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The influence of ripening process on trapist cheese abatement  [cached]
Slavko Kirin
Mljekarstvo , 2002,
Abstract: In this paper the influence of ripening process on Trapist cheeseabatement, taken into account on cheese yield calculation, was investigated. Three different ripening processes were investigated: ripening process with rind washing and without protecting coating application, ripening process with protecting coating application and cheese ripening in plastic shrinkable pouch. The highest abatement was found in the case of cheese ripening on traditional way i.e. without protecting coating applied and with rind washing during ripening period. Slightly lower abatement value showed cheeses with protecting coating applied, while the negligible abatement was noticed in cheese packaged into a pouch. The highest abatement values were noticed during the first 10 days of cheese ripening process with and without protective coating applied. After that time the steady state of abatement value was reached. In this case slightly higher values were obtained in the case of cheeses with protective coating. It is evident that the highest influence on abatement value is during the first phase of Trapist cheese ripening process.
Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae
Nusantara Bioscience , 2010,
Abstract: Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC), and time (7 days, 14 days). The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT) at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis), Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.
Ripening of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara) Cheese Manufactured from Raw or Pasteurized Milk: Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on the Physicochemical Properties  [PDF]
Mohamed O. E. Altahir,Elgasim A. Elgasim,Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed
International Journal of Food Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/698263
Abstract: The objective of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of heat treatment (raw or pasteurized milk), ripening in salted whey (SW) and storage period for up to 3 months on the physicochemical properties of Sudanese braided cheese (SBC). Braided cheeses were manufactured from raw (BCRM) and pasteurized (BCPM) milk and ripened in SW (0%, 5%, and 10% salt) for up to 90 days. All the treatments significantly ( ) affected the physicochemical characteristics of SBC. The total solid, protein, and fat contents of BCRM or BCPM decreased ( ), whereas their TA, SN, and salt contents increased significantly ( ) as storage period and the salt level of the whey were elevated. Both FRI and SRI of BCRM and BCPM increased with the increase in storage period and the salt level of the whey. For SN, FRI, SRI, pH, and moisture contents the magnitude of the change was more pronounced in BCRM than in BCPM, while for protein, fat, salt, and TS contents, the opposite was true; that is, the magnitude of the change was more pronounced in BCPM than in BCRM. Further studies are required to standardize muddaffara cheese manufacturing procedure particularly in rural areas. 1. Introduction Cheese is a dairy product that has played a key role in human nutrition for centuries. It is the most popular dairy product in Sudan. Among cheese varieties available on the market, braided cheese is gaining popularity and became second to the white soft cheese (Gibna Bayda) as far as per capita consumption is concerned. The ripening process of cheese is very complex and involves microbiological [1] and biochemical [2–5] changes to the curd resulting in the flavor and texture characteristic of the particular variety. The ripening process of cheese is influenced by the ripening conditions like salt concentration and ripening duration. Salting was probably the most common and reliable traditional method used in combination with lactic acid fermentation for the production and preservation of cheese [6]. It was achieved by adding salt to milk before fermentation, sprinkling of dry salt on the surface of the cheese after moulding, and/or dipping the cheese in brine (pickling). The concentration and distribution of salt in cheese mass are important parameters affecting its quality and acceptability [7]. The low salt cooked cheese is more acceptable and has a low microbial count than low salt uncooked cheese [8]. Sodium chloride influences cheese ripening principally through its effect on water activity, control various enzyme activities in cheese, synergies of the curd, and physical changes in
Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during the Ripening Process of Different Croatian Cheese Types Derived from Raw Ewe's Milk Cheeses  [PDF]
Mirna Mrkonji? Fuka, Stefanie Wallisch, Marion Engel, Gerhard Welzl, Jasmina Havranek, Michael Schloter
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080734
Abstract: Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a large extend, also at the late time points of cheese ripening.
The influence of ripening process on moisture in fat-free matter and fat content of the Trappist cheese  [cached]
Slavko Kirin
Mljekarstvo , 2001,
Abstract: In this paper the influence of ripening proces on moisture in fat-freematter and fat content of Trappist cheese has been investigated. In dairy company (Lura, Bjelovar) the natural ripening process of rind Trappist cheese occurs. Afterwards, the cheese is packaged into shrinkable plastic pouch and the rindless cheese is produced. The obtained results are statistically processed. The above mentioned ripening process has a significant influence on moisture content of the fat-free matter and is 5.34 % higher for the Trappist cheese in plastic pouch in comparison to rind Trappist cheese, while the fat content is 6.13 higher for the rind Trappist cheese.
Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese  [cached]
Ambra Rita Di Rosa,Biagina Billone,Domenico Carminati,Paolo Girgenti
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.450
Abstract: Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30), high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20), Lattococci (7.10), and Enterococci (7.00), whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91), Escherichia coli (3.30), and Staphylococcus (3.89) were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.
Identification of Staphylococcus spp. isolated during the ripening process of a traditional minas cheese
Borelli, B.M.;Lacerda, I.C.A.;Brand?o, L.R.;Vianna, C.R.;Ferreira, M.C.;Gomes, F.C.O.;Carmo, L.S.;Heneine, L.G.D.;Rosa, C.A.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352011000200028
Abstract: the population dynamics of staphylococcus spp. was studied during the ripening of canastra minas cheese at three farms located in the state of minas gerais, brazil. the presence of coagulase (coa), thermonuclease (nuc), and enterotoxin (sea, seb, sec, and sed) genes was investigated in staphylococcus strains isolated during the 60-day cheese-ripening period. the presence of the staphylococcal enterotoxins a, c, and d was also investigated in the cheese samples. cheese samples that were matured for 0, 7, 15, 30, and 45 days presented staphylococci counts from 103 to 108cfu/g. all isolates considered coagulase-positive by physiological tests had the coa gene. however, no association was observed between the results obtained with biochemical tests and those obtained by pcr using gene-specific primers for coagulase-negative strains. coagulase and thermonuclease genes occurred simultaneously in 41.3% of staphylococcus spp. tested. none of the investigated staphylococcus strains expressed enterotoxins sea, seb, sec, and sed. enterotoxins a, c, and d were not detected in any of the cheese samples.
A Temporal -omic Study of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T Adaptation Strategies in Conditions Mimicking Cheese Ripening in the Cold  [PDF]
Marion Dalmasso, Julie Aubert, Valérie Briard-Bion, Victoria Chuat, Stéphanie-Marie Deutsch, Sergine Even, Hélène Falentin, Gwéna?l Jan, Julien Jardin, Marie-Bernadette Maillard, Sandrine Parayre, Michel Piot, Jarna Tanskanen, Anne Thierry
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029083
Abstract: Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a ripening culture in Swiss cheese manufacture. It grows when cheeses are ripened in a warm room (about 24°C). Cheeses with an acceptable eye formation level are transferred to a cold room (about 4°C), inducing a marked slowdown of propionic fermentation, but P. freudenreichii remains active in the cold. To investigate the P. freudenreichii strategies of adaptation and survival in the cold, we performed the first global gene expression profile for this species. The time-course transcriptomic response of P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T strain was analyzed at five times of incubation, during growth at 30°C then for 9 days at 4°C, under conditions preventing nutrient starvation. Gene expression was also confirmed by RT-qPCR for 28 genes. In addition, proteomic experiments were carried out and the main metabolites were quantified. Microarray analysis revealed that 565 genes (25% of the protein-coding sequences of P. freudenreichii genome) were differentially expressed during transition from 30°C to 4°C (P<0.05 and |fold change|>1). At 4°C, a general slowing down was observed for genes implicated in the cell machinery. On the contrary, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T strain over-expressed genes involved in lactate, alanine and serine conversion to pyruvate, in gluconeogenesis, and in glycogen synthesis. Interestingly, the expression of different genes involved in the formation of important cheese flavor compounds, remained unchanged at 4°C. This could explain the contribution of P. freudenreichii to cheese ripening even in the cold. In conclusion, P. freudenreichii remains metabolically active at 4°C and induces pathways to maintain its long-term survival.
Colour traits in the evaluation of the ripening period of Asiago cheese  [cached]
Giorgio Marchesini,Stefania Balzan,Severino Segato,Enrico Novelli
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.412
Abstract: The research was carried out on Asiago d’Allevo cheese samples produced in a single farm located in the Altopiano dei Sette Comuni (above 1000m a.s.l.). After 6-12-18 and 36 months of ripening, samples were analyzed for quality traits, in order to evaluate the effect of ripening on colour and gross composition. As expected crude protein and fat significantly increased through the considered period. Ripening led to a significant decrease of L*, a* and b* values. Lightness showed a negative relationship with crude protein, meanwhile a* and b* were both negatively related to fat content. Concerning L*, the trend could be explained by water loss and N-soluble compounds concentration, which could alter protein matrix. a* and b* reduction was probably related to degradation processes such as lipolysis, which seemed to be extensive in hard and long ripened cheese. Ripening affected significantly the light reflectance at all λ with green cheese having the higher values.
Effect of period of milk production and ripening on quality traits of Asiago cheese
S. Segato,S. Balzan,C. A. Elia,L. Lignitto
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.469
Abstract: After 6 and 12 months of ripening, samples of Asiago d’Allevo were analyzed for quality traits. Cheeses were produced during 3 periods using milk from cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR, May) or grazing on alpine pasture (AG) in early (July) and late (Sept.) summer. Data were submitted to ANOVA considering ripening, milk production period and farm as main effects, and whole cheese weight as covariate. During ripening, pH of AGcheese was significantly lower than that of TMR-cheese; crude fat and protein significantly increased. According to period, July-samples showed the significantly lowest value of dry matter (DM), maybe due to a lower crude fat content; however, variability in skimming method could have altered proximate composition. No texture differences were found, although increasing weight of whole cheese significantly reduced max shear force as result of a lower DM content. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) significantly decreased during ripening. AG feeding system caused a lower L* and higher b* than TMR one, probably as a consequence of a different amount of milk pigments. Cheese varied also within AG season: Sept.-samples showed the lowest L* value and the highest b*.
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