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Microbiological and Nutritional Quality of Hawked Kunun (A Sorghum Based Non-Alcoholic Beverage) Widely Consumed in Nigeria  [PDF]
N.A. Amusa,O.A. Odunbaku
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The microbiological and nutritional quality of freshly processed and hawked kunun drinks in South Western Nigeria was investigated at Ibadan, Nigeria. The microbes found associated with both the hawked and the laboratory prepared kunun samples are Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus sutilis, B. cereus, Streptococus feaceaum, S. lactis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus acidiophilis, Escherishai coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Saccharomysces cerevisiae, Candida mycoderma, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium oxalicum and Fusarium oxysporum. However, the freshly processed kunun drinks harbored no coliform bacteria. The crude protein content of the hawked kunun drinks was found higher than that of the laboratory processed kunun samples, while the PH of the Kunun zaki drinks were highest in the laboratory processed samples. However, there were no significant differences between the carbohydrates contents of the laboratory processed kunun drinks sample and that of the hawked kunun drinks.
Soybean Seed in Kunun Zaki Beverage Production  [PDF]
Gaffa T.,I.A. Jideani,I. Nkama
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The role of soybean seed in kunun zaki production was investigated. The nutrient and sensory qualities of kunun zaki produced with varying concentrations of soybean were evaluated as well as that from other saccharifying agents. Increase in soybean seed concentration was found to increase crude protein and fat contents of the beverage from 3.19 8.86 % and 0.37 0.75 % respectively. The soybean product treated with warm water was preferred to that in which the seeds were slightly roasted. In all cases, kunun zaki produced with 4% (w/w) soybean seed was the most preferred to other concentrations. The product with soybean concentration above 4% was objectionable to consumers. Kunun zaki produced with incorporation of soybean was acceptable to the consumers just as that from the other saccharifying agents. The use of soybean seed in kunun zaki production as a saccharifying and enrichment agent is encouraged.
Influence of malting on the nutritional characteristics of kunun-zaki
O Akoma, EA Jiya, DD Akumka, E Mshelia
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Kunun-zaki, a traditional fermented cereal beverage was produced in this study using various combinations of malted cereals (millet, sorghum singularly or in combination with rice) and, were evaluated for its nutritional composition using chemical, organoleptic and growth studies and as well as the analysis of blood samples of the sacrificed animals. The results obtained show that the weaning albino rats fed with laboratory diet and kunun-zaki produced by the addition of ground malted rice to millet for 14 days gained more weight (27.7 g) and was significantly different (p< 0.05) from the other products. A similar trend was observed in the lymphocyte count. The crude protein, crude fat and calcium contents of kunun-zaki produced with the addition of malted rice to millet were higher (0.74%,0.53% and 88 ppm) than the other products. A similar trend was observed in the titratable acidity and pH(0.76% lactic acid, 4.78), respectively, at the end of fermentation period. Furthermore, kunun-zaki produced by the addition of ground-malted rice to millet was generally preferred organoleptically (aroma and taste) and was significantly different (p< 0.05) from the other products. This study has shown that use of malted cereals improved the nutritional quality of the kunun-zaki. Also, the elevated lymphocyte counts obtained in the blood samples of animals fed with kunun-zaki produced using combinations of malted cereals is indicative of its medicinal attributes, a concept widely believed by its numerous consumers
Effects of pasteurisation on survival patterns of microorganisms and vitamin C retention in kunun-zaki
OJ Egbere, KV Pam, KD Adesheyan, T A'Kadir, SK Oyero
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The effects of pasteurisation on the survival patterns of the microflora as well as vitamin C retention in kunun-zaki fortified with vitamin C was syudied. A laboratory sorghum based kunun–zaki was fortified with 90 mg/l of vitamin C. The content was subjected to pasteurisation at 70oC for different time intervals ranging from 0 - 30 min. Samples of the beverage were then taken at 5 min intervals during pasteurisation and were analysed for microbial load and residual vitamin C content by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titration method. The results showed that there was a gradual decline in vitamin C retention and steep decline in the microbial load reduction during pasteurisation. The result also showed that at the 20th min of pasteurisation, 80% of microbial isolates had been eliminated leaving only Bacillus Subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the surviving organisms. The D70 -value of the most heat resistant organism B. subtilis was found to be 6.5 min.
Innovations in the Traditional Kunun Zaki Production Process  [PDF]
Gaffa Terna,J.A. Ayo
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: The traditional kunun zaki production process has been improved upon. The usual 24 hours process has been shortened to a maximum of 12 hours. Steeping of the grains in warm water with 5% sodium metabisulphite help in softening them. Liquefaction and saccharification of gelatinized sorghum starch with sweet potato and Cadaba farinosa crude extracts did not increase the amount of reducing sugar after 6 hours of incubation. Similarly, the specific density of the slurry remained the same after 6 hours of incubation with the crude enzyme extracts. Due to shortened saccharification process, the nutrient content of kunun zaki from improved process was a bit higher. The protein content was 5.4 and 4.1% for the improved and traditional processes respectively. The product from improved process was preferred to that in the traditional process.
The Nutritional and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Kunun-zaki Produced with the Addition of Hydrolytic Enzymes from Malted Rice (Oryza sativa)
O Akoma, S.A. Onuoha, M.O. Ajiboye, A.O. Akoma, A.M. Alawoki
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2002,
Abstract: Kunun-zaki was produced from millet (Pennisetum typhodeum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or maize (Zea mays) with or without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes obtained from ground-malted rice (Oryza sativa FARO 37) and analyzed for its chemical and organoleptic quality attributes. The results obtained show that there were 33, 44, 66% increases in crude protein 52, 117 and 91% increases in sucrose contents in those products (i.e. kunun-zaki produced from millet, sorghum and maize respectively) in which the extracts from ground-malted rice were incorporated. A similar increase was observed in acidity, iron, calcium and phosphorus contents. Furthermore, the sensory attributes of kunun-zaki produced using extracts from ground-malted rice did not differ (p>0.05) from the other products in appearance, taste, texture and sensory overall acceptability but differed (p<0.05) in aroma, which could be attributed to the production of more organic acids in these products by the fermenting microorganisms. The result obtained in this study therefore suggests that it could be economical and nutritious to use malted cereal grains in the production of kunun-zaki. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 7 No.1, 2002, pp. 24-26
Physicochemical and Sensory Effects of Cadaba Farinosa Crude Extract on Cereal Starches During Kunun Zaki Production  [PDF]
Gaffa T.,J. A. Ayo
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2003,
Abstract: Physicochemical and sensory effects of Cadaba farinosa crude extract on cereal starches during kunun zaki production were studied. The crude extract was able to hydrolyze gelatinized starch leading to its liquefaction. Generally, gelatinized starch produced more reducing sugars with the crude extract (0.023mg/ml) than native starch (0.008mg/ml) for millet. The same trend was observed in other crude extracts (malted rice, sweet potato and malted sorghum) and starches too. The crude extract of C. farinosa with increasing concentration decreased viscosity of kunun zaki and imparted varying effects on sensory qualities. Increasing concentration of the extract had more effect on flavour and above 0.25% (w/v) the acceptability decreased. Specific density of kunun zaki decreased (1.198-1.095) with increased concentration of Cadaba farinosa. Temperatures above 70 oC affected the hydrolyzing ability of the crude extract. Isolation and purification of the extract`s components is desirable.
Nutritional Evaluation of Millet-beniseed Composite Based Kunun-zaki  [PDF]
J.A. Ayo,O.G. Onuoha,D.S. Ikuomola,Y.O. Esan
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Kunun-zaki was prepared using millet as the base and supplemented with beniseed at varied level (0-50%). The effect of added beniseed on the physio-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrate), sensory (colour, taste, odour/aroma, mouth feel and general acceptability) and microbial qualities were evaluated. The added beniseed decreased the moisture, ash and carbohydrate composition from 86.23-85.03, 0.33-0.22 and 10.21-7.23%, respectively with increasing concentration (0-50%), while fat and protein increased from 1.03-2.03% and 2.21-5.44% respectively with increasing concentration (0-50%). The added beniseed paste had a high positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.75-0.95) with the increase in the protein, fat and energy content. There were significant differences in the assessed sensory qualities (colour, odour, taste, texture) at 20% and above added beniseed paste which corresponds with 3.32%, 1.26% and 64.06 kcal of protein, fats and energy content respectively. At this acceptable level the protein content of the products has been improved by 50% if digested and absorbed.
Evaluating the quality characteristics of kunun produced from dry-milled sorghum
JA Adejuyitan, OE Adelakun, SA Olaniyan, FI Popoola
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Kunun is a traditional beverage in Nigeria produced by wet milling from sorghum, maize or millet. This work evaluates kunun produced from dry-milled sorghum flour. The sorghum was dehulled, milled and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was steeped for 24 h and mixed with spices to produce kunun and the quality of the resultant kunun was compared with that of kunun manufactured by the wet-milling process. With dry-milling process, the yield of kunun was 80% while the yield from the wet-milling process was 60%. Titratable acidity was lower in kunun samples prepared from dry-milled sorghum (0.40%) than in the kunun manufactured by wet milling (0.55%). The pH and total soluble solid of kunun prepared from dry milled sorghum were higher (5.10 and 14.82, respectively) than kunun from wet milling process (4.12 and 13.42, respectively). Protein content recorded for dry milled sample was 5.55% and that of wet milled sample was 4.20%. Crude fibre content was also assessed to be 0.25% for dry milled sample and 0.45% for wet milled sample. Kunun samples from wet milling process were preferred to those from dry milling process. Microbial counts indicate that both samples were free from feacal contamination. Total viable count for kunun samples prepared from dry milling process was 1.0 x 04, and for wet milled sample total viable count was 1.6 x 104.
Effect of Aframomum danelli and Black Pepper Crude Extracts on Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Kunun-Zaki During Storage
I.I. Adedokun,S.U. Okorie,B.C. Nwokeke,E.N. Onyeneke
Journal of Food Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/jftech.2012.97.102
Abstract: Kunun-zaki spiced with crude extracts from Aframomum danelli and black pepper spices was produced from three cereal grains, respectively and subjected to ambient, refrigeration and freezing conditions for 4 weeks. The samples of Kunun-zaki generally showed a significant variation (p<0.05) in proximate composition during storage the protein content under ambient declined from 1.81% control sample to 0.28% at 2nd week, similarly, fat 0.82- 0.28%, carbohydrate 11.38-5.53% and ash content varied from 1.38-0.82% while the variation was less pronounced in samples under refrigeration and freezing conditions. The pH content declined during storage period and was found significant at p<0.05, under ambient condition the pH decreases steadily from 4.92 at 1st day of storage (control) to 2.01 at 2nd week of storage while under refrigeration and freezing conditions the pH declined from 4.92 control to 3.96 (at 4th week). Similar trend was observed on percentage Total Titrable Acidity (TTA%), there was a steady increase in TTA% of samples from 0.46% (control) to 6.14% sample under ambient condition at 4th week of storage while 0.46-1.03% was found in samples kept under refrigeration and freezing conditions. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed only on mouth-feel and overall acceptability throughout storage period. Samples stored at freezing condition at 4th week with mean scores of 8.3 (appearance); 8.0 (for each mouth-feel and aroma) and 8.3 (overall acceptability) was the most preferred next to the control sample. The use of local spice extracts in addition to the effects of refrigeration and freezing favor the shelf-stability of physico-chemical and sensory parameters of Kunun-zaki, thereby promote its keeping qualities during storage and distribution.
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