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Dairy consumption and other dietary risk factors for osteoporosis in Croatian young women  [cached]
Zvonimir ?atali?,Irena Coli? Bari?,Irena Keser
Mljekarstvo , 2008,
Abstract: Among dietary risk factors for developing osteoporosis, calcium intake in the primary prevention of osteoporosis has received much attention. The aim of this study was to determine dietary risk factors for later osteoporosis in Croatian young women (mean age 22 years), especially dairy foods consumption, a food group that is the best calcium source because of its calcium content and bioavailability. Dietary assessment methods used were Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) (n=1372) and Quantified Food Frequency Questionnaire (Q-FFQ) (n=480). Daily consumption of dairy foods reported 76.0 % subjects and 11.6 % subjects consume dairy foods less than once a month. Average daily calcium intake was 1444.4 mg, i.e. 144.4 % Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and 31.0 % of women had calcium intake less than 100 % DRI. In conclusion, dairy foods were the main source of dietary calcium in a daily diet, what shows significance of this food group in achieving adequate calcium intake in this study.
Predictors of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in young women at risk for unintended pregnancy in San Francisco
Nicholas J Moss, Cynthia C Harper, Katherine Ahrens, Katherine Scott, Susan Kao, Nancy Padian, Tina Raine, Jeffrey D Klausner
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-113
Abstract: We performed a secondary analysis using data from a previously published randomized controlled trial evaluating access to emergency contraception on reproductive health outcomes. Women aged 15 to 24 years were recruited from two Planned Parenthood clinics and two community health clinics in San Francisco. Demographic information and sexual history were obtained by interview. HSV-2 seropositivity was determined by fingerstick blood test. New pregnancies were measured by self-report, urine testing and medical chart review. Subjects were evaluated for incident HSV-2 infection and pregnancy at a 6-month follow-up appointment. Women who were pregnant or intending to become pregnant at enrolment were excluded.At enrolment 2,104 women were screened for HSV-2 and 170 (8.1%) were seropositive. Eighty-seven percent of initially seronegative women completed the study (n = 1,672) and 73 (4.4%) became HSV-2 seropositive. HSV-2 seroincidence was 7.8 cases per 100 person-years. One hundred and seventeen women (7%) became pregnant and 7 (6%) of these had a seroincident HSV-2 infection during the study. After adjustment for confounders, predictors of incident HSV-2 infection were African American race and having multiple partners in the last six months. Condom use at last sexual encounter was protective.HSV-2 seroincidence and the unintended pregnancy rate in young women were high. Providers who counsel women on contraceptive services and sexually transmitted infection prevention could play an expanded role in counselling women about HSV-2 prevention given the potential sequelae in pregnancy. The potential benefit of targeted screening and future vaccination against HSV-2 needs to be assessed in this population.Sexually active young women in the United States are exposed to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) with high frequency. There currently is no cure for HSV-2 and clinical manifestations may be controlled with periodic or long-term suppressive medical therapy. Few (10%) infect
Predictors of Inconsistent Condom Use among a Hard to Reach Population of Young Women with Multiple Sexual Partners in Peri-Urban South Africa  [PDF]
Yanga Z. Zembe, Loraine Townsend, Anna Thorson, Anna Mia Ekstr?m
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051998
Abstract: Background Evidence suggests that multiple concurrent sexual partnering may be a key driver of the high HIV prevalence among young women in South Africa. However, little is known about whether and to what extent women who have multiple sexual partners also engage in other high risk sexual behaviors such as inconsistent condom use. And yet, multiple concurrent sexual partnering is of little epidemiological relevance if all partners in these sexual networks use condoms consistently. This study assesses the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and HIV, and predictors of inconsistent condom use among women aged 16–24 with multiple sexual partners in a peri-urban setting in South Africa. Methods We used Respondent Driven Sampling, a sampling strategy for hard-to-reach populations to recruit 259 women aged 16–24 in a bio-behavioral cross-sectional survey in the Western Cape province. Estimates of population proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool 5.6 (RDSAT). The primary outcome was inconsistent condom use in the past three months. Results Young women reported an average of 7 partners in the past 3 months and a high prevalence of sexual risk behaviors: concurrency (87%), transactional sex (91%) and age mixing (59%). Having >5 sexual partners in the last 3 months doubled the risk of unprotected sex (OR 2.43, CI 1.39–4.25). HIV prevalence was 4% among 16–19 year olds, increasing threefold (12%) at age 20–24. Discussion Multiple sexual partnering, where a high number of partners are acquired in a short space of time, is a fertile context for unprotected and risky sexual behavior. The young women featured in this survey present with a constellation of high-risk sexual behaviors that cluster to form a risk syndrome. Carefully tailored repeat bio-behavioral surveillance surveys are recommended for this sub-population.
Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Increased to a Greater Degree in Young, Obese Women Following Consumption of a High Fat Meal  [PDF]
Richard J. Bloomer,Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2009, DOI: 10.4161/oxim.2.1.7860
Abstract: High fat meals induce oxidative stress, which is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Obese individuals have elevated resting biomarkers of oxidative stress compared to non-obese. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in obese (n = 14; 30 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg•m−2) and non-obese (n = 16; 24 ± 2 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg•m−2) women, in response to a high fat meal. Blood samples were collected pre-meal (fasted), and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours post meal, and assayed for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), xanthine oxidase activity (XO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), triglycerides (TAG), and glucose. An obesity status effect was noted for all variables (p < 0.001; MDA p = 0.05), with obese women having higher values than non-obese, except for TEAC, for which values were lower. Time main effects were noted for all variables (p ≤ 0.01) except for TEAC and glucose, with XO, H2O2, MDA and TAG increasing following feeding with a peak response at the four or six hour post feeding time point. While values tended to decline by six hours post feeding in the non-obese women (agreeing with previous studies), they were maintained (MDA) or continued to increase (XO, H2O2 and TAG) in the obese women. While no interaction effects were noted (p > 0.05), contrasts revealed greater values in obese compared to non-obese women for XO, H2O2, MDA, TAG and glucose, and lower values for TEAC at times from 1–6 hours post feeding (p ≤ 0.03). We conclude that young, obese women experience a similar pattern of increase in blood oxidative stress biomarkers in response to a high fat meal, as compared to non-obese women. However, the overall oxidative stress is greater in obese women, and values appear to remain elevated for longer periods of time post feeding. These data provide insight into another potential mechanism related to obesity-mediated morbidity.
Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production by caffeine consumption
Myoung-Eun Han, Hak-Jin Kim, Young-Suk Lee, Dong-Hyun Kim, Joo-Taek Choi, Chul-Sik Pan, Sik Yoon, Sun-Yong Baek, Bong-Seon Kim, Jae-Bong Kim, Sae-Ock Oh
BMC Neuroscience , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-10-110
Abstract: In the present study we found that the long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly; this was observed in 40% of the study rats. In the caffeine-treated rats with ventriculomegaly, there was increased production of CSF, associated with the increased expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). In contrast to the chronic effects, acute treatment with caffeine decreased the production of CSF, suggesting 'effect inversion' associated with caffeine, which was mediated by increased expression of the A1 adenosine receptor, in the choroid plexus of rats chronically treated with caffeine. The involvement of the A1 adenosine receptor in the effect inversion of caffeine was further supported by the induction of ventriculomegaly and Na+, K+-ATPase, in A1 agonist-treated rats.The results of this study show that long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly, which is mediated in part by increased production of CSF. Moreover, we also showed that adenosine receptor signaling can regulate the production of CSF by controlling the expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and CBF.Methylxanthine caffeine is present in many common beverages, and is widely consumed worldwide [1,4]. Caffeine consumption has been estimated to be 76 mg per person per day worldwide, as high as 238 mg per person per day in the United States and Canada, and more than 400 mg per person per day in Sweden and Finland [5,6]. Caffeine is absorbed rapidly after oral administration and distributed to various organs and tissues. In the liver, caffeine is metabolized to dimethyl- and monomethylxanthines, dimethyl and monomethyl uric acids, trimethyl- and dimethylallantoin, and uracil derivatives. Some metabolites of caffeine including 1,3-dimethylxanthine (theophylline) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (paraxanthine) have pharmacological activity similar to caffeine [4]. The half-life of caffeine is ~5 hours in humans and ~1 hour in rats [4,7].The main mechanism of action of caffei
Caffeine enhances upper body strength in resistance-trained women
Erica Goldstein, Patrick L Jacobs, Michael Whitehurst, Tina Penhollow, Jose Antonio
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-18
Abstract: In a randomized manner, 15 women consumed caffeine (6 mg/kg) or placebo (PL) seven days apart. Sixty min following supplementation, participants performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) barbell bench press test and repetitions to failure at 60% of 1RM. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed at rest, 60 minutes post-consumption, and immediately following completion of repetitions to failure.Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significantly greater bench press maximum with caffeine (p ≤ 0.05) (52.9 ± 11.1 kg vs. 52.1 ± 11.7 kg) with no significant differences between conditions in 60% 1RM repetitions (p = 0.81). Systolic blood pressure was significantly greater post-exercise, with caffeine (p < 0.05) (116.8 ± 5.3 mmHg vs. 112.9 ± 4.9 mmHg).These findings indicate a moderate dose of caffeine may be sufficient for enhancing strength performance in resistance-trained women.Caffeine is naturally derived from ordinary food items such as tea leaves, cocoa, coffee beans, and chocolate [1,2] and commonly consumed in the form of coffee, tea, and carbonated beverages[1,3]. Various physiological mechanisms associated with the ergogenic effects of caffeine have been described in the literature. It has been suggested that caffeine is an adenosine antagonist [4,5] and the primary mode of action may be on the central nervous system [6]. Other studies have suggested that caffeine may also have the ability to alter substrate utilization by acting to increase fat oxidation and, thus, spare glycogen utilization [7,8]. In addition, studies have also indicated enhanced secretion of β-endorphins [9] during exercise with a subsequent decrease in pain perception [10], as well as an enhanced thermogenic response [11] and alteration of neuromuscular function and/or skeletal muscular contraction [12,13].The ergogenic properties of caffeine have been extensively studied and research has indicated that low-to-moderate (~3-6 mg/kg) dosages of caffeine supplementation are ergogenic f
Type-specific incidence, clearance and predictors of cervical human papillomavirus infections (HPV) among young women: a prospective study in Uganda
Cecily Banura, Sven Sandin, Leen-Jan van Doorn, Wim Quint, Bernhard Kleter, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Edward K Mbidde, Elisabete Weiderpass
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-5-7
Abstract: Three hundred and eighty (380) of 1,275 (29.8%) women were followed up for a median time of 18.5 months (inter-quartile range 9.7-26.6). Sixty-nine (69) women had incident HPV infections during 226 person-years of follow-up reflecting an incidence rate of 30.5 per 100 person-years. Incident HPV infections were marginally associated with HIV positivity (RR = 2.8, 95% CI: 0.9 - 8.3). Clearance for HPV type-specific infections was frequent ranging between 42.3% and 100.0% for high- and 50% and 100% for low-risk types. Only 31.2% of women cleared all their infections. Clearance was associated with HIV negativity (Adjusted clearance = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1 - 0.7) but not with age at study entry, lifetime number of sexual partners and multiplicity of infections. The prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) was 53/365 (14.5%). None of the women had a high-grade cervical lesion (HSIL) or cancer. Twenty-two (22) of 150 (14.7%) HPV negative women at baseline developed incident LSIL during follow-up. The risk for LSIL appeared to be elevated among women with HPV 18-related types compared to women not infected with those types (RR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.0 - 11.8).Incident HPV infections and type-specific HPV clearance were frequent among our study population of young women. These results underscore the need to vaccinate pre-adolescent girls before initiation of sexual activity.Persistent infection with one or more high-risk HPV types is an important etiologic factor in the development of cervical cancer [1]. High-risk HPV types are extremely prevalent among young sexually active women in Uganda infecting about half of those aged 12-24 years [2]. Most infections in young women with or without cervical abnormalities are described as being transient [3-5] as approximately 90% of women cleared a specific type of HPV within 24 months [6]. Vaccination against high-risk types of HPV may be the most realistic intervention to reduce substantially the cervical cancer burden
Diet Quality, Measured by Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Predicts Weight Change in Young Women  [PDF]
Haya M. Aljadani,Amanda Patterson,David Sibbritt,Melinda J. Hutchesson,Megan E. Jensen,Clare E. Collins
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/525161
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in young women. Young women ( , with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6?±?1.5 years at baseline) sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI), and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI). Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year weight change in this group of young women, while Aus-DQI did not predict weight change ( ). In the fully adjusted model, those who were in the top tertile of the ARFS significantly gained lower weight gain compared with the lower tertile for the plausible TEI sub-sample ( ?kg (95% CI: ?2.67 to ?0.56), ). In the fully adjustment model, young women were classified in the highest FAVI tertile and gained significantly less weight than those in the lowest tertile for the plausible TEI ( ?kg (95% CI: ?2.4 to ?0.3) ). In conclusion, overall diet quality measured by the ARFS and the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption may predict long-term weight gain in young women. Therefore, health promotion programs encouraging frequent consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are warranted. 1. Introduction Recently, there has been a focus on evaluating the association between the nutritional quality of dietary intake and health outcomes [1]. Several studies have reported an inverse association between higher diet quality, all-cause, and chronic disease-specific mortality [1]. Our recent systematic review demonstrated a significant association between poor diet quality and greater weight gain [2]. A recent study demonstrated, in a nationally representative sample in the United States, that younger adults have poorer diet quality when compared with both children and older adults [3]. The evidence indicates that early adulthood is a high-risk period for weight gain, especially for females [4, 5]. For example, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) data shows that when young women reach their forties, they will be heavier than middle-aged women are now [5]. However, our systematic review found limited studies that have specifically examined the association between diet quality and weight
Increased Fat-Free Body Mass and No Adverse Effects on Blood Lipid Concentrations 4 Weeks after Additional Meat Consumption in Comparison with an Exclusion of Meat in the Diet of Young Healthy Women  [PDF]
Klaus J. Petzke,Susen Lemke,Susanne Klaus
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/210930
Abstract: Aims. To investigate whether changes of meat consumption can affect body composition and laboratory parameters in healthy, normal weight, young women without the aim to reduce body weight. Research Design and Methods. Women volunteered to eat low-fat meat in addition to their habitual diet (M) or to exclude meat products from their diet (NOM). After 4 weeks M and NOM were crossed over between subjects. Changes in nutrient intake, morphometrics and plasma parameters were compared during M and NOM. Results. Daily protein intake ( ) was (25.2% of energy) and ?g/kg (14.0% of energy) during M and NOM, respectively. Fat-free body mass (FFM) increased during M ( ?kg, ) and decreased during NOM ( ?kg, ). Body fat mass was unchanged. Concentrations of total cholesterol ( %), LDL-cholesterol ( %), and glucose ( %) deceased significantly after M. Fasting glutamine concentrations were decreased by M and increased by NOM. Conclusions. Additional meat intake can increase FFM without adverse effects on blood lipid concentrations. Long-term studies are required. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine could represent a biomarker for meat protein consumption. 1. Introduction High-protein diets are suggested to increase satiety, to benefit fat oxidation, to reduce energy efficiency during overfeeding, and to contribute to a better conservation of fat-free body mass (FFM) which can support diet therapies of biomedical problems such as obesity or loss of FFM [1–4]. For the majority of the population, a practical means of increasing the intake of protein of high biological value is the introduction of lean meat into each meal [5]. Moreover, meat is one of the main animal protein sources of habitual diets in Germany (~25% of total protein intake; median meat intake of 65?g/d for 25–34?y old women) [6]. However, benefits and risks of high-protein and (or) high-red-meat-containing diets are controversially discussed and there is a lack of information about long-term effects [7–9]. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that a high consumption of red meat may be linked with diabetes and some types of cancer [10–12]. In addition, Micha et al. [13] concluded in a systematic review and meta-analysis that processed meat, but not red meat, is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Nonetheless, the results of a recent large follow-up study indicate that meat consumption is positively related to weight gain in men and women and in normal-weight and in overweight subjects suggesting that after all a decrease in meat consumption may improve
Increased Fat-Free Body Mass and No Adverse Effects on Blood Lipid Concentrations 4 Weeks after Additional Meat Consumption in Comparison with an Exclusion of Meat in the Diet of Young Healthy Women  [PDF]
Klaus J. Petzke,Susen Lemke,Susanne Klaus
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/210930
Abstract: Aims. To investigate whether changes of meat consumption can affect body composition and laboratory parameters in healthy, normal weight, young women without the aim to reduce body weight. Research Design and Methods. Women volunteered to eat low-fat meat in addition to their habitual diet (M) or to exclude meat products from their diet (NOM). After 4 weeks M and NOM were crossed over between subjects. Changes in nutrient intake, morphometrics and plasma parameters were compared during M and NOM. Results. Daily protein intake (means±SD) was 2.25±0.35 (25.2% of energy) and 1.15±0.26 g/kg (14.0% of energy) during M and NOM, respectively. Fat-free body mass (FFM) increased during M (0.7±1.0 kg, =.02) and decreased during NOM (?0.8±0.8 kg, =.003). Body fat mass was unchanged. Concentrations of total cholesterol (?7%), LDL-cholesterol (?8%), and glucose (?4%) deceased significantly after M. Fasting glutamine concentrations were decreased by M and increased by NOM. Conclusions. Additional meat intake can increase FFM without adverse effects on blood lipid concentrations. Long-term studies are required. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine could represent a biomarker for meat protein consumption.
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