S. Swai,E.D. Karimuribo,D.M. Kambarage
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v81i4.155
Abstract: A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (≤12 months old) were due to tick-borne diseases, mainly East Coast Fever (ECF) and anaplasmosis. Disease events including ECF were reported to occur in all months of the year. Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard models indicated that, in both regions, death rate and risk was higher in young stock less than 12 months than in older animals (relative risk RR=4.92, P <0.001 for Iringa; RR = 5.03 P = 0.005 for Tanga). In the Tanga region reported mortality rates were significantly higher for male animals (RR = 3.66, P = 0.001) and F2 compared with F1 animals (RR=3.04, P=0.003). In the Iringa region, reported mortality rates were lower for cattle on farms where the owner had attended a dairy development project training course (RR = 0.47, P = 0.012). Farms located in Iringa urban district and Pangani were associated with higher risk (mortality risk 21 % for Iringa urban and 34 % for Pangani). Our findings suggest that timely health and management interventions on these factors are necessary to alleviate losses from disease and emphasise that understanding variation in mortality risk within a population can enhance early response to potential outbreaks, reducing losses.
Effects of Poor Nutrition on Reproduction of Dairy Stock on Smallholder Farms in the Tropics  [PDF]
T.P. Lanyasunya,H.H. Musa,Z.P. Yang,D.M. Mekki
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2005,
Abstract: The relationship between nutrition and reproduction is a topic of increasing importance. Many research reports have clearly demonstrated that energy, protein and minerals intake are the most important nutritional factors affecting reproduction and therefore milk production in dairy farms. This is particularly evident on smallholder farms in the tropics where feed is often inadequate. On these farms, voluntary feed intake in relation to the feed required for maintenance is the most important factor determining the animal`s body condition. Many of the dairy animals on smallholder farms cannot build sufficient body reserves (particularly energy and protein) due to lack of adequate feed. As a direct consequence of feed inadequacy, dairy stock on most smallholder resource-poor farms are often in poor body condition (emaciated). Conception rate and calving intervals have been shown to be highly correlated, to by weight and body condition. The study revealed that animals with low body weights showed low conception rate and long calving interval. Energy and protein have shown to maintain essential levels of blood cholesterol and improve pregnancy from 42 to 72% respectively. Correlation of reproductive hormone cycle, calf and lamb birth rates, weaning rates, lactation length and yield with plane of nutrition, have been adequately illustrated. This is evidenced by the current high incidences of dairy cow infertility on smallholder farms in Kenya. Based on the literature reviewed, the current study concluded that poor nutrition is a major contributor to the current poor reproductive performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms. Poor nutrition is also largely incriminated for predisposing animals to diseases leading to high mortality and morbidity rates on these farms. It is therefore perceived that improvement of ruminant livestock diets on smallholder farms will greatly improve reproductive performance and therefore herd productivity on smallholder farms. In the long run, this will also impact positively on the economic status of the household.
Factors Associated with Body Weight Attainment in Calves on Smallholder Dairy Farms in Tanzania  [PDF]
Jelly Senyangwa Chang'a, Torleiv L?ken, Robinson H. Mdegela, Olav Reksen
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.22011
Abstract: In order to investigate associations between individual calf parameters and/or herd management practices and dairy calf body weight (BW) attainment in smallholder farms in Tanzania, a prospective study was carried out at 121 farms in Mvomero and Njombe districts and included 156 crossbred dairy calves. Information on management factors and sources of calf drinking water were collected by personal observation and interview during four visits. At each visit, BW assessments were conducted by the same veterinarian and blood samples collected. The blood samples were analyzed for hematological parameters, total blood protein, glucose, and serum phosphorus and urea. Low BW was associated with smaller amount of milk fed to calves, early weaning, birth during the wet season, and well/tap water as the main water source (P < 0.05). Low blood total protein, high urea, low phosphorus and low hemoglobin concentrations were also associated with retarded growth. These findings identified and quantified some critical factors that can guide farmers in improving calf performance on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania. To improve calf BW, the protein and mineral fraction of the roughage should be increased and water supply should be improved. In conclusion, appropriate changes in milk feeding routines and breeding management would also be expected to improve productivity.
Effect of Hyalomma Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Milk Production of Dairy Buffaloes (Bos Bubalus Bubalis) of Punjab (Pakistan)
M.S. Sajid,Z. Iqbal,M.N. Khan,G. Muhamamd
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.939
Abstract: The objective of this study was to estimate economic losses in terms of milk production caused by tick infestation in dairy buffaloes (Bos bubalus bubalis) of Punjab (Pakistan). To this end, six hundred Nili-Ravi buffaloes infested with Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were selected and divided into two equal groups viz; A & B. The animals of group A were treated with various doses of 5% cypermethrine pour-on (Cipermetriven, Ivan Labs, Spain) while those of group B were treated with propylene glycol (Propandiol - (1, 2), Merck) as a sham treatment. Average milk production (L) and butter fat (%) was recorded before and after treatment in order to calculate post-treatment increase in these parameters (if any). An average daily increase of 1.15L in milk yield per animal with 1.31% more fat was observed in acaricide- treated animals. A dose-dependent effect of acaricide was found on the number of ticks as well as milk production and fat. The results provided a baseline data for further research on economic impact of tick nuisance to the smallholder dairy farming systems of Pakistan.
Adaptation of Smallholder Dairy Farmers in South Western Kenya to the Effects of Climate Change  [PDF]
Charles Okech Odhiambo, Harun Okello Ogindo, Chlirukovian Bwire Wasike, Washington Odongo Ochola
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2019.93031
Abstract: Despite great potential, Kenyan smallholder dairying faces diminishing land sizes, high input costs, poor extension contacts, non-responsive price policies, and new pests and diseases. Climate change will worsen the situation. This study sought to assess smallholder dairy farmers’ climate change adaptation level in Southwestern Kenya. Adopting Concurrent Fixed Mixed Methods, primary and secondary data was collected. Reports and papers were reviewed for temperature and precipitation data, dairy population, production trends, and farmers’ socio-demographics. A survey questionnaire for climate changes and farmers’ adaptiveness was administered to 367 smallholder dairy household heads with 10 years’ experience, obtained by multi-stage sampling from 4 sub-counties. Key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with farmer groups, heads of research, government departments and livestock farms; and the old that were obtained purposively based on dairying experience. Percentages were used for climate change effect on smallholder dairying and farmers’ adaptation. Principal component analysis was used for factors with great influence on respondents’ climate change adaptiveness; while one proportion Z-score test was used for significant differences between adapters and non-adapters (p < 0.05). Flexible and systematic Framework Approach was used for qualitative data analysis by cases and 5 themes. Findings indicated that despite Migori County’s great dairying potential, climate changes have partly hindered full exploitation. Temperatures and rainfall increased slightly in 30 years; with feeds and water diminishing, and resistant diseases and parasites emerging. Upon ranking, pasture loss (42.2%); over-grazing (41.1%); cattle under-feeding (39.5%); and increasing cattle diseases and pests (61.0%) had high impact; while drying water sources (37.1%) had moderate effect. Farmers’ adaptiveness included mixed farming (96.5%); non-intensive dairying (95.1%); establishing own fodder (92.4%); rearing crossbred dairy cattle (87.7%); reducing dairy herd size to 2 (92.9%); relying mainly on household labour (94.6%); and maintaining a 10-year increasing trend in milk-income (68.4%). Z-scores indicated significant differences between adapters and non-adopters (p < 0.05). Civil societies, academic and research institutions should intensify farmer advisory services to complement government extension.
Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe
Simbarashe Katsande,Gift Matope,Masimba Ndengu,Davies M. Pfukenyi
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2013,
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584) had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%), Escherichia coli (25.2%), Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.
Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania  [cached]
R.H. Mdegela,R. Ryoba,E.D. Karimuribo,E.J. Phiri
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v80i3.195
Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69). Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91). Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91) while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90). Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353), while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67). The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.
Seroprevalence of Babesia bigeminain smallholder dairy cattle in Tanzania and associated risk factors  [cached]
E.S. Swai,E.D. Karimuribo,N.P. French,J.L. Fitzpatrick
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v78i1.280
Abstract: Variations in the seroprevalence of antibody to Babesia bigemina infection by farm and animal level risk factors were investigated for 2 contrasting regions of Tanga and Iringa in Tanzania. Tanga is situated in the eastern part of the country and has typical tropical coast climate while Iringa is situated in the Southern Highlands and has a tropical highland climate. Two hundred farms from each region were selected using simple random sampling procedure and visited once between January 1999 and April 1999. Blood samples were collected from 1329 smallholder dairy animals on selected farms for harvesting serum which was subsequently used for serodiagnosis of B. bigemina using an indirect enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 1329 sera samples screened, 34.9 % were positive for B. bigemina. The prevalence was higher in Iringa Region [43 %, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 39.5-47.3] than in Tanga Region (27 %, CI = 23.6-30.5). Using a logistic binomial regression model as an analytical method for predicting the likelihood of animal seropositivity, we found (in both regions) that the risk of positive reaction varied with the animal's age, history of grazing and geographical location. Seroprevalence increased with age (b=0.01 and 0.01 per year of age, P<0.005 in Tanga and Iringa, respectively). Animals located in Lushoto and Iringa urban district were associated with increased risk of seropositivity [Odds ratio (OR)=4.24, P=0.001, for Lushoto, and OR=1.81, P=0.040, for Iringa Urban, respectively). Animals grazed 3 months prior to sampling had higher odds for seropositivity than zero/semi-grazed, despite farmer-reported high frequency of tick control (OR = 2.71, P = 0.0087, for Tanga, and OR = 4.53, P = 0.001, for Iringa). Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, B. bigemina infection is widespread in many smallholder dairy farms and endemic stability with respect to this disease has not yet been attained, but the observed levels are sufficiently high to ensure that clinical disease would be a risk.
The Economics of Smallholder Dairy Goat Production in Mafefe Community of Limpopo Province, South Africa  [cached]
M.V. Mosoma,A. Belete,G.M. Senyolo,M.B. Masuku
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study presents cost-return analysis of the leasing system of smallholder dairy goat production in the Mafefe area of Limpopo Province in South Africa. The study was carried out to analyze the economic viability and sustainability of leasing system to the development of dairy goat’s keepers in Mafefe ward of Limpopo Province. The study used the NPV and BCR analysis to assess the economic impact of the proposed technology. The primary data used for the analysis were obtained during a 2007 household survey of 30 purposively selected farmers who keep dairy goats. Also a time series data for the years 2004 to 2008 were collected from the same respondents. The results show that production of dairy goats through leasing is economically attractive for smallholder dairy goat farmers and would have benefits from the financial and economic point of view. With the discount rate of 10%, the NPV and BCR were found to be R8869.21 and 3.08 respectively. This implies that dairy goat production through leasing system is a profitable project. Government should assist the households with the development of an appropriate marketing infrastructure, training and support programs for their dairy goats for the production of competitive dairy products.
The Risk of Mycotoxins Contamination of Dairy Feed and Milk on Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kenya
T.P. Lanyasunya,L.W. Wamae,H.H. Musa,O. Olowofeso
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2005,
Abstract: Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that thrive in warm humid environments. Because Kenyan climate is favourable for growth of mycotoxins causing moulds, the threat of mycotoxin related livestock and human poisoning is real and of major concern. This threat is made even more palpable by the fact that, staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination. The objective of the current study was to highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning. During the study, qualitative and quantitave information were obtained through extensive review of scientific articles, magazines and books touching on this subject. Consultations were also held with resource persons (Toxicologists) to help validate some of the assertions made by various authors. A very clear illustrated facts, as revealed by the current study are that, aflatoxin is one of the most widely occurring and dangerous of all mycotoxins known. The term aflatoxin refers to a closely related group of metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive agents. Four different aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, have been identified with B1 being the most toxic. Their contamination of agricultural feed grains poses a serious threat worldwide. Although occurrence and magnitude of mycotoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors and also with the conditions under which a food or feed crop is grown, harvested, and stored, those grown under tropical and subtropical conditions are more prone to contamination than those in temperate regions due to favourable humidity and temperature levels for mould growth (10 - 40oC, pH range of 4 - 8 and above 70% equilibrium relative humidity). Aflatoxin B1 is potent when it contaminates food grains. This potency was illustrated by an outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya (January - July 2004). This outbreak resulted in 125 recognized deaths and hospitalization of over 300 others across various districts (Makueni: N = 148; Kitui: 101; Machakos: 19; Thika: 12 and Kenyatta National Hospital: 37). Of 342 samples tested, a total of 182 (53.2%) had >20 ppb of aflatoxin. In addition, a substantial percentage of samples from each district had aflatoxin levels >1,000 ppb: Makueni (12.1%), Kitui (9.6%), Thika (3.9%), and Machakos (2.9%). Livestock get poisoned when th
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