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Diversity of Fungi and Mycotoxins Associated with Stored Triphala Churn and its Ingredients  [PDF]
A.K. Gautam,R. Bhadauria
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The present study explores the mycoflora associated with stored, Triphala churn and its raw material. Total 106 stored fruits and 68 powdered samples have been analysed for their fungal and mycotoxin association, if any. Results revealed that total 21 fungal species belonging to 11 different genera, in which eight species were only from genus Aspergillus, four from Penicillium and single species of each Helminthosporium, Curvularia, Alternaria, Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyces and Syncephalastrum was recorded. About 97.36% of Triphala churn samples, 94.66% dried fruits and 89% powdered samples were found contaminated with various fungi. About 73.68% Triphala churn, 50% fruits and 20.58% powdered samples were found contaminated with six mycotoxins namely, aflatoxin B1 and B2, aflatoxin G1 and G2, citrinin and sterigmatocystin. All the six mycotoxins were detected from the samples of fruits and powder, whereas, five mycotoxins were detected from Triphala churn samples. After PCR analysis of most frequently occurring fungal species with two universal fungal primers ITS-1 and ITS-4, band pattern obtained on agarose gel clearly differentiating the different fungal species. Seven frequently observed species of Aspergillus namely, A. niger, A. terreus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. parasiticus, A. versicolor were tested for their aflatoxigenic nature with omt-1 and ver-1 gene specific primers and amplification products of 895 and 596 bp were obtained only from A. flavus and A. parasiticus which indicate as aflatoxigenic nature. Presence of species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and mycotoxins in Triphala churn and its ingredients could represent a threat to consumers health.
Antifungal Potential of Triphala Churna Ingredients against Aspergillus Species Associated with Them During Storage  [PDF]
Ajay K. Gautam,Shubhi Avasthi,Anu Sharma,Rekha Bhadauria
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredients of triphala churna, i.e. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Terminalia chebula (Retz.) (Harada), collected from the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i.e. very low to very high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96±7.59%) was observed to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95±7.59%) and powder (25.07±6.05%). Terminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active against the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective against the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were observed to be ineffective against the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relationship between antifungal potential of herbal drugs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage.
Exploring of Antimicrobial Activity of Triphala Mashi—An Ayurvedic Formulation  [PDF]
Yogesh S. Biradar,Sheetal Jagatap,K. R. Khandelwal,Smita S. Singhania
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem002
Abstract: Triphala Mashi is an ayurvedic formulation that was prepared in our lab. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of both Triphala and Triphala Mashi were used, to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Comparative phytochemical profile of Triphala and Triphala Mashi was done by preliminary phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Antimicrobial activity includes isolation of pathogens from clinical samples, its characterization, testing its multiple drug resistance against standard antibiotics and antimicrobial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of both Triphala and Triphala Mashi against these organisms by using agar gel diffusion method. Triphala Mashi containing phenolic compounds, tannins exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity in relation to Triphala against all the microorganisms tested. It inhibits the dose-dependent growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, it appears that Triphala Mashi has non-specific antimicrobial activity.
CLOVE: A CHAMPION SPICE  [PDF]
Parle Milind,Khanna Deepa
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC) test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the world’s consumption of the clove spice is in the home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.
Antifungal properties of clove oil (Eugenia caryophylata) in sugar solution
Nú?ez, Lidia;D'Aquino, Miguel;Chirife, Jorge;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822001000200010
Abstract: the effect of temperature, concentration and contact time on the fungicidal effect of clove oleoresin dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution at 21 and 37oc, and clove oleoresin at 0.2 to 0.8% (v/v) was studied. the test microorganisms were candida albicans, penicillium citrinum, aspergillus niger and trichophyton mentagrophytes. the fungicidal effect was enhanced at 37oc; at this temperature short contact times (e.g. 1 min.) were enough to eliminate a microbial inoculum of 106 c.f.u./ml of c. albicans. although clove oleoresin caused important lethal effect, p. citrinum and a. niger were more resistant. after 60 minutes, clove oleoresin dispersed (0.4% v/v) in concentrated sugar solution caused a 99.6% reduction of the initial population (106 c.f.u./ml) of trichophyton mentagrophytes. the fungicidal activity of clove-sugar on c. albicans, after 2 min contact, was similar to that presented by disinfectants commonly used in hospitals, such as povidone-iodine and chloroxylenol.
Antifungal properties of clove oil (Eugenia caryophylata) in sugar solution  [cached]
Nú?ez Lidia,D'Aquino Miguel,Chirife Jorge
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2001,
Abstract: The effect of temperature, concentration and contact time on the fungicidal effect of clove oleoresin dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution at 21 and 37oC, and clove oleoresin at 0.2 to 0.8% (v/v) was studied. The test microorganisms were Candida albicans, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fungicidal effect was enhanced at 37oC; at this temperature short contact times (e.g. 1 min.) were enough to eliminate a microbial inoculum of 10(6) c.f.u./ml of C. albicans. Although clove oleoresin caused important lethal effect, P. citrinum and A. niger were more resistant. After 60 minutes, clove oleoresin dispersed (0.4% v/v) in concentrated sugar solution caused a 99.6% reduction of the initial population (10(6) c.f.u./ml) of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fungicidal activity of clove-sugar on C. albicans, after 2 min contact, was similar to that presented by disinfectants commonly used in hospitals, such as povidone-iodine and chloroxylenol.
Triphala A Reputed Herbal Formulation  [cached]
H.N.Shivaprasad,S.Mohan,M.D.Kharya,A.C.Rana
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: Triphala is regarded as an important rasayana in Ayurvedic medicine. Medicines of the rasayana group are believed to promote health, immunity, and longevity. According to Ayurveda, they strengthen all tissues of the body, prevent aging, promote intellect, and prevent disease.1The recipe for this traditional herbal supplement dates back to thousands ofyears and is referred in the traditional Indian texts the Charak and SushrutSamhitas (1500 B.C.) Triphala is considered a ‘tridoshic rasayan’having balancing and rejuvenating effects on the three constitutional elementsthat govern human life: Vata which regulates the nervous system, Pitta whichmaintains metabolic processes, and Kapha which supports structural integrity.2Triphala is used in Ayurvedic medicine in the treatment of a variety of conditions and also forms part of many other Ayurvedic formulations. Conditions for which Triphala is employed include headache, dyspepsia, constipation, liver conditions, ascites, and leucorrhoea. It is also used as a blood purifier and a purgative and to improve the mental faculties and is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic, hypoglycemic, and anti-aging properties.1; 3-6TERMINALIA CHEBULA
Mycobiota of Commercially Available Triphala Powder: A Well Known Dietary Supplement of Indian System of Medicine  [PDF]
Sushil Sharma,Madhu Gupta,Rekha Bhadauria
Journal of Mycology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/836036
Abstract: Sixty samples, categorized on the basis of manufacturers, were analyzed during the study. A total of 16 fungal species, belonging to 7 different genera, were isolated from the collected samples. Aspergillus was recorded as the most dominant genus with 9 species, namely, A. niger, A. carbonarius, A. luchuensis, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. terreus, A. ochraceous, and A. wentii. A. niger was the most predominant species with frequency of occurrence of 63.33%. A large variation in fungal load and diversity was observed among the samples of different manufacturing categories. The percent moisture content and pH of samples were directly related to the extent of contamination. Samples with low pH and high moisture content were more contaminated. The higher incidence of A. niger (74.36%) was observed among the triphala powder of all manufacturing categories. Detection of ochratoxin producing fungi in triphala powder may pose a serious risk of ochratoxin production. Thus, there is an urgent need to enforce quality standards and regulation to minimize the fungal contamination to the globally expectable limit. 1. Introduction Triphala powder is a world widely used herbal formulation of Indian system of medicine. It is easily available in the global market as a dietary supplement. It is a powdered mixture of shade dried fruit pulp of three important myrobalans, that is, Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellerica Roxb., and Terminalia chebula Retz. in equal proportion. It is considered as an important rejuvenating formulation in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The recipe for this formulation is described in the ancient books on Ayurveda (most prevalent Indian system of medicine), the “Charak Samhita” and “Susruta Samhita” (ancient Ayurvedic literature), which date back to 1500 BC [1]. A popular folk saying in India is “No mother? Do not worry so long as you have triphala.” This means triphala can care for the internal organs of the body as a mother cares for her children. It is also mild, nonhabit forming, the safest, and most strengthening laxative and purgative formulation, hence recommended for all age groups. Triphala encompasses the phytochemical constituents of all the three ingredients. Tannins, phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid have been reported as major phytochemical constituents from this formulation [2, 3]. Ayurvedic doctors and herbal practitioners recommend this formulation for the treatment of the constipation, weight loss [4], enhancement of intelligence, strength, youth, luster, sweetness of voice, and vigor [1]. However,
Classification of Churn and non Churn Customers in Telecommunication Companies  [cached]
Tarik
International Journal of Biometric and Bioinformatics , 2009,
Abstract: Telecommunication is very important as it serves various activities, services of electronic systems to transmit messages via physical cables, telephones, or cell phones. The two main factors that affect the growth of telecommunications are the rapid growth of modern technology and the market demand and its competition. These two factors in return, create new technologies and products, which open a series of options and offers to customers, in order to satisfy their needs and requirements. However, one crucial problem that commercial companies in general and telecommunication in particular, suffer from is a loss of valuable customers to competitors; this is called customer churn prediction. In this paper, the dynamic training technique is introduced. The dynamic training is used to improve the prediction of performance. This technique is based on two ANN network configurations to minimise the total error of the network to predict two different classes; names churn and non-customers.
Triphala: The Thai traditional herbal formulation for cancer treatment
Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich,Kanjana Jaijoi,Seewaboon Sireeratawong
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: Nowadays, Thai herbal plants are widely accepted in alternative medicine for treatment patients suffering deleterious diseases such as cancer. Having a variety of indications, several herbal formulas including Triphala have been routinely used as health tonic in Thai traditional and Ayurvedic medicines. The formulation of Triphala is a mixture of fruits of three plants: Phyllanthus emblica Linn., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb., all of which were reported to inhibit the growth and induce the death of cancer cells effectively. Therefore, anticancer activities inevitably turn out to be one of the essential properties of Triphala formula as well. It is likely that a number of active compounds in the formula, especially tannins, are the key agents that induce the apoptotic cell death via free radical production in cancer cells. On the other hand, all three fruits of these plants also contain high levels of antioxidants, capable of protecting normal cells from any free radical-mediated injuries effectively. Thus, the paradoxical role of Triphala is cell-type specific and becomes an advantage for usage of this formulation. Furthermore, Triphala has high potentials for inhibition and prevention of mutagenesis and metastasis of cancer cells. Finally, studies in the mechanism of action of Triphala and the product development as well as safety evaluation of the standard herbal extract are definitely required for future pharmacological applications of Triphala as anticancer agents for cancer therapy.
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