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Assessment of microbial contamination of groundwater in upper Limphasa River catchment, located in a rural area of northern Malawi
T Kanyerere, J Levy, Y Xu, J Saka
Water SA , 2012,
Abstract: In rural Africa, scientific evidence is often lacking to guide the scaling-up of groundwater as the safest source of potable water. An investigation was conducted in the Upper Limphasa Catchment in northern Malawi to determine the safety of groundwater sources and to explore factors influencing water quality. Water samples from 17 boreholes, 6 hand-dug wells and 90 households were analysed for selected parameters. Portable incubators, multi-parameter probe and colorimetric standard methods were used for field measurements, and standard methods were used for laboratory water analysis. Results were compared to specified guidelines of the World Health Organization and Malawi Bureau of Standards to establish the potability of water. Statistical results using non-parametric t-tests indicated that the wells were more contaminated with E. coli bacteria than boreholes (p=6.2x10-6), suggesting non-consideration of local hydrogeologic factors in groundwater development. Water from boreholes that tested negative for pathogens at source tested positive at some households (total coliform: p=0.0042 and E. coli p=7.8x10-7) suggesting the effect of handling practices. Water from wells that was not treated with chlorine showed higher levels of E. coli than treated water from the same sources, confirming the effectiveness of chlorine in reducing pathogenic bacteria in households’ stored drinking-water, reinforcing the scientific basis for scaling up chlorine as effective disinfectant. However, this study demonstrated that chlorine failed to effectively eliminate all pathogens in drinking water. As a case study in tropical rural environments in Africa, these findings on the suitability of using chlorine as disinfectant and on factors explaining groundwater contamination, though provisional, provide a scientific basis for assessing cost-effectiveness and sustainability of scaling-up the use of chlorine as a curative remedy and of systematically investigating local hydrogeologic factors in order to implement measures to protect groundwater quality in poverty-prone rural communities.
Technique of travel and recreational services social tax deduction
Alla Yu. Baranova
European Researcher , 2011,
Abstract: The article examines the basic questions of travel and recreational services social tax deduction. The author analyzes the various materials illustrating the given process by the example of Russia.
Uzbek travel services industry and international comparison
Mahbuba Alieva
Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to present results of Uzbek travel companies survey focusing primarily on market research and strategy-setting while putting this in contrast to international experience in this sector. We present that many Uzbek travel companies are not used to do proper marketing research, only the biggest are. There are not rare cases of situations when management does not know how to define strategic behavior and strategy itself (as majority of companies lack long-term vision and orient themselves primarily on short run profits)
Characteristics and performance of village animal health workers and veterinary assistants in northern Malawi  [cached]
K. Hüttner,K. Leidl,F.B.D. Jere,D.U. Pfeiffer
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v71i3.706
Abstract: Fourty-two village animal health workers called keymen (KM) and 84 veterinary assistants (VA) involved in a Basic Animal Health Service (BAHS) Programme in northern Malawi were interviewed during 1998. The general characteristics and perceptions of both groups were analysed using uni- and multivariate techniques. Detailed sales and treatment patterns of six KMand 12 VAwere evaluated for the period September 1996 to August 1997. Results indicated an overall job-satisfaction for 82 % of KM and 83 % of VA. Estimated weekly involvement in livestock service delivery, particularly of KM, was 3.7 days on average. Total annual drug sales of KM and VA between 1996 and 1997 on average were equivalent to US$ 124 and US$ 218 respectively. Most livestock remedies were issued for treatment of calves, followed by adult cattle, chickens and small ruminants. The changes suggested by VA and KM in order to improve field performance focused on regular refresher training by the BAHS programme.
Essential medical laboratory services: their role in delivering equitable health care in Malawi
R J Dacombe, S B Squire, A R Ramsay, H T Banda, I Bates
Malawi Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: This paper examines the establishment of Essential Medical Laboratory Services (EMLS) and their crucial role for delivering equitable health care to the poor population of Malawi as part of the Essential Health Package. We examine each of the major areas identified for intervention (maternal health, malaria, tuberculosis and HIV) and how the EMLS has addressed these issues. We also discuss the potential for and current limitations of extending these services closer to the community. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 18 (2) 2006: pp. 77-79
Malawi\'s Health SWAp: Bringing essential services closer to the poor?
D Gwatkin, E Kataika, I Cardinal, J Kemp
Malawi Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: The Government of Malawi has committed itself to reaching the poor with effective health services. The Government agreed to implement ‘The Essential Health Package\', re-affirmed its\' commitment to provide essential health services free of charge and undertook to monitor the new health Sector Wide Approach on its performance in reaching the poor. In August 2005, five papers were commissioned by the Equity and Access Sub-group of the Ministry of Health Monitoring and Evaluation Technical Working Group. The overarching recommendation arising from these analyses is the need to bring essential services much closer to the poor– not only in geographical proximity, but also affordability, cultural acceptability, and epidemiological relevance. The call is not to change policy, but rather to ensure its more energetic and effective implementation. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 18 (1) 2006: pp. 1-4
Declining child mortality in northern Malawi despite high rates of infection with HIV
Jahn,A; Floyd,S; Crampin,AC; Mvula,H; Mwinuka,V; Mwaiyeghele,E; McGrath,N; Zaba,B; Fine,PEM; Glynn,JR;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862010001000011
Abstract: objective: to determine whether routine surveys, such as the demographic and health surveys (dhs), have underestimated child mortality in malawi. methods: rates and causes of child mortality were obtained from a continuous-registration demographic surveillance system (dss) in malawi for a population of 32 000. after initial census, births and deaths were reported by village informants and updated monthly by project enumerators. cause of death was established by verbal autopsy whenever possible. the likely impact of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection on child mortality was also estimated from antenatal clinic surveillance data. overall and age-specific mortality rates were compared with those from the 2004 malawi dhs. findings: between august 2002 and february 2006, 38 617 person-years of observation were recorded for 20 388 children aged < 15 years. there were 342 deaths. re-census data, follow-up visits at 12 months of age and the ratio of stillbirths to neonatal deaths suggested that death registration by the dss was nearly complete. infant mortality was 52.7 per 1000 live births, under-5 mortality was 84.8 per 1000 and under-15 mortality was 99.1 per 1000. one-fifth of deaths by age 15 were attributable to hiv infection. child mortality rates estimated with the dss were approximately 30% lower than those from national estimates as determined by routine surveys. conclusion: the fact that child mortality rates based on the dss were relatively low in the study population is encouraging and suggests that the low mortality rates estimated nationally are an accurate reflection of decreasing rates.
Assessment of quality of postnatal care services offered to mothers in Dedza district, Malawi  [PDF]
Lydia Kanise Chimtembo, Alfred Maluwa, Angela Chimwaza, Ellen Chirwa, Mercy Pindani
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.34046
Abstract:

This study was conducted to assess quality of postnatal care that midwives provide to women seeking postnatal services in health facilities in Dedza district, the central region ofMalawi. The study design was descriptive cross sectional and utilized quantitative data collection and analysis method to determine structural, process and outcome components of postnatal care in two facilities that offer emergency obstetric and neonatal care and five that offer basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care. All 60 midwives who were providing postnatal care during the time of study in the district were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. In addition, the midwives actual practice was observed and compared to a standard checklist on postnatal care practice which was developed by the Malawi Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results show that structure for providing postnatal counseling services was inappropriate and inadequate. Furthermore, the contents of postnatal services were below reproductive health standards because the clients were neither monitored nor examined physically on discharge. On average, all the seven facilities scored 48% on postnatal services rendered which is far below the recommended 80% according to the Reproductive Health Standards. There is a need to provide basic infrastructure in all the basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care facilities. In addition, refresher training courses for midwives in maternal and neonatal health with emphasis on postnatal care are recommended. There is also a need to restructure the maternal and neonatal health departments in the facilities so that the postnatal care units become stand-alone priority sites to improve the quality of the postnatal care services rendered.

Factors associated with milk producer's awareness and practices in relation to zoonoses in northern Malawi  [cached]
Stanly Fon Tebug
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.249-253
Abstract: Background: Many diseases are known to be naturally transmissible between vertebrate animals, including cattle and humans. Currently, much effort is being made to promote dairy farming in Malawi but there is limited information about zoonotic diseases including public awareness and practices. This study was designed to determine factors associated with dairy producer's awareness and practices with regard to zoonoses in Northern Region of Malawi. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 140 randomly selected dairy producers between January and June 2011. Level of awareness and practices with respect to zoonotic infections was evaluated using a score ranging from 0 to 11. Chi-squared test followed by a multivariable logistic model were used to assess potential factors associated farmer's awareness and practices. Results: Awareness and practice level was unsatisfactory. Significantly higher number of respondents (75.7 vs. 32.9%,x2 = 51.81, df =1, p< 0.001) had satisfactory level of awareness when compared to those who practiced preventive measures. Awareness of the existence of zoonotic infections and practices was higher in farmers who acquired animals through loan (p =0.008), farmers with above primary education (p = 0.002) and farmers with more than six years of dairy farming experience (p= 0.010). Most farmers (59.3%) received information about zoonoses through Agricultural extension services. Conclusion: Awareness and practices with respect to zoonotic infections was dependent on farmer's formal educational level, dairy farming experience and means of acquiring parent stock. Regular disease surveillance and promotion of education on the risk associated with zoonotic infections through dairy extension and medical services should result in increased awareness and efficient control of zoonoses in Malawi. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000): 249-253]
Hydrochemistry (major and trace elements) of Lake Malawi (Nyasa), Tanzanian Northern Basin: local versus global considerations
P. Branchu,L. Bergonzini,J.-P. Ambrosi,D. Cardinal
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-7-4371-2010
Abstract: This paper presents the first inventory of dissolved minor and trace element (F, Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Bi, Sr, Zn) concentrations in Lake Malawi, the second largest African lake. Sampling was carried out during 1993 dry season in the northern part of the lake. Trace metal concentrations were measured, together with Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, Alkalinity and Si, along three profiles in the lake northern extremity, in five tributaries and two on-land hydrothermal springs. Water profiles show similar elemental distributions and concentrations that are influenced by lake physical-chemical stratification. Stratification, assessed using temperature, conductivity, Si and Mn profiles, is characterised by two boundaries: the thermocline (70–90 m) and the oxicline (150–190 m). Elemental water concentrations are discussed using simple covariance analyse. Epilimnetic concentrations and distribution are also influenced by atmospheric deposition and river diving. Comparison of dissolved concentrations for potentially polluting elements with World Health Organisation Guidelines and those reported for other East African lakes shows that this reservoir is uncontaminated despite an increasing human stress. Major element behaviour is assessed through a 3 boxes model. In this model Cl and K are conservative elements whereas Si is removed from the solution by diatom productivity and sedimentation. Ca, Na, Mg and alkalinity show low reactivity. Evaporation is one of the controlling factors of lake element concentration that superimposes on the watershed control. Hydrothermal activity, not evidenced in the lake, controls the chemistry of one of the main northern tributary. Chemical comparison between Northern rivers and other tributaries characterises the geographical and geological specificity of studied northern watershed. Moreover the lake annual chemical budget shows that northern watershed generates the main elemental input to the lake, illustrating the dual importance of this area in terms of water and ionic recharge to the lake.
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