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Utilization of Virgin Coconut Meal (VCM) in the Production of Ready-to-Eat Indian Traditional Sweet Meat Using Response Surface Methodology  [PDF]
Yashi Srivastava, Anil Dutt Semwal, Gopal Kumar Sharma, Amarinder Singh Bawa
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.23029
Abstract: Virgin coconut meal (VCM) was used for the development of ready-to-eat Indian traditional sweet meat commonly known as “ladoo” both with and without sorbic acid (0.3%). The different ingredients were optimized following re-sponse surface methodology with three independent variables i.e. sugar, water and VCM and sensory attributes as responses. The changes in the quality of VCM ladoo packed in polypropylene (PP, 75 µ) and laminates of metalized polyester (MP, 75 µ) were monitored during storage to establish the shelf life under ambient temperature conditions (15?C - 34?C). Samples without added potassium sorbate spoiled within three weeks of storage due to mold growth and fermented odour. VCM ladoo containing sorbic acid did not support any microbial growth during storage up to 4 months, however, during storage samples packed in PP lost moisture and became hard and brittle, while those packed in MP remained soft. Peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values were higher in PP packed samples as compared to those packed in MP. Sorbic acid degraded during storage of ladoo and the rate of degradation was higher in PP packed ladoos than that in MP packed ones.
Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation  [cached]
Reza Zamiri,B Z Azmi. Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini,et al 
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2011,
Abstract: Reza Zamiri1, B Z Azmi1,2, Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini1, Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar3, A W Zaidan1, M A Mahdi41Department of Physics, 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, 3Department of Chemistry, 4Wireless and Photonics Networks Research Center, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10-8, 1.6 × 10-8, 2.4 × 10-8, respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, laser ablation, virgin coconut oil
THE EFFECT OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON LYMPHOCYTE AND CD4 IN CHICKEN VACCINATED AGAINST Avian Influenza VIRUS  [PDF]
E. Y. W. Yuniwarti,W. Asmara,W. T. Artama,C. R. Tabbu
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture , 2012,
Abstract: This research aimed to find preventing alternative of avian influenza (AI) disease in broiler chicken by increasing body immune. Lymphocyte T would directly react to antigen presented to the cell surface by antigen presenting cell (APC). Th-CD4 interaction functioned to maintain Th-APC bond intact during specific antigen activation. Fatty acid in virgin coconut oil (VCO) was potential as immunostimulant, which therefore could increase chicken immunity through the increase of lymphocyte T and Th-CD4. This research used 40 one-day-old broiler chickens. The method applied was Completely Randomized Factorial Design in which the first factor was two levels of vaccine, namely groups of AI vaccinated and unvaccinated. The second factor was four levels of VCO namely 0, 5, 10, 15 mL/kg feed. Day Old Chick (DOC) were divided into eight treatment groups and repeated five times. Feed and water were given ad libitum for four weeks. The result showed that the number of lymphocyte and Th-CD4 in chickens given 10 mL per kg feed and vaccinated with AI was higher than that in chickens given VCO without AI vaccine.
Innovative Integrated Wet Process for Virgin Coconut Oil Production  [PDF]
M.A. Hamid,M.R. Sarmidi,T.H. Mokhtar,W.R.W. Sulaiman
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: During the recent years, increased interest on the development of the Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) has been observed. This is to maximize the benefit of the multifunctional traditionally used coconut. VCO is rich in the Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs) that have been shown to speed up the metabolism. Almost 50% of the fatty acid in virgin coconut oil is in form of lauric acid. This fatty acid has wide application as wide spectrum of antimicrobial substances against fungi, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of coconut oil shares the similar characteristic with breast milk. The MCFAs in coconut oil are not stored in the body cells but rather processed directly in the liver where they are converted immediately into energy. The present study describes the process for VCO production through integrated wet process. The novel features of this process is the production of virgin coconut oil itself which can minimize the time, cost, energy and man power as well as can maximize the yield and improve the quality of coconut oil. The VCO obtained by this process contribute about 30-40% wt/wt of yield which is 10-20% higher than conventional method. The physical characteristics of VCO along this process shows that the VCO is colorless, retain fresh coconut aroma and sweet coconut taste with the highest content of lauric acid (49.85%). Besides that, the result also indicates the presence of vitamin E VCO. In general, the overall results for sensory analysis were acceptable in terms of aroma and taste of the product.
Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Nicotine Dependence and Relapse
Kusnandar Anggadiredja,Anggraini Barlian,Yangie Dwi Marga Pinang,Dian Anggraeny
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Nicotine is an addictive substance with detrimental effects on health. Several measures have been developed to help addicts quit smoking, yet the rate of increase in number of smokers does not seem to have slowed down. The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) on nicotine dependence and relapse using Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm in rats. The rats were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: place conditioning without drug treatment before nicotine (0.5 mg kg-1, i.p.); place conditioning with oral VCO at 5 mL kg-1 or the reference drug diclofenac (3.2 mg kg-1, i.p.) 30 min prior to each nicotine treatment. The conditioning training lasted for 5 days, followed by conditioning test on the following day. In different batch of rats, the conditioning test continued with a 7-day nicotine-free period and the rats were then challenged on the following day with 0.5 mg kg-1 nicotine intraperitoneally. VCO and diclofenac were given 30 minutes before nicotine challenge to test their effects. Results showed that VCO and diclofenac significantly decreased (p<0.01) the preference to nicotine-paired compartment to those of preconditioning levels in both preference tests. Taken together, results of the present study indicate that VCO prevents nicotine dependence as well as relapse. The results further lay foundation for the development of potent agents for nicotine dependence.
Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model
Zil Hayatullina,Norliza Muhammad,Norazlina Mohamed,Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/237236
Abstract: Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx
Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation
Reza Zamiri,B Z Azmi. Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini, et al
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S14005
Abstract: eparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation Original Research (7102) Total Article Views Authors: Reza Zamiri,B Z Azmi. Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini, et al Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:6 Pages 71 - 75 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S14005 Reza Zamiri1, B Z Azmi1,2, Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini1, Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar3, A W Zaidan1, M A Mahdi4 1Department of Physics, 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, 3Department of Chemistry, 4Wireless and Photonics Networks Research Center, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10-8, 1.6 × 10-8, 2.4 × 10-8, respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method.
Anti-diabetic effects of cold and hot extracted virgin coconut oil  [PDF]
Mahadevappa Siddalingaswamy, Arunchand Rayaorth, Farhath Khanum
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2011.14016
Abstract: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been shown to possess insulinotropic effects shown in isolated perfused mouse islet with hypolipidemic effects. Hot extracted virgin coconut oil (HEVCO) has been shown to possess better antioxidant properties than cold extracted virgin coconut oil (CEVCO). These properties were exploited to study the anti-diabetic effects of HEVCO and CEVCO in diabetic rats. Four groups 8 rats each, first group served as non-diabetic control remaining groups were made diabetic and force fed with 2ml alcoholic extracts of commercial coconut oil (CCO), CEVCO and HEVCO for 21 days. Blood glucose once in 5 days, body weight gain, food intake once in a week and water intake and urine output daily, were monitored. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 21 days. The results indicated HEVCO reduced blood glucose and lipids viz total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High density lipoproteins (HDL), Low and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL+ VLDL) and thiobarbutyric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased the antioxidant status by elevating activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration and decresed lipid peroxidation in liver than CEVCO. These beneficial effects may be attributed to increased polyphenolic and other antioxidants content present in HEVCO.
Hydrolysis of Virgin Coconut Oil Using Immobilized Lipase in a Batch Reactor  [PDF]
Lee Suan Chua,Meisam Alitabarimansor,Chew Tin Lee,Ramli Mat
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/542589
Abstract: Hydrolysis of virgin coconut oil (VCO) had been carried out by using an immobilised lipase from Mucor miehei (Lipozyme) in a water-jacketed batch reactor. The kinetic of the hydrolysis was investigated by varying the parameters such as VCO concentration, enzyme loading, water content, and reaction temperature. It was found that VCO exhibited substrate inhibition at the concentration more than 40% (v/v). Lipozyme also achieved the highest production of free fatty acids, 4.56?mM at 1% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The optimum water content for VCO hydrolysis was 7% (v/v). A relatively high content of water was required because water was one of the reactants in the hydrolysis. The progress curve and the temperature profile of the enzymatic hydrolysis also showed that Lipozyme could be used for free fatty acid production at the temperature up to 50°C. However, the highest initial reaction rate and the highest yield of free fatty acid production were at 45 and 40°C, respectively. A 100 hours of initial reaction time has to be compensated in order to obtain the highest yield of free fatty acid production at 40°C. 1. Introduction Coconut oil, which is derived from the seeds of coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is traditionally processed from the meat of the fruit, called copra. Copra is the dried kernel that produced by smoke drying, sun drying, or a combination of both methods. Therefore, it is usually colorless to pale brownish yellow. Recently, the most welcomed product from coconut is virgin coconut oil (VCO), particularly from the tropical countries. The concept of producing VCO is actually triggered by the well-known virgin olive oil that produced from Mediterranean Basin. The high demand for the virgin oils is definitely due to the preservation of oil composition, including the minor components such as provitamin A, vitamin E, phytosterols, and polyphenols, without aflatoxin contamination and oxidative rancidity from drastic processing and handling approach. These minor components are believed to have the nutritional benefits. By definition, VCO is defined as the oil obtained from the fresh, mature kernel of coconuts by mechanical or natural means without the use of heat, chemical refining, bleaching, and odorizing which does not lead to the alteration of the natural content of the oil [1]. It should also have the moisture content less than 0.1%. Because of the beneficial effects on human health [2, 3] and high saturation degree [1] as well as high oxidative stability of VCO [4], the oil is the great source of oil material for the production of value-added
The Effects of Virgin Coconut Oil on Bone Oxidative Status in Ovariectomised Rat
Mouna Abdelrahman Abujazia,Norliza Muhammad,Ahmad Nazrun Shuid,Ima Nirwana Soelaiman
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/525079
Abstract: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was found to have antioxidant property due to its high polyphenol content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the virgin coconut oil on lipid peroxidation in the bone of an osteoporotic rat model. Normal female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3 months old were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 8 rats in each group: baseline, sham, ovariectomised (OVX) control group, and OVX given 8% VCO in the diet for six weeks. The oxidative status of the bone was assessed by measuring the index of lipid peroxidation, which is malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as the endogenous antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the tibia at the end of the study. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in MDA levels in the OVX-VCO group compared to control group. Ovariectomised rats treated with VCO also had significantly higher GPX concentration. The SOD level seemed to be increased in the OVX-VCO group compared to OVX-control group. In conclusion, VCO prevented lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant enzymes in the osteoporotic rat model.
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