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Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A
Jobin Mathew, Savitha Balakrishnan, Sherin Antony, Pretty Abraham, CS Paulose
Journal of Biomedical Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-25
Abstract: In the present study, alterations of the general GABA, GABAA and GABAB receptors in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri were investigated.Scatchard analysis of [3H]GABA, [3H]bicuculline and [3H]baclofen in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in Bmax (P < 0.001) compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of GABA receptor subunits such as GABAA?1, GABAAγ, GABAAδ, GABAB and GAD where down regulated (P < 0.001) in epileptic rats. GABAA?5 subunit and Cyclic AMP responsible element binding protein were up regulated. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in epileptic rats. Epileptic rats have deficit in radial arm and Y maze performance.Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses epilepsy associated changes to near control suggesting that decreased GABA receptors in the cerebral cortex have an important role in epileptic occurrence; Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have therapeutic application in epilepsy management.GABA is formed within GABAergic axon terminals and released into the synapse, where it acts at one of two types of receptor GABAA which controls chloride entry into the cell, and GABAB, which increases potassium conductance, decreases calcium entry, and inhibits the presynaptic release of other neurotransmitters [1,2]. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is considered the most common epileptic syndrome and it is estimated that approximately 80% of patients with partial seizures have temporal lobe epilepsy [3]. The effect of pilocarpine treatment, which is characterized by generalized convulsive status epilepticus in rodents, well represents the characteristic neuropathological findings in the brain regions of the patients with TLE epilepsy [4]. Imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in key brain areas are implicated in the pathophysiology of TLE, in which there is a decrease in the GABA mediated inhibition. TLE seizures
Antimicrobial activity of various fractions of ethanol extract of Bacopa monnieri linn. aerial parts  [cached]
Ghosh T,Maity T,Bose A,Dash G
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of ethanol extract of Bacopa monnieri Linn. aerial parts were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities by both zone of inhibition study and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more potent than the n-butanol fraction, though both of them were endowed with antimicrobial activity. The present study reveals the potential usefulness of B. monnieri aerial parts in the treatment of various pathogenic diseases as mentioned in the Ayurvedic literature.
Chemopreventive Action of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) Hydromethanolic Extract on DMBA- Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Swiss Albino Mice  [PDF]
Shiki Vishnoi,& R. C. Agarwa
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry , 2013,
Abstract: Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) (Family: Scrophulariaceae), has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for centuries. In the present study, Cancer Chemopreventive property of B. monnieri was evaluated on 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice (6-7 weeks old). A single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (104 μg/100 μl of acetone), followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil (1% in 100 μl acetone two times in a week) and continued till the end of the experiment (After 16 weeks) exhibited 100% tumor incidence. In contrast, mice topically treated on the shaven dorsal side with the Bacopa monnieri Hydromethanolic extract (BMH) (dose 120 mg/kg body wt.) & (dose 240mg/kg body wt.) at one hour before each application of 1% Croton oil two times in a week., a significant reduction in the values of tumor incidence, average number of tumors per tumor bearing mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse were observed. Thus results showed that BMH possesses a Chemopreventive activity and provide evidences for its traditional usage in clinical studies.
Evaluation of genetic potential of Bacopa monnieri extract in Mouse bone marrow cells by chromosomal analysis test  [PDF]
Shilki Vishnoi,R.C.Agarwal
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies , 2013,
Abstract: Herbs have always been used as a common source of medicines, the Bacopa monnieri is an important herb used in Aruveda as a traditional medicinal system of India. In the present investigations, the genotoxic potential of Bacopa monnieri Hydromethanolic extract (BMH) was evaluated employing Chromosomal analysis assay invivo. BMH was administered to Swiss Albino mice as i.p. dose of 80mg/kg, 160mg/kg, 240mg/kg body wt., 24 hours prior the administration of cyclophosphamide (CP) (positive control) at the dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. A dose-dependent, significant decrease in chromosome aberration was observed with respect to control. Result suggested that BMHhave a preventive potential against CP induced chromosomal aberration in Swiss albino mouse bone marrow cells at the dose tested. Therefore seems to have a preventive potential against Chromosomal aberrations in Swiss Albinomouse bone marrow cells.
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN.  [PDF]
Monic Shah et al
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Family- Scrophularaceae. The total Phenolic content was determined using folin ciocalteau method while the total flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride method. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Reducing power assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The hydroalcoholic extract had more phenol concentration (116.1 mg/g of extract) when compared to aqueous extract (58 mg/g of extract). The flavonoid content was more in hydroalcoholic extract (242.6 mg/g of extract) when compared to that of aqueous extract (202.8 mg/g of extract). The reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. The nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was also concentration dependent with IC50 value being 254.70 μg/ml , 934.06 μg/ml and 510.60 μg/ml respectively for Aqueous extract and 169.22 μg/ml, 495.83 μg/ml, 488 μg/ml respectively for hydroalcoholic extract. The order of the antioxidant potency of the whole plant extract is Hydroalcoholic >> aqueous. The results clearly indicate that aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri has anti oxidant property which may be due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids.
ASSESSMENT OF ANALGESIC, ANTIDIARRHOEAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE WHOLE PLANT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN  [PDF]
Siraj Md. Afjalus,Newton Chakma,Mahmudur Rahman,Malik Salahuddin
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The ethanol extract of the whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated for its possible analgesic, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities in animal models. The extract produced significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice at the oral dose of 250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg body weight (p<0.001) comparable to the standard drug Diclofenac sodium at the dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight. The extract showed antidiarrhoeal activity on castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice; it increased mean latent period and decreased the frequency of defecation significantly at the oral dose of 500 mg/kg body weight comparable to the standard drug Loperamide at the dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight. The crude extract produced the most prominent cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 = 26.30 μg/ml).
Antidiabetic and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Aerial Parts: A Possible Mechanism of Action
Tirtha Ghosh,Tapan Kumar Maity,Pinaki Sengupta,Deepak Kumar Dash
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2008,
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism that affects nearly 10% of the population every year. The treatment of diabetes mellitus has been confined to use of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin, the former being reported to possess serious side effects. This leads to increasing demand for herbal products with antidiabetic factor with little side effects. This article describes the antihyperglycaemic activity, in vivo antioxidant potential, effect on glycosylation of hemoglobin and in-vitro peripheral utilisation of glucose of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Bacopa monnieri. The extract produced significant decrease in the blood glucose level when compared with the controls in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats both in the single dose as well as multiple dose experiment at the tested dose level and is comparable with the standard drug glibenclamide. It was observed that the ethanolic extract reversed the weight loss of the diabetic rats and they returned to near normal. The extract prevented significant elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin in vitro, with IC50 value being 11.25 μg/ml that is comparable with the reference drug α-tocopherol. Administration of the exract and glibenclamide significantly decreased the levels of TBARS, increased the content of GSH and increased the activity of SOD and CAT in liver of diabetic rats. The extract increased peripheral glucose utilisation in the diaphragm of diabetic rats in vitro, which is comparable with the action of insulin. Thus, the extract might have insulin like activity and the antihyperglycemic effect of the extract might be due to an increase in peripheral glucose consumption as well as protection against oxidative damage in alloxanised diabetes.
Assessment of the effect of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. extract on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells
De, Kakali;Chandra, Susmita;Misra, Mridula;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2009000500003
Abstract: bacopa monnieri (l.) wettst. (bm), a traditional ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. bm extract have been extensively investigated by several authors for their neuropharmacological effects. in nuclear medicine, red blood cells (rbc) labeled with technetium-99m (99mtc) have several clinical applications. however, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labeling of rbc with 99mtc. as bacopa monnieri is extensively used in medicine, we evaluated its influence on the labeling of rbc and plasma proteins using technetium-99m (99mtc). this labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and usually stannous chloride is used. blood was incubated with bm extracts. stannous chloride solution and 99mtc were added. blood was centrifuged and plasma (p) and blood cells (bc) were isolated. samples of p or bc were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble fraction (if) and soluble fraction (sf) were separated. the percentage of radioactivity (%ati) in bc, if-bc and if-p were calculated. the %ati significantly decreased on bc from 95.53±0.45 to 35.41±0.44, on if-p from 80.20±1.16 to 7.40±0.69 and on if-bc from 73.31±1.76 to 21.26±1.40. the morphology study of rbc revealed important morphological alterations due to treatment with bm extracts. we suggest that the bm extract effect could be explained by an inhibition of the stannous and pertechnetate ions or oxidation of the stannous ion or by damages induced in the plasma membrane.
Potential Antimicrobial Activity of Various Extracts of Bacopa monnieri (Linn.)  [PDF]
P. Sampathkumar,B. Dheeba,V. Vidhyasagar,T. Arulprakash
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2008,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of ethanolic, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Bacopa monnieri (L.). The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate tested for the Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Diethyl ether extracts of Bacopa monnieri showed an antibacterial activity against gram positive and ethyl acetate extract was active against gram negative organism. The extract of diethyl ether having potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at higher concentrations (300 μg mL-1). Ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri has more antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Diethyl ether extract and Ethyl acetate extract has slight antifungal activity but have broad spectrum of antibacterial effect against the entire tested organisms, whereas ethanolic extract showed marked inhibitory activity against fungal species. Aqueous extract of the different concentration showed no inhibitory effects on the tested microorganisms due to loss of some active compounds during extraction processes of the sample.
Effect of Bacopa monnieri on Cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease patients  [cached]
Shishir Goswami,Anand Saoji,Navneet Kumar,Vijay Thawani
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative condition mostly affecting the elderly. It significantly affects the patient’s quality of life. So far there is no proven effective therapeutic intervention for such patients. Bacopa monnieri is an indigenous plant which is found throughout India. It has been referred in Ayurveda since centuries as a “Medhya Rasayan” (nootropic). Studies have shown various effects of Bacopa monnieri among which is its inhibitory effect on the enzyme cholinesterase. This can result in decrease in the breakdown of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter whose decreased levels are seen in Alzheimer’s disease.Aims & Objectives: We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of Bacopa monnieri on cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease patients.Study Design: This was an open label, prospective, uncontrolled, non-randomized trial. Study population included all newly diagnosed patients of Alzheimer’s disease in the Psychiatry Outdoor Patient Department between 60-65 years of age. Baseline scores on Mini Mental State Examination Scale (MMSES) were recorded for all patients. Subsequently all patients took 300 mg of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract (Bacognize ) orally twice a day for 6 months. MMSES scores were recorded again after the completion of study drug.Results: Mean age of 39 patients who completed the study was 65.23 years. Study patients showed statistically significant improvements in various components of MMSES including orientation of time, place & person, attention and in their language component in terms of reading, writing & comprehension at the end of trial. The patients involved in this trial also reported improvement in their quality of life, and decrease in the irritability and insomnia.Conclusion: The results of our clinical trial show that Bacopa monnieri standardized extract (Bacognize 300 mg twice a day orally) for 6 months results in improvement in some aspects of cognitive functions in geriatric patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. While the above results are encouraging given the improvement in cognitive functions in geriatric Alzheimer’s disease patients, further studies that include a control group are required to validate these results.
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