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Suresh Subramanian,Suriyavathana Vedanarayanan
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The ethanolic extract of leaves from Anisomeles malabarica was tested for in vitro antioxidant using various free radical scavenging assays, such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), chelating ability, reducing power, 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS), hydroxy radical, nitric oxide, superoxide radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were performed. All the concentrations of leaves extract showed effective free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential. The various antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, EDTA, mannitol and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Thus, the results obtained in the present study indicate that A.malabarica extract have more potential in vitro antioxidants and nutritional value, thereby this plant can be recommended as a potential natural economical viable and eco-friendly source and can be applied for land reclamation under agricultural sector in future.
Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice
Luciana Cristina Borges Fernandes,Carlos Campos Camara,Benito Soto-Blanco
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/860153
Abstract: Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg) in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s) and their mechanism(s) of action.
Phytochemical and Anticonvulsant Properties of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae), Plant Used in Burkina Folk Medicine to Treat Epilepsy and Convulsions  [cached]
A. Konate,W.R. Sawadogo,F. Dubruc,O. Caillard
British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2012,
Abstract: Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is claimed in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso to be useful in the treatment of epilepsy. The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the aqueous extracts of its root bark. The phytochemical analysis was performed using standard tests according to the Ciulei method. The acute toxicity was carried out in rats and the effect of aqueous extract on the pilocarpine and picrotoxin induced seizure in mice and rats were investigated by curative and preventive modes. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, terpinoids and saponins in the aqueous extract of Annona senegalensis root bark. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) was found to be more than 3000 mg/kg in rats. The curative treatment induced a significant decrease of the intensity of the seizure caused by peritoneal injection of pilocarpine in the treated mice when compared to the negative controls. Time put to inhibit 50 % of the seizures by the plant extract was 16 min at the dose of 150 mg/kg against 14 min for standard diazepam (2 mg/kg). In preventive mode, the plant extract prolonged the latency of convulsions. These results suggest that the root bark of Annona senegalensis may possess anticonvulsant properties in rodents.
Amrutia Jay N,Lala Minaxi,Srinivasa U.,Shabaraya A. R.
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Moringa oleifera which is commonly known as drumstick tree has been used for its nutrition value and extensively used as a CNS depressant traditionally. Present work has been carried out to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsions at different dose level (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg i.p.). Diazepam and phenytoin (5mg/kg i.p. and 25mg/kg i.p., respectively) were used as a reference standard. At both the doses it significantly (P < 0.0001) delayed the onset of clonic seizures in PTZ induced convulsions and significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) duration of hind limb extension in MES test. The phytochemical investigation of plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins as major constituents. The data obtained indicates that methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves may help to control grand mal and petit mal epilepsy.
A. Suvarchala Kiranmai, K. Hemamalini*, and Uma Vasireddy
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The herbal preparation of the leaves of Solanum pubescens Pers (Solanaceae) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of Epilepsy and febrile convulsions. A pilot study has confirmed the potency of the leaf of Solanum pubescens in the control of seizure in mice. The current study was aimed to identify the active phytochemical responsible for the activity. Results indicated that methanolic extract of Solanum pubescens at 300 mg/kg exhibited a significant P<0.05 delay in the latency of myoclonic spasms and tonic-clonic phase of seizure induced by PTZ, and also decreased the latency and increased the duration of phenobarbitone induced sleeping time. While the phytochemical studies showed the presence of alkaloids, resins, glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, fats and oils, flavonoids and terpenoids. The results suggested that the extract possessed anticonvulsant activity and central depressant effects which may be attributable to the flavonoids.
The Decoction of Leaves of Phyllanthus discoideus Possesses Anticonvulsant and Sedative Properties in Mice  [PDF]
E. Ngo Bum,M.M. Pelanken,N. Njikam,E. Talla
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to scientifically look for sedative and anticonvulsant properties of the decoction of Phyllanthus discoideus Baill (P. discoideus) in mice. The in vivo models of epilepsy were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant properties of the plant. These models were maximal electroshock-, N-methyl-D-aspartate-, pentylenetetrazol-, isonicotinic hydrazide- acid and strychnine- induced convulsions or turning behavior in mice. The potentiation of sleep induced by diazepam in mice was used for the determination of the sedative properties. Four doses of the plant in the decoction were used: 17.1, 42.7, 85.5 and 171 mg kg-1. The decoction of the leaves of P. discoideus strongly increased the total sleep time (p<0.001) induced by diazepam and precipitated its onset (p<0.001). The decoction also protected mice against maximal electroshock- (p<0.001), pentylenetetrazol- (p<0.001), strychnine- (p<0.001) and N-methyl-D-aspartate- induced seizures or turning behavior (p<0.001). Finally, the decoction increased the latency to the onset of seizure in isonicotinic hydrazide acid test (p<0.001). In conclusion the decoction of P. discoideus posses anticonvulsant and sedative properties in mice. The presence of these properties could explain its use in traditional medicine in Cameroon in the treatment of insomnia and epilepsy.
Vivek K. Baranwal,R. Irchhaiya,Shobhit Singh
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Anisomeles indica commonly known as ‘Indian Catmint’ is native to Southeast Asia and is distributed throughout India, China, Japan and southwards from Malaysia to Australia. The plant is used traditionally as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and in skin problems such as snakebites. Medicinally it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti HIV, anti Helicobacter pylori and anticancer activity. It is used in chronic rheumatism. Further studies reveal the presence of various phytochemical constituents mainly triterpenes, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, flavones, apigenin and ovatodiolides etc. These studies reveal that Anisomeles indica is a source of medicinally active compounds and have various pharmacological effects; hence, this drug encourage finding its new therapeutic uses.
Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Vitex nigundo in Swiss Albino Rats  [PDF]
Dr.Jayasree.T,Miss Arpitha.T,DR.Kavitha.R,Dr.Kishan.PV
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research , 2012,
Abstract: Vitex-negundo Linn (Verbenaceae), a large aromatic shrub with typical five foliolate leaves pattern has been claimed to possess anticonsulvant activity apart from many medicinal properties. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) in albino rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanol leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg and 2000mg/kg p.o ) in the experimental model and the effects were compared with Diphenylhydantoin in MES method as standard and normal saline as control. The Vitex-negundo in the doses 1000 mg/kg has significant effect and 2000mg/kg p.o showed protection against MES to a highly significant extent. Test drug in the dose (1000 mg/kg, po) showed 60% protection in clonic seizures. It also decreased number and duration of convulsions significantly.These findings suggested that Vitex-negundo possesses anticonvulsant activity against MES induced convulsions. Vitex-negundo may be useful as an adjuvant therapy along with standard anticonvulsants and can possibly lower the requirement of Diphenylhydantoin and other anti convulsant drugs, Ethanol leaf extract of vitex ningundo significantly (P<0.01) decreased the duration of tonic extensor phase in MES-induced seizures. TheVitex-negundo extract showed a maximum inhibition (80% mortality) against MES-induced seizures.Thus, it has been concluded that ethanolic extract of Vitex-negundo possesses anti-epileptic activity.
Anxiolytic and Anticonvulsant Effects on Mice of Flavonoids, Linalool, and -Tocopherol Presents in the Extract of Leaves of Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae)
Edvaldo Rodrigues de Almeida,Krissia Rayane de Oliveira Rafael,Geraldo Bosco Lindoso Couto,Ana Beatriz Matos Ishigami
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/274740
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Cissus sicyoides L. (CS) (Vitaceae) on male and female mice using several behavioral assays. Groups of males and females treated via intraperitoneal (IP) with doses of 300, 600, and 1000 mg/kg of the extract showed significant action in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), time spent in the open arms, and number of entries in the open arms. The board-hole test also showed a significant increase in the time spent in head-dipping and in marble-burying test of the number of marbles buried. The same treatment increased the duration of sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital and also showed a significant increase in protection against pentylenotetrazole-induced convulsions. These results indicate an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant-like action from C. sicyoides L. extract on mice, probably due to the action of flavonoid(s), Linalool, and -tocopherol present in the C. sicyoides leaves.
Anticonvulsant and Sedative Activity of Leaves of Senna spectabilis in Mice  [PDF]
E.N. Bum,G.N. Nkantchoua,N. Njikam,G.S. Taiwe
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Senna spectabilis DC. is a small tree, 3 to 5 m, found in tropical areas in Africa, Asia, Australia, Latino and South America. It is used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat many diseases (constipation, insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, etc.). Therefore, the aim of this study was to look scientifically for the anticonvulsant and sedative properties of S. spectabilis. In vivo animal models of epilepsy (Maximal Electroshock (MES), N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA), Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and Strychnine (STR) induced convulsions or turning behavior) and insomnia (diazepam-induced sleep) were used. Mice were divided in six groups: one negative control group, one positive control group and four groups treated with the plant extract, (except for diazepam-induced sleep test). Four doses of the ethanolic extract were used: 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Senna spectabilis strongly increased the total sleep time induced by diazepam (p<0.001). It also protected mice against Maximal Electroshock (MES) (p<0.01), pentylenetetrazol (p<0.001), picrotoxin (p<0.01) strychnine (p<0.01) and n-methyl-d-aspartate (p<0.001)-induced seizures and turning behavior and increased the latency to the onset of seizure in Isonicotinic Hydrazide Acid (INH) test (p<0.01). The results lead to the conclusion that the extract of Senna spectabilis possesses anticonvulsant and sedative properties in mice and could explain its used in traditional medicine in Africa, in the treatment of insomnia and epilepsy.
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